Oecophoridae is a family of small moths in the superfamily Gelechioidea. The phylogeny and systematics of gelechoid moths are still not resolved, the circumscription of the Oecophoridae is affected by this. Oecophorinae Pleurotinae Toll, 1956 Deuterogoniinae Spuler, 1910 Unplaced Colchia Lvovsky, 1995Also included is the Peruvian species Auxotricha ochrogypsa, described by Edward Meyrick in 1931 as the sole member of its genus. In the past, the family was circumscribed more and included the following subfamilies: Amphisbatinae Autostichinae Depressariinae Hypertrophinae Metachandinae Oecophorinae Stathmopodinae Stenomatinae Some treatments include only the Oecophorinae and Stathmopodinae here, placing the others elsewhere in the Gelechoidea, but this approach might make Elachistidae paraphyletic. Other authors go as far as to expand the Oecophoridae beyond the delimitation used here, including such groups as the Ethmiidae and Xyloryctidae; the latter may indeed be part of a monophyletic Oecophoridae.
The mysterious genus Aeolanthes is sometimes included in the Oecophoridae, but its actual relationships are quite obscure. Some additional genera are treated as Oecophoridae incertae sedis in recent studies: Amseloecia Callimodes Leraut 1989 Colchia Luquetia Leraut, 1991 Minetia Leraut, 1991 Odonna Orienta Schiffermuellerina Leraut, 1989 Schiffermuellerina grandis Zizyphia †Epiborkhausenites Skalski, 1973 Many concealer moths feed on dead plant material and play a useful part in nutrient recycling. On the other hand, the family includes the white-shouldered house moth, a distributed species whose caterpillars infest stored grain, the brown house moth, which feeds on textiles and carpets as well as stored foodstuffs. Other pest species include the black-headed caterpillar on coconut palms in India, Peleopoda arcanella on Elaeis oleifera oil palms in Central America. Concealer moths have been put to useful service. Agonopterix ulicetella, a native of Europe, has been introduced to New Zealand and Hawaii in an attempt to control the European gorse, the defoliating hemlock moth has been used against Conium maculatum poison hemlock in the United States.
Data related to Oecophoridae at Wikispecies Hodges, R. W.: The Gelechioidea. In: Kristensen, N. P.: Handbuch der Zoologie/Handbook of Zoology: 131–158. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin & New York. ISBN 3-11-015704-7 Savela, Markku: Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and some other life forms – Oecophoridae. Version of 2003-DEC-29. Retrieved 2010-APR-22. Tree of Life Web Project: Oecophoridae. Version of 2008-MAY-01. Retrieved 2010-APR-22
Arthur R. Hall
Arthur Raymond Hall was an American football player and coach. He served as head football coach at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign in 1904—along with Justa Lindgren, Fred Lowenthal, Clyde Matthews—and alone from 1907 to 1912, compiling a record of 36–12–4. Hall was the first man to coach the Fighting Illini for longer than five seasons, leading them to the Big Ten Conference championship in 1910, he was born in Tonica, Illinois in 1869 and died at East Lynn, Illinois in 1955
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Mendota is a city in LaSalle County, United States, in the state's north-central region. The population was 7,372 at the 2010 census, was estimated to be 7,204 by July 2015, it is part of the Ottawa-Peru, IL Micropolitan Statistical Area. Mendota is located 70 miles east of Moline and 55 miles south of Rockford; the current mayor is an independent elected to a four-year term. Mendota was founded in 1853; the name "Mendota" is derived from a Native American word meaning "junction of two trails", found appropriate for the city since there was a nearby railroad junction. According to the 2010 census, Mendota has a total area of 5.096 square miles, of which 5 square miles is land and 0.096 square miles is water. As of the 2010 census there were 2,826 households residing in the city; the population density was 1,475.9 people per square mile. There were 3,037 housing units at an average density of 607.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.3% White, 0.7% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 8.5% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 24.5% of the population. There were 2,826 households out of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.8% were married couples living together, 11% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.4% were non-families. 28.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.14. The population consisted of 27.7 % aged 18 % who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.2 years. Females comprised 52.4% of the total population. The median income for a household in the city was $43,534; the per capita income for the city was $21,995. Median income for males was $40,938 and $26,753 for females. 12.3% of the population were below poverty level, including 16.2% of those under age 18 and 5.3% of those age 65 or over. A number of businesses operate within Mendota including: a grain processor. Del Monte Foods, a food processing company.
The Mendota Sweet Corn Festival attracts thousands of visitors each August. The city closes down several streets in the downtown area to host the annual event, sponsored by Del Monte Foods; the Mendota Tri-County Fair is held every Labor Day weekend at the Mendota Fairgrounds. The fair hosts a carnival, beer garden, several other events; the Hume-Carnegie Museum showcases artifacts of local history, including items manufactured in Mendota and a small collection pertaining to Wild Bill Hickok, born in nearby Troy Grove. It is located in a former Carnegie library building in Veteran's Park; the Union Depot Railroad Museum houses the current Amtrak station, several rooms of vintage railroad artifacts, passenger train cars from the 1930s and 1940s. It is home to CB&Q No. 4978, a 2-8-2 class Locomotive built in September 1923 by Baldwin Locomotive Works. The Breaking the Prairie Museum is a small barn replica showcasing a rotating display with one large item and several smaller items. Adjacent to the barn is "The Country Chapel", a small church, owned by the museum.
Completed in 2004, it houses a restored pump organ from the 1880s. It is closed to the public, however special tours can be arranged by contacting the Mendota Historical Society Office; the city has two man made Lake Mendota and Lake Kakusha, used for boating and fishing. Mendota maintains a community swimming pool as well as several parks including Snyders Grove, a 104-acre reserve/park. Mendota has one private school; the three public grade schools: Blackstone and Northbrook are part of Mendota Consolidated Community School District 289. Blackstone School houses kindergarten and first grade, had an enrollment of 271 students in 2010. Lincoln School houses second through fourth grades, had a student enrollment of 391 in 2010. Northbrook School is home to the fifth through eighth grades, as well as pre-kindergarten; the student enrollment of the high school in 2010 was 611 students. A new high school facility was built in 2002 at 2300 Main Street. Holy Cross Roman Catholic Parish has a private school which educates students from pre-kindergarten through eighth grade.
Aurora University was chartered as Mendota College on the north side of Mendota where the high school was located from 1917–2003. Wartburg College was located in Mendota from 1875 to 1885. Mendota has one weekly newspaper, The Mendota ReporterMendota has two commercialized radio stations. Mendota is served by U. S Interstate 39, U. S. Route 34, U. S. Route 52, many state highways including Illinois Route 251. Three Amtrak trains in each direction stop daily at the Mendota Amtrak station: the Illinois Zephyr and Carl Sandburg between Chicago and Quincy, the Southwest Chief from Chicago to Kansas City and Los Angeles. There are two small airports near-by. William P. Bettendorf, inventor.
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University