Tsarskoye Selo was the town containing a former Russian residence of the imperial family and visiting nobility, located 24 kilometers south from the center of Saint Petersburg. It is now part of the town of Pushkin. Tsarskoye Selo forms one of the World Heritage site Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments. During the Soviet times it was known as Detskoye Selo. In the 17th century, the estate belonged to a Swedish noble, its original Finnish name is translated as "a higher ground". Max Vasmer, on the other hand, derives this toponym from the Finnish word for island, "saari": "Saaren kylä" = "Island village". By the 18th-century at the latest, it was called "Tsarskoye Selo". In 1708, Peter the Great gave the estate to the future Empress Catherine I, as a present, she founded the Blagoveschensky church there in 1724, changed the name of the settlement to Blagoveschenskoye, but this did not stand the test of time and went out of use. It was Catherine I, her daughter, Empress Elizabeth and her architect Bartolomeo Rastrelli were responsible for the building of the Catherine Palace.
Empress Catherine II of Russia and her architect Charles Cameron extended the palace building, now known as the Cameron Gallery. There are two imperial palaces: the baroque Catherine Palace with the adjacent Catherine Park and the neoclassical Alexander Palace with the adjacent Alexander Park; the Catherine Palace is surrounded by a Garden à la française and an English landscape garden, with such 18th-century structures as Dutch Admiralty, Creaking Pagoda, Chesme Column, Rumyantsev Obelisk and Marble Bridge. The landscape Alexander Park has several Chinoiserie structures, notably the Chinese Village. By the end of the 18th century, Tsarskoye Selo became a popular place of summer residence among the nobility; the guards' regiments were stationed to the south of Tsarskoye Selo, where Catherine the Great founded in the 1770s the town of Sophia. The five-domed neoclassical Ascension Cathedral, designed by Cameron, is the chief monument of that area; the Royal Forestry School the first such school in Russia, was founded in Tsarskoye Selo in 1803.
In 1808, Sophia and Tsarskoye Selo became one town. In 1811, Alexander I opened the celebrated Lyceum next door to the Catherine Palace. Among the first students of the Lyceum who graduated in 1817 were Aleksandr Pushkin and Alexander Gorchakov. Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin graduated from the Lyceum; the Lyceum garden, the house of the Lycee Director, the house of Ludwig-Wilhelm Tepper de Ferguson, Lyceum music teacher belong to important historic sites associated with the Lyceum of Pushkin's time. The literary traditions of Tsarskoye Selo were continued in the 20th century by such notable poets as Anna Akhmatova and Innokenty Annensky; the town escaped the 19th century industrialization, although it was between Tsarskoye Selo and St. Petersburg that the first Russian railway was built in 1837, Tsarskoye Selo Railway, it was known for its powerful government radio station, set up here in 1917. After his return not long after abdicating in early 1917, former Emperor Nicholas II was held under arrest in his favourite residence, the Alexander Palace, until departing, never to return, on 1st August 1917 with his family.
In 1918, Tsarskoye Selo was renamed by the Bolsheviks into Detskoye Selo and in 1937 it was renamed again to the town of Pushkin, thus commemorating the centenary of the poet's death. On September 17, 1941, the Germans occupied the town of Pushkin and plundering many historical monuments and other cultural artifacts, including the famous Amber Room; the Red Army liberated the town on January 24, 1944. After the war, reconstruction began on Tsarskoye Selo. Under the Soviet Union the nickname "the Czar's village" came to be attached to blocks and small neighborhoods that housed the nomenklatura, their stores were better stocked. The buildings in the neighborhoods were better designed and maintained. One such neighborhood, west of Moscow, contained less industry and more parks than any other neighborhood. Treaty of Tsarskoye Selo Emperor railway station in Pushkin town Adolphe Kegresse King, Greg; the Court of the Last Tsar. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-72763-7. Tsarskoye Selo, Pushkin town, historical facts of the city, local weather, directions from St. Petersburg The State Museum of Tsarskoye Selo Alexander Palace Time Machine The Alexander Palace Time Machine Tsarskoye Selo in 1910 – a guide to the Palaces and Town Photo Tours of Tsarskoe Selo Last Days at Tsarskoe Selo Last Days at Tsarskoe Selo by Count Paul Beckendorff Photographic views of Tsarskoye Selo, c. 2002 The Nostalgic Glass Tsarskoye Selo Photos Iconicarchive Gallery Bernard DeCou's colored photos of Tsarskoye Selo, c. 1931
Emma Frith Bridgwater, known as Emmy Bridgwater, was an English artist and poet associated with the Surrealist movement. Based at times in both Birmingham and London, she was a significant member of the Birmingham Surrealists and of the London-based British Surrealist Group, was an important link between the surrealists of the two cities. Michel Remy, professor of art history at the University of Nice and author of Surrealism in Britain, describes her influence as "of the same importance to British surrealism as the arrival of Dalí in the ranks of the French surrealists". Emmy Bridgwater was born in the upmarket Edgbaston district of Birmingham, the third daughter of a chartered accountant and Methodist. Showing an early interest in painting and drawing, she studied under Bernard Fleetwood-Walker at the Birmingham School of Art for three years from 1922 before further study at a local art school in Oxford paid for by work as a secretary. Bridgwater's aesthetic direction was transformed by attending the London International Surrealist Exhibition in 1936, where she met Conroy Maddox, John Melville and Robert Melville - the key figures of the Birmingham Surrealists.
From this point on her work began to explore the more fearful sides of the subconscious using automatist techniques. Studying for periods at the Grosvenor School of Modern Art in London during 1936 and 1937 she retained a base in Birmingham and exhibited as a member of the Birmingham Group throughout the late 1930s exhibiting at the London Gallery after being introduced to owner E. L. T. Mesens by Robert Melville. In early 1940, she joined the British Surrealist Group when Conroy Maddox and Robert Melville introduced her to them, she was to attend their meetings for much of the following decade. Forming a close friendship with Edith Rimmington and having a brief but intense affair with Toni del Renzio, she contributed to numerous international surrealist publications and held her first solo exhibition at Jack Bilbo's Modern Gallery in 1942. In 1947, Bridgwater was one of six English artists chosen by André Breton to exhibit at the Exposition Internationale du Surrealisme at the Galerie Maeght in Paris - the last major international surrealist group exhibition.
By the late 1940s, Bridgwater was having to spend increasing amounts of time caring for her ageing mother and disabled sister. In 1953, she moved to Stratford-upon-Avon to take on this responsibility full-time and suspended her artistic career. During the 1970s Bridgwater resumed work in collage, her earlier work featured in numerous surrealist retrospective exhibitions over the following decades. Ceasing work in the mid-1980s, she died in Solihull in 1999. Emmy Bridgwater's work in the 1930s and 1940s consisted of paintings and pen and ink drawings, her personal iconography featured organic imagery such as birds, leaves and tendril-like automatist lines depicted with a sense of "surrealist black humour and violence" within a dreamlike landscape. From the 1970s onwards she worked in collage. In Arson: an ardent review Toni del Renzio wrote of Bridgwater's paintings: "We do not see these pictures. We are moved by them. Our own entrails are drawn painfully from us and twisted into the pictures whose significance we did not want to realise."Robert Melville described Bridgwater's paintings as depicting "the saddening, half-seen'presences' encountered by the artist on her journey through the labyrinths of good and evil... although they are dreamlike in their ambiguity they are realistic documents from a region of phantasmal hopes and murky desires where few stay to observe and fewer still remain clear-sighted."Her obituary in The Independent said "Her paintings show an ability to enter a personal dream world and transform the visions she experienced there into bold, unselfconscious charged landscapes which more than not strike into the depths of one's mind.
Using a limited palette and painting thickly, she was able to bring together unrelated objects which she used to fill desolate landscapes, giving the paintings a narrative quality of her own making." 1937 - The Birmingham Group, Lucy Wertheim Gallery, London 1938 - The Birmingham Group, Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery, Birmingham 193? - London Gallery, London 1939 - As We See Ourselves, Chapman Galleries, Birmingham 1942 - Emmy Bridgwater, Modern Gallery, London 1947 - Coventry Art Circle Exhibition, Coventry 1947 - Exposition Internationale du Surrealisme, Galerie Maeght, Paris 1948 - Coventry Art Circle Exhibition, Coventry 1949 - Birmingham Artists Committee Invitation Exhibition, Royal Birmingham Society of Artists, Birmingham 1951 - Coventry Art Circle Exhibition, Coventry 1971 - Britain's Contribution to Surrealism of the 30s and 40s, Hamet Gallery, London 1982 - Peinture Surrealiste en Angleterre 1930-1960: Les Enfants d'Alice, Galerie 1900-2000, Paris 1985 - A Salute to British Surrealism 1930-1950, The Minories, Colchester.
Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by the Russian revolutionary Leon Trotsky. Trotsky identified as Bolshevik -- Leninist, he supported founding a vanguard party of the proletariat, proletarian internationalism and a dictatorship of the proletariat based on working class self-emancipation and mass democracy. Trotskyists are critical of Stalinism as they oppose Joseph Stalin's theory of socialism in one country in favor of Trotsky's theory of permanent revolution. Trotskyists criticize the bureaucracy that developed in the Soviet Union under Stalin. Vladimir Lenin and Trotsky were close both ideologically and during the Russian Revolution and its aftermath, some call Trotsky its "co-leader". Trotsky was the paramount leader of the Red Army in the direct aftermath of the Revolutionary period. Trotsky opposed some aspects of Leninism, but he concluded that unity between the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks was impossible and joined the Bolsheviks. Trotsky played a leading role with Lenin in the revolution.
Assessing Trotsky, Lenin wrote: "Trotsky long ago said. Trotsky understood this and from that time on there has been no better Bolshevik". Under Stalin's orders, Trotsky was removed from power, expelled from the Communist Party, exiled first to Alma-Ata, from the Soviet Union; as the head of the Fourth International, Trotsky continued from exile to oppose the Stalinist bureaucracy in the Soviet Union. On 20 August 1940, Trotsky was attacked by Ramón Mercader, a Spanish-born NKVD agent, died the next day in a hospital, his murder is considered a political assassination. All of the Trotskyists within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union were executed in the Great Purges of 1937–1938 removing all of Trotsky's internal influence in the Soviet Union. Trotsky's Fourth International was established in France in 1938, when Trotskyists argued that the Comintern or Third International had become irretrievably "lost to Stalinism" and thus incapable of leading the international working class to political power.
In contemporary English language usage, an advocate of Trotsky's ideas is called a "Trotskyist". A Trotskyist can be called a "Trotskyite" or "Trot" by a critic of Trotskyism. American Trotskyist James P. Cannon wrote in his History of American Trotskyism that "Trotskyism is not a new movement, a new doctrine, but the restoration, the revival of genuine Marxism as it was expounded and practiced in the Russian revolution and in the early days of the Communist International". According to Trotsky, his program could be distinguished from other Marxist theories by five key elements: Support for the strategy of permanent revolution, in opposition to the two-stage theory of his opponents. Criticism of the post-1924 leadership of the Soviet Union, analysis of its features. Support for social revolution in the advanced capitalist countries through working class mass action. Support for proletarian internationalism. Use of a transitional programme of demands that bridge between daily struggles of the working class and the maximal ideas of the socialist transformation of society.
On the political spectrum of Marxism, Trotskyists are considered to be towards the left. In the 1920s they called themselves the Left Opposition, although today's left communism is distinct and non-Bolshevik; the terminological disagreement can be confusing because different versions of a left-right political spectrum are used. Anti-revisionists consider themselves the ultimate leftists on a spectrum from communism on the left to imperialist capitalism on the right, but given that Stalinism is labeled rightist within the communist spectrum and left communism leftist, anti-revisionists' idea of left is different from that of left communism. Despite being Bolshevik-Leninist comrades during the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War and Stalin became enemies in the 1920s and thereafter opposed the legitimacy of each other's forms of Leninism. Trotsky was critical of the Stalinist Soviet Union for suppressing democracy and lack of adequate economic planning. In 1905, Trotsky formulated his theory of permanent revolution that became a defining characteristic of Trotskyism.
Until 1905, some revolutionaries claimed that Marx's theory of history positioned that only a revolution in a European capitalist society would lead to a socialist one. According to this position, it was impossible for a socialist revolution to occur in a backward, feudal country such as early 20th century Russia when it had such a small and powerless capitalist class; the theory of permanent revolution addressed the question of how such feudal regimes were to be overthrown and how socialism could be established given the lack of economic prerequisites. Trotsky argued that in Russia only the working class could overthrow feudalism and win the support of the peasantry. Furthermore, he argued, they would win their own revolution against the weak capitalist class, establish a workers' state in Russia and appeal to the working class in the advanced capitalist countries around the world. As a result, the global working class would come to Russia's aid and socialism could develop worldwide. Revolutions in Britain in the 17th century and in France in 1789 abolished feudalism and established the basic requisites for the development of capitalism.
Trotsky argued. In Results and Prospects, written in 1906, Trotsky outlines his theory in detail, arguing: "History does not repea
André-Aimé-René Masson was a French artist. Masson was born in Balagny-sur-Thérain, but when he was eight his father's work took the family first to Lille and to Brussels, he began his study of art at the age of eleven at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels, under the guidance of Constant Montald, he studied in Paris. He fought for France during World War I and was injured, his early works display an interest in cubism. He became associated with surrealism, he was one of the most enthusiastic employers of automatic drawing, making a number of automatic works in pen and ink. Masson experimented with altered states of consciousness with artists such as Antonin Artaud, Michel Leiris, Joan Miró, Georges Bataille, Jean Dubuffet and Georges Malkine, who were neighbors of his studio in Paris. From around 1926 he experimented by throwing sand and glue onto canvas and making oil paintings based around the shapes that formed. By the end of the 1920s, however, he was finding automatic drawing rather restricting, he left the surrealist movement and turned instead to a more structured style producing works with a violent or erotic theme, making a number of paintings in reaction to the Spanish Civil War.
Under the German occupation of France during World War II, his work was condemned by the Nazis as degenerate. With the assistance of Varian Fry in Marseille, Masson escaped the Nazi regime on a ship to the French island of Martinique from where he went on to the United States. Upon arrival in New York City customs officials inspecting Masson's luggage found a cache of his erotic drawings. Living in New Preston, Connecticut his work became an important influence on American abstract expressionists, such as Jackson Pollock. Following the war, he returned to France and settled in Aix-en-Provence where he painted a number of landscapes. Masson drew the cover of the first issue of Georges Bataille's review, Acéphale, in 1936, participated in all its issues until 1939, his brother-in-law, the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan, was the last private owner of Gustave Courbet's provocative painting L'Origine du monde. His son, Diego Masson, is a conductor and percussionist, while another son, Luis Masson, is an actor.
His daughter, Lily Masson, is a painter. Hélène Parant, Fabrice Flahutez, Camille Morando. La bibliothèque d'André Masson. Une archéologie. Paris: Artvenir, 2011. ISBN 2-9539406-0-X. André Masson. Catalogue raisonné de l'œuvre peint, 1919–1941. Vaumarcus: Éditions ArtAcatos, 2010. Catalog by Guite Masson, Martin Masson, Catherine Loewer, preface by Bernard Noël, "André Masson" de Dawn Adès, Biographie d'André Masson by Camille Morando. André Masson. Published on the intiative of Robert Desnos and Armand Salacrou in 1940; each copy initialed by André Masson. Text by Jean-Louis Barrault, Georges Bataille, André Breton, Robert Desnos, Paul Éluard, Armel Guerne, Pierre Jean Jouve, Madeleine Landsberg, Michel Leiris, Georges Limbour, Benjamin Péret. Reprinted 1993 by Éditions André Dimanche, in Marseille. Dawn Ades. André Masson. Collection Les grands maîtres de l’art contemporain. Paris: Éditions Albin Michel, 1994.. André Breton. Le Surréalisme et la Peinture. Paris: Éditions Gallimard, 1965. Jean-Claude Clébert, Mythologie d'André Masson.
Genève: Éditions Pierre Cailler, 1971. Daniel Guérin. Eux et Lui. suivi de commentaires, ornés de cinq dessins originaux d’André Masson. Lille: 2000. Armel Guerne. André Masson ou. 2007. Hubert Juin. André Masson. Paris: Le musée de poche, 1963. Jean-Clarence Lambert. André Masson. Paris: Éditions Filipacchi, 1979. Françoise Levaillant. Massacre de signes. Tokyo: Misuzu Shobo, 1995. Georges Limbour et Michel Leiris André Masson et son univers. Lausanne: Les Trois collines, 1947. Georges Limbour André Masson, dessins. Collection "Plastique". Paris: Éditions Braun, 1951. André Masson. Entretiens avec Georges Charbonnier, préface de Georges Limbour. Paris: Julliard, 1958. Reprinted 1995 by éditions André Dimanche, Marseille. André Masson. La Mémoire du monde. Geneva: Skira, 1974. André Masson. Le Vagabond du surréalisme.. Paris: Éditions Saint-Germain-des-Près, 1975. André Masson. Le Rebelle du Surréalisme. Paris: Éditions Hermann, 1976.. Reprinted 1994. André Masson. Les Années surréalistes. Correspondance 1916–1942. Lyon: La Manufacture, 1990..
André Masson. "Dissonances". In An Anthology from X. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. "X magazine", Vol. I, No. III Florence de Mèredieu. André Masson, les dessins automatiques. Blusson, 1988. Stephan Moebius. Die Zauberlehrlinge. Soziologiegeschichte des Collège de Sociologie. Constance:, 2006. Bernard Noël. André Masson, la chair du regard. Collection l'art et l'écrivain. Paris: Gallimard, 1993. René Passeron. André Masson et les puissances de signe. Denoël 1975. José Pierre," L’Aventure Surréaliste autour d’André Breton ", Paris, éd. Filipacchi, 1986. Clark V. Poling. André Masson and the Surrealist Self. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2008. Michel Surya. Georges Bataille, la mort à l'œuvre. Paris: Gallimard, 1992. Françoise Will-Levaillant. André Masson, période asiatique 1950–1959. Paris: Galerie de Seine, 1972. Buchholz and Klaus Wolbert. André Mass
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, is best known for its visual artworks and writings. Artists painted unnerving, illogical scenes with photographic precision, created strange creatures from everyday objects, developed painting techniques that allowed the unconscious to express itself, its aim was to "resolve the contradictory conditions of dream and reality into an absolute reality, a super-reality". Works of surrealism feature the element of unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur. Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was, above all, a revolutionary movement. Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities during World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. From the 1920s onward, the movement spread around the globe affecting the visual arts, literature and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice and social theory; the word'surrealism' was coined in March 1917 by Guillaume Apollinaire three years before Surrealism emerged as an art movement in Paris.
He wrote in a letter to Paul Dermée: "All things considered, I think in fact it is better to adopt surrealism than supernaturalism, which I first used". Apollinaire used the term in his program notes for Serge Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes, which premiered 18 May 1917. Parade was performed with music by Erik Satie. Cocteau described the ballet as "realistic". Apollinaire went further, describing Parade as "surrealistic": This new alliance—I say new, because until now scenery and costumes were linked only by factitious bonds—has given rise, in Parade, to a kind of surrealism, which I consider to be the point of departure for a whole series of manifestations of the New Spirit, making itself felt today and that will appeal to our best minds. We may expect it to bring about profound changes in our arts and manners through universal joyfulness, for it is only natural, after all, that they keep pace with scientific and industrial progress; the term was taken up again by Apollinaire, in the preface to his play Les Mamelles de Tirésias, written in 1903 and first performed in 1917.
World War I scattered the writers and artists, based in Paris, in the interim many became involved with Dada, believing that excessive rational thought and bourgeois values had brought the conflict of the war upon the world. The Dadaists protested with anti-art gatherings, performances and art works. After the war, when they returned to Paris, the Dada activities continued. During the war, André Breton, who had trained in medicine and psychiatry, served in a neurological hospital where he used Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic methods with soldiers suffering from shell-shock. Meeting the young writer Jacques Vaché, Breton felt that Vaché was the spiritual son of writer and pataphysics founder Alfred Jarry, he admired the young writer's anti-social disdain for established artistic tradition. Breton wrote, "In literature, I was successively taken with Rimbaud, with Jarry, with Apollinaire, with Nouveau, with Lautréamont, but it is Jacques Vaché to whom I owe the most."Back in Paris, Breton joined in Dada activities and started the literary journal Littérature along with Louis Aragon and Philippe Soupault.
They began experimenting with automatic writing—spontaneously writing without censoring their thoughts—and published the writings, as well as accounts of dreams, in the magazine. Breton and Soupault wrote The Magnetic Fields. Continuing to write, they came to believe that automatism was a better tactic for societal change than the Dada form of attack on prevailing values; the group attracted additional members and grew to include writers and artists from various media such as Paul Éluard, Benjamin Péret, René Crevel, Robert Desnos, Jacques Baron, Max Morise, Pierre Naville, Roger Vitrac, Gala Éluard, Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Luis Buñuel, Man Ray, Hans Arp, Georges Malkine, Michel Leiris, Georges Limbour, Antonin Artaud, Raymond Queneau, André Masson, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Prévert, Yves Tanguy. As they developed their philosophy, they believed that Surrealism would advocate the idea that ordinary and depictive expressions are vital and important, but that the sense of their arrangement must be open to the full range of imagination according to the Hegelian Dialectic.
They looked to the Marxist dialectic and the work of such theorists as Walter Benjamin and Herbert Marcuse. Freud's work with free association, dream analysis, the unconscious was of utmost importance to the Surrealists in developing methods to liberate imagination, they embraced idiosyncrasy, while rejecting the idea of an underlying madness. As Salvador Dalí proclaimed, "There is only one difference between a madman and me. I am not mad."Beside the use of dream analysis, they emphasized that "one could combine inside the same frame, elements not found together to produce illogical and startling effects." Breton included the idea of the startling juxtapositions in his 1924 manifesto, taking it in turn from a 1918 essay by poet Pierre Reverdy, which said: "a juxtaposition of two more or less distant realities. The more the relationship between the two juxtaposed realities is distant and true, the stronger the image will be−the greater its emotional power and poetic reality."The group aimed to revolutionize human experience, in its
Luis Buñuel Portolés was a Spanish filmmaker who worked in Spain and France. When Buñuel died at age 83, his obituary in The New York Times called him "an iconoclast and revolutionary, a leader of avant-garde surrealism in his youth and a dominant international movie director half a century later", his first picture, Un Chien Andalou—made in the silent era—was called "the most famous short film made" by critic Roger Ebert, his last film, That Obscure Object of Desire—made 48 years later—won him Best Director awards from the National Board of Review and the National Society of Film Critics. Writer Octavio Paz called Buñuel's work "the marriage of the film image to the poetic image, creating a new reality...scandalous and subversive". Associated with the surrealist movement of the 1920s, Buñuel created films from the 1920s through the 1970s, his work spans two continents, three languages, an array of genres, including experimental film, melodrama, musical, comedy, costume dramas, crime film and western.
Despite this variety, filmmaker John Huston believed that, regardless of genre, a Buñuel film is so distinctive as to be recognizable, or, as Ingmar Bergman put it, "Buñuel nearly always made Buñuel films". Six of Buñuel's films are included in Sight & Sound's 2012 critics' poll of the top 250 films of all time. Fifteen of his films are included in the They Shoot Pictures, Don't They? List of the 1,000 greatest films of all time, for which he ranks second only to Jean-Luc Godard, with sixteen, he ranks number 13 on their list of the top 250 directors. Buñuel was born in Calanda, a small town in the province of Teruel, in the Aragon region of Spain, to Leonardo Buñuel, the cultivated scion of an established Aragonese family, María Portolés, many years younger than her husband, with wealth and family connections of her own, he would describe his birthplace by saying that in Calanda, "the Middle Ages lasted until World War I". The oldest of seven children, Luis had two brothers and Leonardo, four sisters: Alicia, Concepción, Margarita and María.
When Buñuel was four and a half months old, the family moved to Zaragoza, where they were one of the wealthiest families in town. In Zaragoza, Buñuel received a strict Jesuit education at the private Colegio del Salvador. After being kicked and insulted by the study hall proctor before a final exam, Buñuel refused to return to the school, he told his mother he had been expelled, not true. Buñuel finished the last two years of his high school education at the local public school; as a child, Buñuel was something of a cinematic showman. He excelled at boxing and playing the violin. In his youth, Buñuel was religious, serving at Mass and taking Communion every day, until, at the age of 16, he grew disgusted with what he perceived as the illogicality of the Church, along with its power and wealth. In 1917, he attended the University of Madrid, first studying agronomy industrial engineering and switching to philosophy, he developed a close relationship with painter Salvador Dalí and poet Federico García Lorca, among other important Spanish creative artists living in the Residencia de Estudiantes, with the three friends forming the nucleus of the Spanish Surrealist avant-garde, becoming known as members of "La Generación del 27".
Buñuel was taken with Lorca writing in his autobiography: "We liked each other instantly. Although we seemed to have little in common—I was a redneck from Aragon, he an elegant Andalusian—we spent most of our time together... We used to sit on the grass in the evenings behind the Residencia, he would read me his poems, he read and beautifully, through him I began to discover a wholly new world." Buñuel's relationship with Dalí was somewhat more troubled, being tinged with jealousy over the growing intimacy between Dalí and Lorca and resentment over Dalí's early success as an artist. Since he was 17, he dated the future poet and dramatist Concha Méndez, with whom he vacationed every summer at San Sebastián, he introduced her to his friends at the Residencia as his fiancée. After five years, she broke off the relationship, citing Buñuel's "insufferable character". During his student years, Buñuel became an accomplished hypnotist, he claimed that once, while calming a hysterical prostitute through hypnotic suggestion, he inadvertently put one of the several bystanders into a trance as well.
He was to insist that watching movies was a form of hypnosis: "This kind of cinematographic hypnosis is no doubt due to the darkness of the theatre and to the changing scenes and camera movements, which weaken the spectator's critical intelligence and exercise over him a kind of fascination."Buñuel's interest in films was intensified by a viewing of Fritz Lang's Der müde Tod: "I came out of the Vieux Colombier transformed. Images did become for me the true means of expression. I decided to devote myself to the cinema". At age 72, Buñuel had not lost his enthusiasm for this film, asking the octogenarian Lang for his autograph. In 1925 Buñuel moved to Paris, where he began work as a secretary in an organization called the International Society of Intellectual Cooperation, he became involved in cinema and theater, going to the movies as as three times a day. Through these interests, he met a
Margate is a seaside town in Thanet, England, 15 miles north-east of Canterbury, which includes Cliftonville, Palm Bay and Westbrook. Margate was recorded as "Meregate" in 1264 and as "Margate" in 1299, but the spelling continued to vary into modern times; the name is thought to refer to a pool gate or gap in a cliff where pools of water are found allowing swimmers to jump in. The cliffs of the Isle of Thanet are composed of a fossil-bearing rock. Margate gives its name to the unknown yet influential Battle of Margate, starting on the 24 March 1387, it was the last major naval battle of the Caroline War phase of the Hundred Years' War. Despite the battle being named after Margate little happened near the coastal town - the battle is named after Margate as this was where an English fleet of 51 vessels, anchored at Margate Roadstead first spotted a Franco-Castilian-Flemish wine fleet of around 250-360 vessels; the English gave chase after the undermanned wine fleet and defeated the fleet a day on the 25 March 1387 off the coast of Cadzand, Netherlands.
The town's history is tied to the sea and it has a proud maritime tradition. Margate was a "limb" of Dover in the ancient confederation of the Cinque ports, it was added to the confederation in the 15th century. Margate has been a leading seaside resort for at least 250 years. Like its neighbour Ramsgate, it has been a traditional holiday destination for Londoners drawn to its sandy beaches. Margate had a Victorian pier, destroyed by a storm in 1978. Like Brighton and Southend, Margate was infamous for gang violence between mods and rockers in the 1960s, mods and skinheads in the 1980s; the Turner Contemporary art gallery occupies a prominent position next to the harbour. The Thanet Offshore Wind Project, completed in 2010, is visible from the seafront. Since 1983, the Member of Parliament for North Thanet, covering northern Thanet and Herne Bay, has been the Conservative, Roger Gale. At the 2017 General Election, in North Thanet the Conservatives won a majority of 10,738 and 56.2% of the vote. Labour won 34.0% of the vote, United Kingdom Independence Party 4.5%.
Margate was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1857. This was abolished since which date Margate has been part of the Thanet district of Kent; the town contains the seven electoral wards of Margate Central, Cliftonville West, Cliftonville East, Garlinge, Dane Valley and Salmestone. These wards have seventeen of the fifty six seats on the Thanet District Council. At the 2007 Local Elections, nine of those seats were held by the Conservatives, seven by Labour and one by an Independent. Margate experiences an oceanic climate similar to much of the United Kingdom. Like all of southern Britain, Margate experiences mild temperatures, complemented by a large amount of sunshine. Rainfall is quite low, Margate is one of the drier Kentish towns. At the 2001 UK census: Margate had a population of 40,386; the urban area had a population of 46,980 at the 2001 census, increasing to 49,709 at the 2011 census. The ethnicity of the town was 97.1% white, 1.0% mixed race, 0.5% black, 0.8% Asian, 0.6% Chinese or other ethnicity.
The place of birth of residents was 94.2% United Kingdom, 0.9% Republic of Ireland, 0.5% Germany, 0.8% other Western Europe countries, 0.7% Africa, 0.6% Eastern Europe, 0.5% Far East, 0.5% South Asia, 0.5% Middle East, 0.4% North America and 0.3% Oceania. Religion was recorded as 71.6% Christian, 17.1% no religion, 0.7% Muslim, 0.3% Buddhist, 0.3% Jewish, 0.2% Hindu, 0.1% Sikh. For every 100 females, there were 92 males; the age distribution was 6% aged 0–4 years, 16% aged 5–15 years, 5% aged 16–19 years, 31% aged 20–44 years, 23% aged 45–64 years and 19% aged 65 years and over.11% of Margate residents had some kind of higher or professional qualification, compared to the national average of 20%. At the 2001 UK census, the economic activity of residents aged 16–74 was 33.8% in full-time employment, 11.8% in part-time employment, 8.0% self-employed, 5.5% unemployed, 2.2% students with jobs, 3.9% students without jobs, 15.5% retired, 8.3% looking after home or family, 7.9% permanently sick or disabled and 3.6% economically inactive for other reasons.
The rate of unemployment in the town was higher than the national rate of 3.4%. The industry of employment of residents was 17% retail, 16% health & social work, 13% manufacturing, 9% construction, 8% real estate, 8% education, 7% transport & communications, 5% public administration, 6% hotels & restaurants, 2% finance, 1% agriculture and 6% other community, social or personal services. Compared to national figures, the town had a high number of workers in the construction, hotels & restaurants and health & social care industries and a low number in real estate and finance. In more recent years, as tourists have travelled further afield, Margate's unemployment rate has become higher than much of the rest of south eastern England. Margate railway station, constructed in 1926 to designs by Edwin Maxwell Fry, serves the town. Train services are provided by Southeastern Trains. For at least 250 years, Margate has been a leading seaside resort in the UK, drawing Londoners to its beaches, Margate Sands.
The bathing machines in use at Margate were described in 1805 as four-wheeled carriages, covered with canvas, having at one end of them an umbrella of the same materials, let down to the surface of the water, so that the bather descending from the machine by a few steps is concealed from the public view, whereby the most refined female is enabled to e