Tonic (music)

In music, the tonic is the first scale degree of the diatonic scale and the tonal center or final resolution tone, used in the final cadence in tonal classical music, popular music, traditional music. In the movable do solfège system, the tonic note is sung. More the tonic is the note upon which all other notes of a piece are hierarchically referenced. Scales are named after their tonics: for instance, the tonic of the C major scale is the note C; the triad formed on the tonic note, the tonic chord, is thus the most significant chord in these styles of music. In Roman numeral analysis, the tonic chord is symbolized by the Roman numeral "I" if it is major and by "i" if it is minor. In much conventionally tonal music, harmonic analysis will reveal a broad prevalence of the primary harmonies: tonic and subdominant, the first two of these; these chords may appear as seventh chords: in major, as IM7, or in minor as i7 or iM7:The tonic is sometimes confused with the root, the reference note of a chord, rather than that of the scale.

In music of the common practice period, the tonic center was the most important of all the different tone centers which a composer used in a piece of music, with most pieces beginning and ending on the tonic modulating to the dominant in between. Two parallel keys have the same tonic. For example, in both C major and C minor, the tonic is C. However, relative keys have different tonics. For example, C major and A minor share a key signature that feature no sharps or flats, despite having different tonic pitches; the term tonic may be reserved for use in tonal contexts while tonal center and/or pitch center may be used in post-tonal and atonal music: "For purposes of non-tonal centric music, it might be a good idea to have the term'tone center' refer to the more general class of which'tonics' could be regarded as a subclass." Thus, a pitch center may function referentially or contextually in an atonal context acting as axis or line of symmetry in an interval cycle. The term pitch centricity was coined by Arthur Berger in his "Problems of Pitch Organization in Stravinsky".

According to Walter Piston, "the idea of a unified classical tonality replaced by nonclassical centricity in a composition is demonstrated by Debussy's Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune". The tonic diatonic function includes four separate activities or roles as the principal goal tone, initiating event, generator of other tones, the stable center neutralizing the tension between dominant and subdominant. Final

Springbrook (organization)

Springbrook is a not-for-profit organization located in Oneonta, New York. Springbrook was opened as an orphanage in 1925 by Harriet Parish Smith and was known as the Upstate Baptist Home for Children; the home was established on a working 95-acre farm and provided its young residents with an education. In 1941, the Upstate Home was incorporated as a not-for-profit organization and would continue as a school and home for orphans until 1966, when its mission changed and it became a home which would provide residential and educational services to children with developmental disabilities; the following year, the Upstate Home became certified as a school and, in 1974, the first community residence for adults with developmental disabilities opened in Oneonta, New York. As of 2013, it is home to nine residents with special needs. In 1992, the organization opened its integrated Kids Unlimited Preschool. In 1994, the Upstate Home began providing Day-Hablitation services for disabled adults and offers a variety of educational and recreational supports for over 65 individuals.

In 2006, the Upstate Baptist Home for Children changed its name to Springbrook in order to better reflect the services it provides. In 2012, the organization saw another major change as it purchased the building home to the Saint Mary's School in Oneonta, New York; this facility allowed the agency to centralize much of its operations and administration and would become the home of the Day-Habilitation program—all of, located on the Main Campus and throughout the surrounding area. Another major change that occurred that year was the development of the Tom Golisano Center for Autism; the Golisano Program is a residential school program for children whose primary diagnosis is autism spectrum disorder. The organization is the leader in innovative supports for disabled adults and children and includes a variety of services, such as Consolidated Supports and Services, Medicaid Service Coordination, Home and Community Based Waivers. Springbrook's programs include an integrated preschool, a residential school, adult community homes, site-based and community-based rehabilitation and recreational programs.

All of these programs and services are conducted within the guidelines and regulations provided by the New York State Office for People with Developmental Disabilities. Since the first community home for adults with developmental disabilities opened in 1974, there have been twenty-three others opened, distributed throughout Delaware, Otsego and Madison counties. Springbrook's community homes provide care and services for over 150 residents; as of 2013, Springbrook is the third largest employer in Otsego County and provides services and supports to over 850 adults and children with developmental disabilities

Otis Spofford

Otis Spofford is a 1953 children's novel by Beverly Cleary. The story revolves around the antics of the title character, a precocious fourth-grader with a knack for getting into trouble. Otis lives with his mother, absent from the household due to teaching classes at her dance school, therefore Otis is required to entertain himself, by "stirring up a little excitement", his trademarks are his glow-in-the-dark shoelaces, the rabbit's foot he keeps attached to his jacket zipper, his particular fondness for irritating his classmate Ellen Tebbits although he never understands the reason for it. Otis Spofford is a young boy with a propensity for causing trouble, he does not have any brothers or sisters and he lives with his mother. One of the reasons why Otis likes to cause trouble is, his behavior means that he does not have any close friends and his classmates are reluctant to form close bonds with him. The book is about how Otis torments his classmate, Ellen Tebbits, he annoys her because she exhibits excellent behavior.

Thus, Ellen is the victim of Otis's bad behavior. Each chapter revolves around a prank of Otis's, which backfires. In one instance, he sabotages the class science project, which consists of feeding cafeteria food to one rat and bread and soda to another, monitoring their growth. Otis feeds hoping that it will get soda pop served in the cafeteria, his teacher, Mrs. Gitler, tries to get the culprit to confess. Otis is stunned when Ellen steps forward. Ellen was secretly feeding the rat as well. Subsequently, it is Ellen, allowed to take the rat home at experiment's end, much to Otis's displeasure. Otis' pranks are innocuous, such as firing spitballs in class. Near the end of the book he "gets his comeuppance," as Mrs. Gitler has long predicted. In order to impress his classmates on a dare, he cuts off a chunk of Ellen's hair, which she had been painstakingly trying to grow "long enough for pigtails"; this act turns nearly the entire class against him, for the first time Otis does not relish the attention he receives from his actions.

Otis feels bad about what he did to Ellen when she bursts into tears and flees the classroom. Ellen and her best friend Austine manage an act of retribution by stealing Otis's shoes while he is skating at the pond, forcing him to walk home in his ice skates; the two girls accost a dejected Otis on the steps of his apartment and offer him his shoes in exchange for an apology to Ellen, a promise that he will stop pestering her. Otis concedes, but only after the girls are leaving reveals he had two fingers crossed behind his back the entire time.