The idiom tongue-in-cheek refers to a humorous or sarcastic statement expressed in a mock serious manner. The phrase expressed contempt, but by 1842 had acquired its modern meaning. Early users of the phrase include Sir Walter Scott in his 1828 The Fair Maid of Perth; the physical act of putting one's tongue into one's cheek once signified contempt. For example, in Tobias Smollett's The Adventures of Roderick Random, published in 1748, the eponymous hero takes a coach to Bath, on the way, apprehends a highwayman; this provokes an altercation with a less brave passenger: He looked back and pronounced with a faltering voice,'O!'tis well—damn my blood! I shall find a time.' I signified my contempt of him by thrusting my tongue in my cheek, which humbled him so much, that he scarce swore another oath aloud during the whole journey. The phrase appears in 1828 in The Fair Maid of Perth by Sir Walter Scott: The fellow who gave this all-hail thrust his tongue in his cheek to some scapegraces like himself.
It's not clear. The more modern ironic sense appeared in the 1842 poem "The Ingoldsby Legends" by the English clergyman Richard Barham, in which a Frenchman inspects a watch and cries:'Superbe! Magnifique!' / The ironic usage originates with the idea of suppressed mirth—biting one's tongue to prevent an outburst of laughter. Slang dictionary The dictionary definition of tongue-in-cheek at Wiktionary
Charles Felix was the Duke of Savoy, Piedmont and King of Sardinia from 1821 to 1831. Charles Felix was born in Turin as the eleventh child and fifth son born to Victor Amadeus III of Savoy and Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain, his paternal grandparents were Charles Emmanuel III of Savoy and his German wife Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg. His maternal grandparents were French born King Philip V of Spain and his Italian wife, Elisabeth Farnese, he was a younger brother of two other rulers of Savoy Charles Emmanuel IV and Victor Emmanuel I. He spent his childhood with his sister Maria Carolina and his younger brother, Giuseppe Benedetto Placido, Count of Moriana, at the Castle of Moncalieri. From his youth, Carlo Felice was reported as having a complex character: on the one hand consistent and inflexible, private and impulsive, if not touchy and vindictive, he had a clever mind, at times ironic. He possessed a sacral conception of the right to reign. During the years of the French Revolution and the Italian Campaign, Charles Felix formed part of a "parallel court" opposed to Charles Emmanuel IV's circle, along with his brother Victor Emmanuel, the latter's wife Maria Theresa, Maurizio Giuseppe Duke of Monferrat, Giuseppe Placido, count of Moriana.
In this period, Charles Felix began to keep a personal diary, an important source for events and for his conflicts with the court in Savoy. When war broke out with France, Charles Felix did not distinguish himself as a soldier, despite having received a military education. In 1792, after the French occupation of the Duchy of Savoy and the county of Nice, he followed the troops to Saluzzo and in 1793, he accompanied his father, Victor Amadeus III, who had directed the operations for the reconquest of Nice and Savoy along with the Austrians under general J. de Vins, into the Susa Valley, to Pinerolo and Tende. Charles Felix remained far from the front lines in any case. In spring 1794, after the arrival in Aosta of his brother the Duke of Monferrat, Charles Felix and Giuseppe Placido went to Morgex in order to retake some positions of relative strategic importance, but they did not achieve anything. On 28 April 1796, Victor Amadeus III was forced to sign the Armistice of Cherasco with the French, followed by the Treaty of Paris on 15 May, which accepted French control of Nice, Savoy and some fortresses.
Charles Felix, titled Duke of Genoa, obtained the title of Marquis of Susa in compensation for his nominal loss. Victor Amadeus III died in October of the same year and was succeeded as Prince of Piedmont by Charles Emmanuel IV; the relationship between the new king and Charles Felix had never been good, but now deteriorated as the king strove to keep his brothers in the dark about affairs of state. Two years into his reign, Charles Emmanuel IV was forced to surrender all royal control on the mainland. Along with the king and the rest of the royal family, Charles Felix left Turin on the evening of 9 December 1798 for Cagliari, where they arrived on 3 March 1799. Charles Emmanuel IV was childless and, after the death of his wife, he abdicated in favour of his brother Victor Emmanuel I on 4 June 1802; the latter did not take possession of the domains in Sardinia himself, preferring to entrust them to Charles Felix as viceroy. Charles Felix's government of Sardinia was rather authoritarian. Since the Sardinian revolutionary movements in 1794, the island had experienced a period of disorder, exacerbated by widespread poverty, which had led to an increase in crime, which the viceroy suppressed with notable harshness, writing to his brother the king, "slaughter, for the good of the human race."Charles Felix established a military regime, such that his Sardinian subjects referred to him as "Carlo Feroce".
The tool of this regime was the special court of the Viceregal delegation for the investigation of political proceedings, which took action against the "capopolo", Vincenzo Sulis, guilty of nothing other than having been more successful than the viceroy in defeating the revolutionary movements. When Sulis was condemned to twenty years in gaol, the viceroy considered it a lenient sentence. Furthermore, in the persecution of "state criminals," Charles Felix legitimated the adoption of military procedures and granted every power to the police, from spying, to censoring letters and placing bounties on suspects. In his reorganisation work, however, he displayed notable energy to control the autonomy of the judiciary and the local bureaucracy and managed to correct some abuses of the feudal regime. In fact, when the Stamenti, the parliament of the kingdom, voted to pay a tax of 400,000 lire, Charles Felix exerted significant pressure to have the poorest classes exempted from the tax and he judged disputes in feudal jurisdiction in favour of vassals rather than feudal lords.
When an anti-feudal revolt took place against the Duke of Asinara, who had refused to conform to the regulations of the viceroy, Charles Felix decided to punish both the duke, stripped of his property, as well as the revolutionaries. Despite the precarious political and social situation, Charles Felix was able to bring some improvements to the agriculture and economy of the island. Under his rule, an agrarian society and an office for the administration of Crown mines and forests were established. Additionally, the farming of olives was encouraged and commercial contracts were granted in order to encourage local production, he began a project to systematise the road network. On 7 March 1807, in the Cappella Palatina of the Palazzo dei Normanni in Palermo
The Classical Groups: Their Invariants and Representations is a mathematics book by Hermann Weyl, which describes classical invariant theory in terms of representation theory. It is responsible for the revival of interest in invariant theory, killed off by David Hilbert's solution of its main problems in the 1890s. Weyl gave an informal talk about the topic of his book. Chapter I defines invariants and other basic ideas and describes the relation to Felix Klein's Erlangen program in geometry. Chapter II describes the invariants of the special and general linear group of a vector space V on the polynomials over a sum of copies of V and its dual, it uses the Capelli identity to find an explicit set of generators for the invariants. Chapter III studies the group ring of a finite group and its decomposition into a sum of matrix algebras. Chapter IV discusses Schur–Weyl duality between representations of the symmetric and general linear groups. Chapters V and VI extend the discussion of invariants of the general linear group in chapter II to the orthogonal and symplectic groups, showing that the ring of invariants is generated by the obvious ones.
Chapter VII describes the Weyl character formula for the characters of representations of the classical groups. Chapter VIII on invariant theory proves Hilbert's theorem that invariants of the special linear group are finitely generated. Chapter IX and X give some supplements to the previous chapters. Howe, Roger, "The classical groups and invariants of binary forms", in Wells, R. O. Jr; the mathematical heritage of Hermann Weyl, Proc. Sympos. Pure Math. 48, Providence, R. I.: American Mathematical Society, pp. 133–166, ISBN 978-0-8218-1482-6, MR 0974333 Howe, Roger, "Remarks on classical invariant theory.", Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, American Mathematical Society, 313: 539–570, doi:10.2307/2001418, ISSN 0002-9947, JSTOR 2001418, MR 0986027 Jacobson, Nathan, "Book Review: The Classical Groups", Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, 46: 592–595, doi:10.1090/S0002-9904-1940-07236-2, ISSN 0002-9904, MR 1564136 Weyl, The Classical Groups. Their Invariants and Representations, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-05756-9, MR 0000255 Weyl, Hermann, "Invariants", Duke Mathematical Journal, 5: 489–502, doi:10.1215/S0012-7094-39-00540-5, ISSN 0012-7094, MR 0000030