Haʻapai is a group of islands, islets and shoals with an area of 109.30 square kilometres in the central part of the Kingdom of Tonga, with the Tongatapu group to the south and the Vavaʻu group to the north. Seventeen of the Haʻapai islands are populated with altogether 6,616 people, its highest point is Kao at 1,050 metres. Pangai is located on Lifuka. Haʻapai consists of 51 islands directly west of the Tonga Trench, constituting a chain of volcanic islands including Kao, the highest point in the kingdom standing at 1,046 metres. Further to the west are the coral islands which are inhabited; the archipelago lies 130 kilometres south of Vavaʻu. Seventeen of the islands are inhabited, including the main islands of Foa; the two main villages in the archipelago are Pangai on Ha'ano. A total of 7212 people live on the Ha'apai islands. All the larger islands are in the eastern Lifuka group; the two larger islands are Lifuka and Foa which have 2,968 and 1,485 people as of 2006. After the two larger islands are Nomuka and Haʻano which have four villages with a population of 951.
To the south of these islands is ʻUiha, which has two villages with a population of 638, ancient burial grounds and an ancient monument. The large islands of Tofua and Kao are in the far west; the islands of the Kotu group, locally known as Lulunga, are in the southwest of the archipelago. The islands of the Nomuka group, locally known as ʻOtu Muʻomuʻa, are further south. Humpback whales migrate here in wintering seasons. At the Haʻapai island group, traces of settlements of Lapita culture from around 1500 BC have been found; the first European to visit Haʻapai, was Abel Tasman in 1643. Captain James Cook in 1774 and 1777, made several stops on the islands, he gave them the name of Friendly Islands in 1777. On 18 May 1777, Cook arrived with Omai, they were greeted by Fatafehi Paulaho,'King of the Isles' or Tu'i Tonga, the most sacred chief in these islands. On 28 April 1789, the Haʻapai island group was the site of the Mutiny on the Bounty. In 1806, William Mariner arrived aboard the Port-au-Prince, whose crew was killed at this occasion by Tongan warriors.
Mariner lived four years in Tonga, before he was found by a passing English ship returning to England. The US Exploring Expedition met with George, chief of Ha'apai, in 1840. 2006 Tonga earthquake List of islands and towns in Tonga Ha'apai travel guide from Wikivoyage
Vavaʻu is the island group of one large island and 40 smaller ones in Tonga. It is part of Vavaʻu District. According to tradition the Maui god fished up both Tongatapu and Vavaʻu but put a little more effort into the former. Vavaʻu rises 204 metres above sea level at Mount Talau; the capital is Neiafu, the fifth largest city in Tonga, situated at the Port of Refuge. In Polynesia it is explained that the islands were created by the god Maui, who caught the bottom of the sea with his magic hook, fished up and left on the sea surface what became the islands of Vavaʻu. Don Francisco Mourelle de la Rúa, commanding Spanish frigate Princesa was the first European to come to Vavaʻu, on 4 March 1781, he charted Vavaʻu as Martín de Mayorga, the Viceroy of New Spain at the time. Captain James Cook knew about the islands a decade before, but the people in Haʻapai told him it would be no good for him to go there as there was no harbour, they did not want him to go there, Cook heeded their advice anyway. But Mourelle found excellent anchoring, of which he was in desperate need after having failed on Fonualei and Late, he gave the spot the name Port of Refuge.
But his original Port of Refuge was the bay on the west coast of the main island, near Longomapu. In 1793 Alessandro Malaspina visited for a month, following up on Mourelle and claiming the islands for Spain. Tuʻi Tonga George Tupou I instituted the Vavaʻu Code in Vavaʻu in 1839; the Vavaʻu group measures about 21 km from east to 25 km from north to south. Vavaʻu had 14,922 inhabitants at the 2001 census; the islands in Vavaʻu District outside of Vavaʻu Group are uninhabited. The main island of' Utu Vava'u is the second largest island in Tonga. Vavaʻu is a coral reef with superior oblique in the north up to 200 metres high cliffs. On the south side of the island group, it is dissolved into waterways; the largest of these waterways, the fjord-like Ava Pulepulekai channel extends 11 kilometres inland from the harbor of Neiafu, the capital. ’Utu Vava’u island is a raised platform of coral cliffs on the north coast and a low and irregular coastline south that opens in a complex network of channels and islands forming one of the best protected natural harbors in the Pacific.
’Utu Vava’u is home to the ʻEneʻio Botanical Garden, Tonga's only botanical garden. Vavaʻu has a much warmer climate than the rest of Tonga except the Niuas, a group of islands furthest to the north; because of the island's warm climate and fertile soil, Vavaʻu is a haven for vanilla and pineapple growers as well as other tropical fruits. Hon. Fulivai – The Noble Fulivai was appointed as Governor of Vavaʻu in July 2011. Hon. Sione Laumanuʻuli Luani was Governor until he died on 12 May 2010. Hon. Samisoni Fonomanu Tu'i'afitu was appointed Acting Governor of Vavaʻu in 1988 and Governor of Vavaʻu in 1991, he died on 4 October 2005. HRH Fatafehi Tuʻipelehake was Governor from 1952 until 1965. Hon. ʻAkauʻola Siosateki Tonga Veikune Faletau was Governor from 1936 until 1939 before becoming Minister of Police from 1939 until 1952. HRH Viliami Tungī Mailefihi was Governor from 1912 until 1918. Due to its scenic beauty Vavaʻu is popular with sailors and other tourists and is one of the most important tourism sites in Tonga.
From May to October, the Port of ’Utu Vava’u welcomes sailing boats from all over the world to dive with birthing humpback whales and explore underwater caves. The island is served by Vavaʻu International Airport. Tourism and fishing are the main sources of income of the population; the vanilla grown here is considered one of the best in the world. Moreover giant clams and pearls are cultured. 2006 Tonga earthquake Gerstle, Donna. Gentle People: Into the Heart of Vavaʻu, Kingdom of Tonga: 1781–1973. San Diego: Tofua Press. OCLC 800856. Web portal service for the Vavaʻu Island group of Tonga
Religion is a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, worldviews, sanctified places, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements. However, there is no scholarly consensus over what constitutes a religion. Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from the divine, sacred things, faith, a supernatural being or supernatural beings or "some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life". Religious practices may include rituals, commemoration or veneration, festivals, trances, funerary services, matrimonial services, prayer, art, public service, or other aspects of human culture. Religions have sacred histories and narratives, which may be preserved in sacred scriptures, symbols and holy places, that aim to give a meaning to life. Religions may contain symbolic stories, which are sometimes said by followers to be true, that have the side purpose of explaining the origin of life, the universe, other things.
Traditionally, faith, in addition to reason, has been considered a source of religious beliefs. There are an estimated 10,000 distinct religions worldwide, but about 84% of the world's population is affiliated with one of the five largest religion groups, namely Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism or forms of folk religion; the religiously unaffiliated demographic includes those who do not identify with any particular religion and agnostics. While the religiously unaffiliated have grown globally, many of the religiously unaffiliated still have various religious beliefs; the study of religion encompasses a wide variety of academic disciplines, including theology, comparative religion and social scientific studies. Theories of religion offer various explanations for the origins and workings of religion, including the ontological foundations of religious being and belief. Religion is derived from the ultimate origins of which are obscure. One possible interpretation traced to Cicero, connects lego read, i.e. re with lego in the sense of choose, go over again or consider carefully.
The definition of religio by Cicero is cultum deorum, "the proper performance of rites in veneration of the gods." Julius Caesar used religio to mean "obligation of an oath" when discussing captured soldiers making an oath to their captors. The Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder used the term religio on elephants in that they venerate the sun and the moon. Modern scholars such as Tom Harpur and Joseph Campbell favor the derivation from ligare bind, connect from a prefixed re-ligare, i.e. re + ligare or to reconnect, made prominent by St. Augustine, following the interpretation given by Lactantius in Divinae institutiones, IV, 28; the medieval usage alternates with order in designating bonded communities like those of monastic orders: "we hear of the'religion' of the Golden Fleece, of a knight'of the religion of Avys'". In the ancient and medieval world, the etymological Latin root religio was understood as an individual virtue of worship in mundane contexts. In general, religio referred to broad social obligations towards anything including family, neighbors and towards God.
Religio was most used by the ancient Romans not in the context of a relation towards gods, but as a range of general emotions such as hesitation, anxiety, fear. The term was closely related to other terms like scrupulus which meant "very precisely" and some Roman authors related the term superstitio, which meant too much fear or anxiety or shame, to religio at times; when religio came into English around the 1200s as religion, it took the meaning of "life bound by monastic vows" or monastic orders. The compartmentalized concept of religion, where religious things were separated from worldly things, was not used before the 1500s; the concept of religion was first used in the 1500s to distinguish the domain of the church and the domain of civil authorities. In the ancient Greece, the Greek term threskeia was loosely translated into Latin as religio in late antiquity; the term was sparsely used in classical Greece but became more used in the writings of Josephus in the first century CE. It was used in mundane contexts and could mean multiple things from respectful fear to excessive or harmfully distracting practices of others.
It was contrasted with the Greek word deisidaimonia which meant too much fear. The modern concept of religion, as an abstraction that entails distinct sets of beliefs or doctrines, is a recent invention in the English language; such usage began with texts from the 17th century due to events such the splitting of Christendom during the Protestant Reformation and globalization in the age of exploration, which involved contact with numerous foreign cultures with non-European languages. Some argue that regardless of its definition, it is not appropriate to apply the term religion to non-Western cultures. Others argue that using religion on non-western cultures distorts what people believe; the concept of religion was formed in the 16th and 17th centuries, despite the fact that ancient sacred texts like the Bible, the Quran, others did not have a word or a concept of religion in the original languages and neither did the peopl
A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity to new converts. Missions involve sending individuals and groups, called missionaries, across boundaries, most geographical boundaries, for the purpose of proselytism; this involves evangelism, humanitarian work among the poor and disadvantaged. There are a few different kinds of mission trips: short-term, long-term and ones meant for helping people in need; some might choose to dedicate their whole lives to missions as well. Missionaries have the authority to preach the Christian faith, provide humanitarian aid. Christian doctrines permit the provision of aid without requiring religious conversion; the earliest Christian mission the Great Commission and Dispersion of the Apostles, was active within Second Temple Judaism. Whether a Jewish proselytism existed or not that would have served as a model for the early Christians is unclear, see Circumcision controversy in early Christianity#Jewish background for details. Soon, the expansion of the Christian mission beyond Judaism to those who were not Jewish became a contested issue, notably at the Council of Jerusalem.
The Apostle Paul was an early proponent of this expansion, contextualized the Christian message for the Greek and Roman cultures, allowing it to reach beyond its Hebrew and Jewish roots. From Late Antiquity onward, much missionary activity was carried out by members of religious orders. Monasteries followed disciplines and supported missions and practical research, all of which were perceived as works to reduce human misery and suffering and glorify the Christian God. For example, Nestorian communities evangelized parts of Central Asia, as well as Tibet and India. Cistercians evangelized much of Northern Europe, as well as developing most of European agriculture's classic techniques. St Patrick evangelized many in Ireland. St David was active in Wales. During the Middle Ages, Ramon Llull advanced the concept of preaching to Muslims and converting them to Christianity by means of non-violent argument. A vision for large-scale mission to Muslims would die with him, not to be revived until the 19th Century.
Additional events can be found at the timeline of Christian missions. During the Middle Ages Christian monasteries and missionaries such as Saint Patrick, Adalbert of Prague propagated learning and religion beyond the boundaries of the old Roman Empire. In the seventh century Gregory the Great sent missionaries, including Augustine of Canterbury, into England; the Hiberno-Scottish mission began in 563. In the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries, Franciscans such as William of Rubruck, John of Montecorvino, Giovanni ed' Magnolia were sent as missionaries to the Near and Far East, their travels took them as far as China in an attempt to convert the advancing Mongols the Great Khans of the Mongol Empire. One of the main goals of the Christopher Columbus expedition financed by Queen Isabella of Spain was to spread Christianity. During the Age of Discovery and Portugal established many missions in their American and Asian colonies; the most active orders were the Jesuits, Augustinians and Dominicans.
The Portuguese sent missions into Africa. These are some of the most well-known missions in history. While some of these missions were associated with imperialism and oppression, others were peaceful and focused on integration rather than cultural imperialism. In both Portugal and Spain, religion was an integral part of the state and evangelization was seen as having both secular and spiritual benefits. Wherever these powers attempted to expand their territories or influence, missionaries would soon follow. By the Treaty of Tordesillas, the two powers divided the world between them into exclusive spheres of influence and colonization; the proselytization of Asia became linked to Portuguese colonial policy. Portuguese trade with Asia proved profitable from 1499 onwards, as Jesuits arrived in India around 1540, the colonial government in Goa supported the mission with incentives for baptized Christians; the Church sent Jesuits to China and to other countries in Asia. The Reformation unfolded in Europe in the early 16th century.
For over a hundred years, occupied by their struggle with the Catholic Church, the early Protestant churches as a body were not focused on missions to "heathen" lands. Instead, the focus was more on Christian lands in the hope to spread the Protestant faith, identifying the papacy with the Antichrist. In the centuries that followed, Protestant churches began sending out missionaries in increasing numbers, spreading the proclamation of the Christian message to unreached people. In North America, missionaries to the Native Americans included Jonathan Edwards, the well-known preacher of the Great Awakening, who in his years retired from the public life of his early career, he became a missionary to the Housatonic Native Americans and a staunch advocate for them against cultural imperialism. As European culture has been established in the midst of indigenous peoples, the cultural distance between Christians of differing cultures has been difficult to overcome. One early solution was the creation of segregated "praying towns" of Christian natives.
This pattern of grudging acceptance of converts played out again in Hawaii when missionari
George Tupou I
George Tupou I, King of Tonga was known as Tāufaʻāhau I, or Tupou Maeakafa Ngininginiofolanga in modern spelling. He adopted the name Siaosi, the Tongan version of George, after King George III of the United Kingdom, when he was baptized in 1831, his nickname was Lopa-ukamea. George Tupou I was born around 1797 in Tonga. 4 December is a public holiday in Tonga. Tongoleleka and the Niuʻui hospital there are stated as his birthplace, his father was Tupouto'aʻ, who aspired to be the 17th Tuʻi Kanokupolu, but he was not recognized as such by the high chiefs of Tongatapu, as he was viewed as a low ranking usurper from Haʻapai. His mother, felt her life was at risk on Tongatapu, so she fled with her son to Haʻapai within the year of his birth, her history, as well as her son Maeakafa's history, is more reliably tracked to Haʻapai Island. The pregnant Hoamo fale ono felt insecure in Tongatapu as she was about to give birth to a child whose father, Tupouto'a, was the primary adversary of her clan. Tupouto'a was in Ha'apai to kill Tupounia and'Ulukalala in order to avenge the assassination of his father, Tuku'aho.
Tuku'aho was cruel and feared by all, including Ha'a Havea Lahi chiefs, given such acts as the burning of Fangale'ounga, a Vaini colony of Ma'afutuku'i'aulahi. Niukapu, a chief, fled to Ha'apai under the protection of the Ha'atalafale Tu'ipelehake; these chiefs supported Tupou Moheofo, installed as Tu'i Kanokupolu, instead of Tuku'aho's father, Mumui. The retribution by Tuku'aho on Ha'a Havea was regarded, despite the fact Niukapu was not part of the clan, as a demotion in power and a display of disrespect of territorial boundaries. Since Tuku'aho's siblings and descendants have had antagonistic feelings towards those from Ha'a Havea. George Tupou was established as the Tuʻi Haʻapai before the death of his father in 1820, he inherited the conflicts with the overlords of Tongatapu, in particular with Laufilitonga, the last Tuʻi Tonga, who tried to extend his role as spiritual leader into a more political one and contested Tāufaʻāhau in Haʻapai. The culmination of this struggle was the Battle of Velata in 1826, in which Laufilitonga was defeated.
An important ally at that battle was the chief of Haʻafeva. It was now clear that Tāufaʻāhau was ambitious and wanted more than only Haʻapai. To stop him, in 1827, the chiefs of Tongatapu made Laufilitonga the Tuʻi Tonga, made Tāufa's uncle Aleamotuʻa a Tuʻi Kanokupolu, preventing an island invasion, as fighting against family members was seen as a Tongan disgrace. In spite of this, at his baptism in 1831, Tāufa declared himself King George of Tonga, his next conquest resulted from his relationships with the ruler of Vavaʻu. He became the Tuʻi Vavaʻu after Finau's death in 1833, he dedicated Tonga to God in 1839. During the 1830s, he resided in Vavaʻu, in Veitatalo, now ʻUlukālala's residence. Vavaʻu was at peace and it prospered. Tongatapu, on the other hand, suffered from a cruel civil war with the local chiefs fighting each other. Tāufaʻāhau launched raids on Tongatapu with his fierce warriors from Haʻapai and Vavaʻu, the Tautahi. However, it was not until Aleamotuʻa's death that year; the chiefs were forced to obey him, he was installed as Tuʻi Kanokupolu in Kolovai on 4 December.
Niuafoʻou and Niuatoputapu would follow later.'Eua was never conquered by Tāufaʻāhau. However, they provided Tāufaʻāhau with guns and ammunition for his wars throughout Tonga. In 1852, the last independent chief, Takai Mo Fa'e, fell and Tāufa became the undisputed leader of the whole of Tonga, his rule saw many changes in Tongan politics. He abolished serfdom in Vavaʻu in 1835, published the Vavaʻu Code in 1838, the first written laws in Tonga. However, he would not abolished serfdom everywhere in Tonga, he opened the first parliament until 4 June 1862, still a public holiday called Emancipation Day, in Tonga. He made Pangai Ha'apai the first capital of his realm in 1845, he moved the capital to Nukuʻalofa in 1851. On 4 November 1875, the constitution was promulgated and Tonga became a kingdom. Siaosi took the name George Tupou I, King of Tonga. For this reason, both 1845 and 1875 are quoted as the beginning of his reign, he died in 1893 after a swim in the sea near his palace. He was buried in the New Royal Cemetery in Malaʻekula.
His children had predeceased him, so he was succeeded by his great-grandson twice over George Tupou II – the son of the daughter of his son and the son of his daughter. Due to the leadership of King Siaosi I, the history of Tonga is quite different from that of other Polynesian islands, he was a man. During his trip to Australia and New Zealand in 1853, when asking about the beggars he saw, he was told that they were unable to work since they had no land; this led to the constitution stating that land in Tonga could only be given to natural-born Tongans and not sold to outsiders, as is still the case today. Lātūkefu, S.. King George Tupo