FAW-Volkswagen Automobile Co. Ltd. is a joint venture between FAW Group and Volkswagen Group which manufactures Audi and Volkswagen marque passenger cars for sale in China. Ownership of the company is: FAW – 51%, Volkswagen AG – 20%, Audi AG – 10%, Volkswagen Invest – 19%. FAW-VW was founded on 6 February 1991. FAW-VW is headquartered in the south-western fringes of Changchun, Jilin Province, where it has two vehicle assembly plants, it has an additional assembly plant in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, a fourth plant is under construction in Foshan, Guangdong Province. FAW-VW is capable of producing the cars based on the platforms of PQ34, PQ35 and PQ46. FAW-VW's year-on-year production volume exceeded 513,000 units as of 31.07.2009. In 2011, FAW-VW sold just over 1,000,000 automobiles. On November 20, 1990, the official contract of an annual capacity of 150,000 cars for the joint venture between FAW Group and Volkswagen AG was signed by Geng Zhaojie, President of FAW and Dr. Carl Hahn, CEO of Volkswagen AG in the Great Hall of the People, Beijing.
All of the facilities in the first car plant, including the body shop, paint shop and assembly shop came together from the abandoned factory of VW's in Westmoreland, USA. The company started its business on September 1, 1992. On December 5, 1991, the first Volkswagen Jetta Mk2 rolled off the line. Two years on February 7, 1993, the 10,000th car rolled off the line. In 1995 FAW Group, Volkswagen AG and Audi AG decided to integrate Audi to the product line of the joint ventures, the equity holdings were changed with 60% for FAW, 30% for VW and 10% Audi. On May 20, 1996, the first Audi 200 rolled off the line. On July 10, 1996, the engine shop started running. By July 1996, the company was capable of producing 150,000 cars, 270,000 engines and 180,000 gearboxes in one year. In 1997 FAW-Volkswagen Sales Company Ltd. was established as a joint venture between FAW-VW and FAW Group with the equity holdings of 50% for each, it was a smart idea of avoiding the Germans to take control of the sales department under the policy of the governing body then.
By 2002 FAW-VW took the majority of the equities back from FAW Group. In 1998 the Jetta King became the first car equipped with ABS system in the Chinese A-class market. In 1999 the Jetta was registered in FIA Group N category, it entered a lot of Rally events in China with FRD Sport and Qingyang Racing from the late 1990s to early 2000s. In 2002 the Jetta became the first mass production passenger car in China to be available with a diesel engine. On January 7, 2004, the 1,000,000 car rolled off the line. On December 7, 2004, FAW-VW's second car plant began operating. On August 4, 2009, the 3,000,000th car rolled off the line in car plant #2. By 2010 FAW-VW had sold over 1,000,000 Audis in China. With the celebration, a sculpture named'Ode to Audi' from Gerry Judah was set at the entrance of the company. According to Chinese government policy, foreign auto manufactures should develop domestic brands with their local partners, thus FAW-VW revealed its own brand'Kaili' in May 2011. On August 15, 2011, FAW-VW celebrated its twentieth anniversary with its one millionth car in 2011.
November 2016: Changchun FAW-VW agency workers organize and file a report on unfair labor conditions to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions December 2016-January 2017: With the intervention of Changchun ACFTU, worker representatives engage in two collective bargaining sessions with FAW-VW and Hongxin Youye. The two CB sessions don’t seem to have yielded any outcomes. January–February 2017: Over one thousand FAW-VW agency workers present their case to the district’s labor arbitration committee, they get no official replyFebruary 2017: Agency workers present their cases to court, which rejects their claims. 500 plus agency workers hold a protest in front of the local Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security office. April 2017: Agency workers organize a May Day protest, but they cancel their plans under police pressureMay 21, 2017: Agency workers gather at the gates of the company and chant slogans during the Changchun International Marathon May 26, 2017: Worker representatives Fu Tianbo, Wang Shuai and Ai Zhenyu are detained for “gathering crowds to disrupt public order”.
Not long after, Wang and Ai are released, Fu remains in detention. June 7, 2017: Worker representative Fu Tianbo is put under arrestJuly 2017: Police harassment of Fu Tianbo’s family increases, Fu’s mother publishes video demanding to see her son, otherwise she will go to Beijing to present her grievances to higher government officials. July 19, 2017: The three arrested workers send a letter to Volkswagen, its World Works Council and its European Works CouncilAugust 2, 2017: Officers of IG Metal send a letter to VW China demanding an end to the judicial persecution of the three arrested workers. Automobile production started in December 1991, the current manufactured range includes: Audi A3 Type 8V Audi A4L Type B9 Audi A6L Type C7 Audi Q3 Audi Q5 Volkswagen Jetta Night Volkswagen Bora Mk. II Volkswagen C-Trek Volkswagen Golf Mk. VII Volkswagen Golf GTI Mk. VII Volkswagen Golf Sportsvan Volkswagen Sagitar Mk. II Volkswagen Magotan Type B8L Volkswagen T-Roc Volkswagen CC The new Jetta marque is scheduled to be on sale in 2019 with three models: VA3 VA5 VA7 Audi 100 Audi 200 Lang Audi A4 Type B6 Audi A4 Type
The Deutsche Mark, abbreviated "DM" or "D-Mark", was the official currency of West Germany from 1948 until 1990 and the unified Germany from 1990 until 2002. It was first issued under Allied occupation in 1948 to replace the Reichsmark, served as the Federal Republic of Germany's official currency from its founding the following year until the adoption of the euro. In English it is called the "Deutschmark"; the Germans called it D-Mark when referring to the currency, Mark when talking about individual sums. In 1999, the Deutsche Mark was replaced by the Euro; the Deutsche Mark ceased to be legal tender upon the introduction of the euro — in contrast to the other eurozone nations, where the euro and legacy currency circulated side by side for up to two months. Mark coins and banknotes continued to be accepted as valid forms of payment in Germany until 28 February 2002; the Deutsche Bundesbank has guaranteed that all German marks in cash form may be changed into euros indefinitely, one may do so in person at any branch of the Bundesbank in Germany.
Banknotes and coins can be sent to the Bundesbank by mail. In 2012, it was estimated that as many as 13.2 billion marks were in circulation, with one poll showing a narrow majority of Germans favouring the currency's restoration. On 31 December 1998, the Council of the European Union fixed the irrevocable exchange rate, effective 1 January 1999, for German mark to euros as DM 1.95583 = €1. One Deutsche Mark was divided into 100 Pfennige. A mark had been the currency of Germany since its original unification in 1871. Before that time, the different German states issued a variety of different currencies, though most were linked to the Vereinsthaler, a silver coin containing 16 2⁄3 grams of pure silver. Although the mark was based on gold rather than silver, a fixed exchange rate between the Vereinsthaler and the mark of 3 marks = 1 Vereinsthaler was used for the conversion; the first mark, known as the Goldmark, was introduced in 1873. With the outbreak of World War I, the mark was taken off the gold standard.
The currency thus became known as the Papiermark as high inflation hyperinflation occurred and the currency became made up of paper money. The Papiermark was replaced by the Rentenmark from November 15, 1923, the Reichsmark in 1924. During the first two years of occupation the occupying powers of France, United Kingdom, United States, the Soviet Union were not able to negotiate a possible currency reform in Germany. Due to the strains between the Allies each zone was governed independently as regards monetary matters; the US occupation policy was governed by the directive JCS 1067, which forbade the US military governor "to take any steps to strengthen German financial structure". As a consequence a separate monetary reform in the U. S. zone was not possible. Each of the Allies printed its own occupation currency; the Deutsche Mark was introduced on Sunday, June 20, 1948 by Ludwig Erhard. The old Reichsmark and Rentenmark were exchanged for the new currency at a rate of DM 1 = RM 1 for the essential currency such as wages, payment of rents etc. and DM 1 = RM 10 for the remainder in private non-bank credit balances, with half frozen.
Large amounts were exchanged for RM 10 to 65 Pfennig. In addition, each person received a per capita allowance of DM 60 in two parts, the first being DM 40 and the second DM 20. A few weeks Erhard, acting against orders, issued an edict abolishing many economic controls, implemented by the Nazis, which the Allies had not removed, he did this, as he confessed, on Sunday because the offices of the American and French occupation authorities were closed that day. He was sure; the introduction of the new currency was intended to protect western Germany from a second wave of hyperinflation and to stop the rampant barter and black market trade. Although the new currency was only distributed in the three western occupation zones outside Berlin, the move angered the Soviet authorities, who regarded it as a threat; the Soviets promptly cut off all road and canal links between the three western zones and West Berlin, starting the Berlin Blockade. In response, the U. S. and Britain launched an airlift of food and coal and distributed the new currency in West Berlin as well.
Since the 1930s, prices and wages had been controlled. That meant that people had accumulated large paper assets, that official prices and wages did not reflect reality, as the black market dominated the economy and more than half of all transactions were taking place unofficially; the reform replaced the old money with the new Deutsche Mark at the rate of one new per ten old. This wiped out 90% of government and private debt, as well as private savings. Prices were decontrolled, labor unions agreed to accept a 15% wage increase, despite the 25% rise in prices; the result was the prices of German export products held steady, while profits and earnings from exports soared and were poured back into the economy. The currency reforms were simultaneous with the $1.4 billion in Marshall Plan money coming in from the United States, used for investment. In addition, the Marshall plan forced German companies, as well as those in all of Western Europe, to moder
Lower Saxony is a German state situated in northwestern Germany. It is the second-largest state by land area, with 47,624 km2, fourth-largest in population among the 16 Länder federated as the Federal Republic of Germany. In rural areas, Northern Low Saxon and Saterland Frisian are still spoken, but the number of speakers is declining. Lower Saxony borders on the North Sea, the states of Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia and North Rhine-Westphalia, the Netherlands. Furthermore, the state of Bremen forms two enclaves within Lower Saxony, one being the city of Bremen, the other, its seaport city of Bremerhaven. In fact, Lower Saxony borders more neighbours than any other single Bundesland; the state's principal cities include the state capital Hanover, Braunschweig, Lüneburg, Osnabrück, Hildesheim, Wolfenbüttel, Göttingen. The northwestern area of Lower Saxony, which lies on the coast of the North Sea, is called East Frisia and the seven East Frisian Islands offshore are popular with tourists.
In the extreme west of Lower Saxony is the Emsland, a traditionally poor and sparsely populated area, once dominated by inaccessible swamps. The northern half of Lower Saxony known as the North German Plains, is invariably flat except for the gentle hills around the Bremen geestland. Towards the south and southwest lie the northern parts of the German Central Uplands: the Weser Uplands and the Harz mountains. Between these two lie the Lower Saxon Hills, a range of low ridges. Thus, Lower Saxony is the only Bundesland that encompasses both mountainous areas. Lower Saxony's major cities and economic centres are situated in its central and southern parts, namely Hanover, Osnabrück, Salzgitter, Göttingen. Oldenburg, near the northwestern coastline, is another economic centre; the region in the northeast is called the Lüneburg Heath, the largest heathland area of Germany and in medieval times wealthy due to salt mining and salt trade, as well as to a lesser degree the exploitation of its peat bogs until about the 1960s.
To the north, the Elbe River separates Lower Saxony from Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg. The banks just south of the Elbe are known as Altes Land. Due to its gentle local climate and fertile soil, it is the state's largest area of fruit farming, its chief produce being apples. Most of the state's territory was part of the historic Kingdom of Hanover, it was created by the merger of the State of Hanover with three smaller states on 1 November 1946. Lower Saxony has a natural boundary in the north in the North Sea and the lower and middle reaches of the River Elbe, although parts of the city of Hamburg lie south of the Elbe; the state and city of Bremen is an enclave surrounded by Lower Saxony. The Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region is a cooperative body for the enclave area. To the southeast, the state border runs through the Harz, low mountains that are part of the German Central Uplands; the northeast and west of the state, which form three-quarters of its land area, belong to the North German Plain, while the south is in the Lower Saxon Hills, including the Weser Uplands, Leine Uplands, Schaumburg Land, Brunswick Land, Untereichsfeld and Lappwald.
In northeast, Lower Saxony is Lüneburg Heath. The heath is dominated by the poor, sandy soils of the geest, whilst in the central east and southeast in the loess börde zone, productive soils with high natural fertility occur. Under these conditions—with loam and sand-containing soils—the land is well-developed agriculturally. In the west lie the County of Bentheim, Osnabrück Land, Oldenburg Land, Oldenburg Münsterland, on the coast East Frisia; the state is dominated by several large rivers running northwards through the state: the Ems, Weser and Elbe. The highest mountain in Lower Saxony is the Wurmberg in the Harz. For other significant elevations see: List of hills in Lower Saxony. Most of the mountains and hills are found in the southeastern part of the state; the lowest point in the state, at about 2.5 m below sea level, is a depression near Freepsum in East Frisia. The state's economy and infrastructure are centred on the cities and towns of Hanover, Celle, Wolfsburg and Salzgitter. Together with Göttingen in southern Lower Saxony, they form the core of the Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region.
Lower Saxony has clear regional divisions that manifest themselves geographically, as well as and culturally. In the regions that used to be independent the heartlands of the former states of Brunswick, Hanover and Schaumburg-Lippe, a marked local regional awareness exists. By contrast, the areas surrounding the Hanseatic cities of Bremen and Hamburg are much more oriented towards those centres. Sometimes and transition areas happen between the various regions of Lower Saxony. Several of the regions listed here are part of other, larger regions, that are included in the list. Just under 20% of the land area of Lower Saxony is designated as nature parks, i.e.: Dümmer, Elbhöhen-Wendland, Elm-Lappwald, Harz, Lüneburger Heide, Münden, Terra.vita, Solling-Vogler, Lake Steinhude, Südheide, Weser Uplands, Wildeshausen Geest, Bourtanger Moor-Bargerveen. L
The Porsche 924 is a sports car produced by Porsche AG of Germany from 1976 to 1988. A two-door, 2+2 coupé, the 924 was intended to replace the Porsche 914 as the company's entry-level model. Although the water-cooled, front-engined 928 gran turismo was designed first, the 924 was the first road-going Porsche to have a front engine rear wheel drive configuration, it was the first Porsche to be offered with a automatic transmission. The 924 made its public debut in November 1975, it was criticised by enthusiasts for its mediocre performance, but was a sales success with just over 150,000 produced during a 1977-1988 production run, an important profits generator for the company. The related 944 introduced in the U. S. market in 1983 was meant to replace the 924, but 924 production continued through 1985, followed by a 944-engined 924S through 1988. The 924 was a joint project of Volkswagen and Porsche created by the Vertriebsgesellschaft, the joint sales and marketing company funded by Porsche and VW to market and sell sports cars.
For Volkswagen, it was intended to be that company's flagship coupé sports car and was dubbed "Project 425" during its development. For Porsche, it was to be its entry-level sports car replacing the 914. At the time, Volkswagen lacked a significant internal research and design division for developing sports cars. In keeping with this history, Porsche was contracted to develop a new sporting vehicle with the caveat that this vehicle must work with an existing VW/Audi inline-four engine. Porsche chose a rear-wheel drive layout and a rear-mounted transaxle for the design to help provide 48/52 front/rear weight distribution; the 1973 oil crisis, a series of automobile-related regulatory changes enacted during the 1970s and a change of directors at Volkswagen made the case for a Volkswagen sports car less striking and the 425 project was put on hold. After serious deliberation at VW, the project was scrapped after a decision was made to move forward with the cheaper, more practical, Golf-based Scirocco model instead.
Porsche, which needed a model to replace the 914, made a deal with Volkswagen leadership to buy the design back. The 914 was discontinued before the 924 entered production, which resulted in the reintroduction of the Porsche 912 to the North American market as the 912E for one year to fill the gap; the deal specified that the car would be built at the ex-NSU factory in Neckarsulm located north of the Porsche headquarters in Stuttgart, Volkswagen becoming the subcontractor. Hence, Volkswagen employees would do the actual production line work and that Porsche would own the design, it made its debut at a November 1975 press launch at the harbour at La Grande Motte, Camargue in the south of France rather than a motor show. The relative cheapness of building the car made it both profitable and easy for Porsche to finance. While criticised for its performance, it became one of Porsche's best-selling models; the original design used an Audi-sourced four-speed manual transmission from a front wheel drive car but now placed and used as a rear transaxle.
It was mated to VW's EA831 2.0 L I4 engine, variants of which were used in the Audi 100 and the Volkswagen LT van. The Audi engine, equipped with a Weber/Holley carburetor, was used in the 1977-1979 AMC Gremlin and Spirit; the 924 engine used producing 95 horsepower in North American trim. This was brought up to 110 horsepower in mid-1977 with the introduction of a catalytic converter, which reduced the need for power-robbing smog equipment; the four-speed manual was the only transmission available for the initial 1976 model this was replaced by a five-speed dog-leg unit. An Audi three-speed automatic was offered starting with the 1977.5 model. In 1980, the five-speed transmission was changed to a conventional H-pattern, with reverse now on the right beneath fifth gear. In 1980, the model received some minor changes including a three-way catalyst and higher compression, which brought power up to 115 hp. Nonetheless, the strong Deutschemark and US inflation hampered sales, as a well equipped 924 now could cost twice as much as the more powerful Nissan 280ZX.
European models, which did not require any emissions equipment, made 125 hp. They differed visually from the US spec model by not having the US cars' low-speed impact bumpers and the round reflectors plus side-marker lamps on each end of the body; the 924 was sold in Japan at Mizwa Motors dealerships that specialize in North American and European vehicles, with left hand drive for its entire generation. Sales were helped by the fact that it was in compliance with Japanese Government dimension regulations with regards to its engine displacement and exterior dimensions. A five-speed transmission, available in aspirated cars starting in 1979 and standard on all turbos, was a dog-leg shift pattern Porsche unit, with first gear below reverse on the left side; this was robust, but expensive due to some 915 internal parts, was replaced for 1980 with a normal H-pattern Audi five-speed on all non-turbo cars. This lighter duty design was not used on the more powerful 924 Turbo; the brakes were drums at the rear.
The car was criticized in Car and Driver magazine for this
Volkswagen Westmoreland Assembly
Volkswagen Westmoreland Assembly was a manufacturing complex located 35 miles south of Pittsburgh in Westmoreland County, near New Stanton — and noted for manufacturing 1.15 million Volkswagens from 1978 until 1987. When VWoA began manufacturing at what had been an unfinished Chrysler plant, it became the first foreign automobile company to build cars in the United States since Rolls-Royce manufactured cars in Springfield, from 1921 to 1931. Chrysler had called the facility the New Stanton plant; the factory manufactured a range of fuel-efficient small cars with gasoline or diesel engines, all variants of Volkswagen's Golf: the Rabbit. Built with the largest incentive package the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania had offered, the factory had an estimated annual capacity of 240,000 cars and reached production of 200,000 in 1980. Engines and drivetrains for Westmoreland production were sourced from Germany. Employment, projected at 20,000, reached its highest level in mid-1981 at 6,000 and by 1984 had dropped to 1,500.
The plant was successful, but numerous factors contributed to a sharp decline in sales of the cars manufactured at Westmoreland and the factory's ultimate demise: increased competition in the North American small car market, easing of the period's fuel crisis, poorly received changes to the character of the cars, VWoA's long product life-cycle, the internal economics of the plant itself, persistent labor unrest at the plant and poor networking between Westmoreland and Volkswagen headquarters in Germany. The factory operated at less than half its design capacity and VWoA suffered operating losses during the last five years of its operation. Sales of Volkswagen's U. S.-built cars plummeted by nearly 60 percent between 1980 and 1985. Japanese manufacturers soon followed VWoA's unionized plant into production in the U. S. – achieving success at non-unionized plants including Honda at their Marysville, Ohio and Toyota at their Georgetown, plant. By the early 1980s, Volkswagen began retreating from manufacture in North America, selling another assembly plant it had begun developing and two ancillary plants to Westmoreland in West Virginia and Texas.
With the plant operating at 40 percent capacity and annual losses of $120 million, Volkswagen closed Westmoreland Assembly on July 14, 1988. Volkswagen expanded production of cars in Puebla, in 2011 inaugurated its Chattanooga Assembly Plant; the Westmoreland plant was subsequently used by Sony in the production of televisions from 1990–2008. As of 2014, the site is marketed as RIDC Westmoreland and is owned by RIDC, the Regional Industrial Development Corporation of Southwestern Pennsylvania. Prior to development of Westmoreland Assembly, Volkswagen of America was headed by James W. McLernon, a former Chevrolet manufacturing chief. Toni Schmücker, VW management board Chairman, selected McLernon to investigate feasibility of U. S. production, in part to help the company avoid international currency fluctuations and high German wages. After investigating five sites and narrowing the field to two alternate sites, a former Westinghouse appliance factory in Columbus, a federal tank plant in the Cleveland suburb of Brook Park, VWoA signed a thirty-year lease on Chrysler's unfinished New Stanton plant constructed in 1969 on 1,200 acres at Route 119 in East Huntingdon Township – just outside New Stanton, Pennsylvania.
At Westmoreland, Volkswagen developed three major buildings, two minor buildings, a waste water treatment system. Richard S. Cummins, the plant manager, described the inside of the largest unfinished building with 2.1 million sf, as a "three-dimensional chess-board covering an area of over 37 football fields." Land had to be re-shaped for a new railway spur, underground holding tanks constructed for the various fluids to be pumped into the building. The complex included several two-story buildings: an administration building, a building with worker facilities and a metallurgy, plastic and electrical testing lab, a building with a paint lab as well as durability and emissions testing as well as a railway yard. VWoA purchased the site with a $40 million loan from the state of Pennsylvania and invested about $250 million to ready the factory for assembly. In the richest corporate deal to date in Pennsylvania history and local officials offered VWoA an incentive package worth nearly $100 million in government assistance and rail improvements and a property-tax exemption.
VW subsequently purchased an American Motors stamping plant in South Charleston, West Virginia, investing further to make the factory capable of producing exterior sheet metal stampings for Westmoreland and purchased a small plant in Fort Worth, Texas for manufacture of the air-conditioning and heating systems and plastic-trim to facilitate integration of factory installed air-conditioning in the Westmoreland-manufactured cars. VWoA would purchase a former Chrysler missile plant in Sterling Heights, Michigan, to begin developing its second North American assembly plant. On April 10, 1978, VWoA dedicated Westmoreland Assembly by driving its first car off the line, a two-door white Rabbit —, assembled the week before and was shipped after the plant dedication to Volkswagen's Wolfsburg headquarters for its museum. Toni Schmücker, Richard E Dauch, James McLernon, U. S. Treasury Secretary Michael Blumenthal, Pennsylvania Governor Milton Shapp and 1,200 employees were on hand the day the first car came off of the line.
In his r
Toyota Motor Corporation is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota City, Japan. In 2017, Toyota's corporate structure consisted of 364,445 employees worldwide and, as of September 2018, was the sixth-largest company in the world by revenue; as of 2017, Toyota is the world's second-largest automotive manufacturer. Toyota was the world's first automobile manufacturer to produce more than 10 million vehicles per year which it has done since 2012, when it reported the production of its 200-millionth vehicle; as of July 2014, Toyota was the largest listed company in Japan by market capitalization and by revenue. Toyota is the world's market leader in sales of hybrid electric vehicles, one of the largest companies to encourage the mass-market adoption of hybrid vehicles across the globe. Toyota is a market leader in hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. Cumulative global sales of Toyota and Lexus hybrid passenger car models achieved the 10 million milestone in January 2017.
Its Prius family is the world's top selling hybrid nameplate with over 6 million units sold worldwide as of January 2017. The company was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda in 1937, as a spinoff from his father's company Toyota Industries to create automobiles. Three years earlier, in 1934, while still a department of Toyota Industries, it created its first product, the Type A engine, its first passenger car in 1936, the Toyota AA. Toyota Motor Corporation produces vehicles under five brands, including the Toyota brand, Lexus and Daihatsu, it holds a 16.66% stake in Subaru Corporation, a 5.9% stake in Isuzu, as well as joint-ventures with two in China, one in India, one in the Czech Republic, along with several "nonautomotive" companies. TMC is part of one of the largest conglomerates in Japan. Toyota is listed on New York Stock Exchange and Tokyo Stock Exchange. Toyota is headquartered in Aichi; the main headquarters of Toyota is located in a 4-story building in Toyota. As of 2006, the head office has the "Toyopet" Toyota logo and the words "Toyota Motor".
The Toyota Technical Center, a 14-story building, the Honsha plant, Toyota's second plant engaging in mass production and named the Koromo plant, are adjacent to one another in a location near the headquarters. Vinod Jacob from The Hindu described the main headquarters building as "modest". In 2013, company head Akio Toyoda reported that it had difficulties retaining foreign employees at the headquarters due to the lack of amenities in the city, its Tokyo office is located in Tokyo. Its Nagoya office is located in Nagoya. In addition to manufacturing automobiles, Toyota provides financial services through its Toyota Financial Services division, builds robots. Presidents of Toyota Motor Company: Rizaburo Toyoda Kiichiro Toyoda Taizo Ishida Fukio Nakagawa Eiji Toyoda In 1981, Toyota Motor Co. Ltd. announced plans to merge with its sales entity Toyota Motor Sales Co. Ltd. Since 1950, the two entities had existed as separate companies as a prerequisite for reconstruction in postwar Japan. Shoichiro Toyoda presided over Toyota Motor Sales in preparation for the consummation of the merger that occurred in 1982.
Shoichiro succeeded his uncle Eiji as the President of the combined organization that became known as Toyota Motor Corporation. Chairmen of Toyota Motor Corporation: Eiji Toyoda Shoichiro Toyoda Hiroshi Okuda Fujio Cho Takeshi Uchiyamada Presidents of Toyota Motor Corporation: Shoichiro Toyoda Tatsuro Toyoda Hiroshi Okuda Fujio Cho Katsuaki Watanabe Akio Toyoda On June 14, 2013, Toyota Motor Corporation. Announced the appointment of external board members. Additionally, Vice Chairman Takeshi Uchiyamada replaced Fujio Cho as chairman, as the latter became an honorary chairman while Toyoda remains in the post of President. Toyota is publicly traded on the Tokyo, Nagoya and Sapporo exchanges under company code TYO: 7203. In addition, Toyota is foreign-listed on the New York Stock Exchange under NYSE: TM and on the London Stock Exchange under LSE: TYT. Toyota has been publicly traded in Japan since 1949 and internationally since 1999; as reported on its consolidated financial statements, Toyota has 606 consolidated subsidiaries and 199 affiliates.
Toyota Motor North America Toyota Canada Inc. Toyota Tsusho – Trading company for the Toyota Group Daihatsu Motor Company Hino Motors Lexus 100% Scion 100% DENSO Toyota Industries Aisin Seiki Co. Subaru Corporation Isuzu Motors PT Toyota-Astra Motor Noble Automotive PT Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia Toyota, which earlier was the world's third largest automotive manufacturer behind American General Motors and Ford, produced for the first time in history more vehicles than Ford in 2005, in 2006 more than General Motors and has been the world's largest automotive manufacturer since except in 2011 when, triggered by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, it fell to the #3 position behind General Motors and German Volkswagen Group. In 1924, Sakichi Toyoda invented the Toyoda Model G Auto
MAN Truck & Bus
MAN Truck & Bus AG is the largest subsidiary of the MAN SE corporation, one of the leading international providers of commercial vehicles. Headquartered in Munich, Germany, MAN Truck & Bus produces vans in the range from 3.0 to 5.5 t gvw, trucks in the range from 7.49 to 44 t gvw, heavy goods vehicles up to 250 t road train gvw, bus-chassis, interurban coaches, city buses. MAN Truck & Bus produces diesel and natural-gas engines; the MAN acronym stood for Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg AG MAN AG. Trucks and buses of the product brand MAN and buses of the product brand Neoplan belong to the MAN Truck & Bus Group. On 1 January 2011, MAN Nutzfahrzeuge was renamed as MAN Truck & Bus to better reflect the company's products on the international market. From 1967 until 1977, MAN collaborated with France's Saviem, selling their light to medium duty trucks with MAN badging in Germany and certain other markets. After the end of this, a deal was struck with Volkswagen which lasted until 1993. Production of a truck using the Volkswagen LT body started in 1979 and ended in 1993 with 72,000 units produced.
It was available with four wheelbases over its lifetime. FAE means "forward control" cab, all-wheel drive, single tyres so the F nomenclature means "forward control" cab; this series is referred to as the G90, from the most common model, but as the "G"-series. In the United Kingdom it was marketed as the "MAN MT" series; the original lineup in the UK consisted of the 6.90 and the 8.90 and the 8.136 and 9.136. MAN AG supplied engines which were available in inline-four and inline-six cylinder engine configurations, with DIN rated motive power outputs of: 67 kilowatts 75 kilowatts 101 kilowatts 112 kilowatts MAN replaced the G series with the L2000 and M2000 ranges. Several models of the MAN-VWCV and the VWCV LT ranges were marketed in Spain by Enasa as Pegaso Ekus, in a typical badge engineering operation. Peterbilt offered this model with their badging, as the 200 or 265 model. VWCV and MAN shared the project development in accordance with the collaboration agreement as follows: Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles took care of: the tilting driver's cab including steering wheel and fixing, hand levers and foot pedals.
NOTE the VW LT Mk 1 cabin was used for the MAN-VW range, the cabins are wider than the standard LT cabins so they can fit the truck chassis the complete interior equipment and heating the manual gearbox with clutch and gear lever, the rear axle with rear-axle transmission and suspension the cardan shafts including bearings the electrical system for the entire concept, the platforms for the standard design. MAN was responsible for: the engine including cooling, exhaust and fuel system the front axle with suspension and steering the frame with all parts for attaching the springs and axles, the steering, the batteries, the power braking system and fuel system the brakes, i.e. for the complete wheel brakes front and rear, the dual-circuit power brakes and parking brake the wheels and tyres the platform for special designs and tipping mechanism. MAN-VWCVs were built in Volkswagen's Hanover factory. MAN-VWCV Range 6.90, 8.90, 6.100, 8.136, 8.100, 8.150, 9.136, 9.150 & 10.136. F & FAE are sometimes on the end of some of these model numbers.
LE / L2000 ME / M2000 FE / F2000 CLA TGL, with hybrid trucks. TGM TGA TGX / TGS - variant of TGS model was used for Dakar Rally MAN TGE - A rebadged Volkswagen Crafter; until 2007, MAN built the badge-engineered ERF Trucks for the UK market. HX LX / FX SX Lion's City, city- and inter-urban buses Lion's Coach, coaches Lion's Intercity, inter-urban buses The first integral buses760 UO, underfloor engine MAN/Krauss-Maffei Metrobus640 HO 750 HO 890 UO, underfloor engine 890 UG, articulated bus, underfloor engine 535 HO, regional bus and coachVöV-Standard buses, 1st generation 750 HO-SL, city bus 750 HO-SÜ, regional bus 890 SG, articulated bus, underfloor engine SL 200, city bus SÜ 240, regional bus SD 200, double-decker bus SG 220, articulated bus, underfloor engine SG 240/280 H, articulated bus, rear engine North-American models: SG 220, articulated bus, underfloor engine SG 310, articulated bus, underfloor engine VöV-Standard buses, 2nd generation SL 202, city bus SG 242/282 H, "puller" articulated bus SG 242/262/292/312/322, "pusher" articulated bus SD 202, double-decker bus SÜ 242/272/292/312/322, regional bus SM 152/182, midibus NL 202, low-floor bus with podium-mounted seats NG 272, low-floor articulated bus with podium-mounted seats NM 152/182, low-floor midibus with podium-mounted seats NL 202/222/262/312, low-floor bus with podium-mounted seats in rear part only MAN NL 262 R, right-hand drive version for Hong Kong NG 262/272/312, low-floor articulated bus with podium-mounted seats in rear part only NM 152/192, low-floor midibus with podium-mounted seats in rear part only ND 202, low-floor double-decker bus EL 202/222/262/272, low-entry bu