Thunder is the sound caused by lightning. Depending on the distance from and nature of the lightning, it can range from a sharp, loud crack to a long, low rumble; the sudden increase in pressure and temperature from lightning produces rapid expansion of the air surrounding and within a bolt of lightning. In turn, this expansion of air creates a sonic shock wave, similar to a sonic boom referred to as a "thunderclap" or "peal of thunder"; the cause of thunder has been the subject of centuries of speculation and scientific inquiry. The first recorded theory is attributed to the Greek philosopher Aristotle in the fourth century BC, an early speculation was that it was caused by the collision of clouds. Subsequently, numerous other theories were proposed. By the mid-19th century, the accepted theory was. In the 20th century a consensus evolved that thunder must begin with a shock wave in the air due to the sudden thermal expansion of the plasma in the lightning channel; the temperature inside the lightning channel, measured by spectral analysis, varies during its 50 μs existence, rising from an initial temperature of about 20,000 K to about 30,000 K dropping away to about 10,000 K.
The average is about 20,400 K. This heating causes a rapid outward expansion, impacting the surrounding cooler air at a speed faster than sound would otherwise travel; the resultant outward-moving pulse is a shock wave, similar in principle to the shock wave formed by an explosion, or at the front of a supersonic aircraft. Experimental studies of simulated lightning have produced results consistent with this model, though there is continued debate about the precise physical mechanisms of the process. Other causes have been proposed, relying on electrodynamic effects of the massive current acting on the plasma in the bolt of lightning; the shockwave in thunder is sufficient to cause injury, such as internal contusion, to individuals nearby. Inversion thunder results when lightning strikes between cloud and ground occur during a temperature inversion. In such an inversion, the air near the ground is cooler than the higher air; the sound energy is prevented from dispersing vertically as it would in a non-inversion and is thus concentrated in the near-ground layer.
Inversions occur when warm moist air passes above a cold front. The d in Modern English thunder is epenthetic, is now found as well in Modern Dutch donder. In Latin the term was tonare "to thunder"; the name of the Nordic god Thor comes from the Old Norse word for thunder. The shared Proto-Indo-European root is *tón-r̥ or *tar- found Gaulish Taranis and Hittite Tarhunt. A flash of lightning, followed after some time by a rumble of thunder, illustrates the fact that sound travels slower than light. Using this difference, one can estimate how far away the bolt of lightning is by timing the interval between seeing the flash and hearing thunder; the speed of sound in dry air is 343 m/s or 1,127 ft/s or 768 mph at 20 °C. This translates to 3 seconds per kilometer. Two-Mississippi..." is a useful method of counting the seconds from the perception of a given lightning flash to the perception of its thunder. The speed of light is high enough that it can be taken as infinite in this calculation because of the small distance involved.
Therefore, the lightning is one kilometer distant for every three seconds that elapse between the visible flash and the first sound of thunder. In the same five seconds, the light could have traveled the Lunar distance four times. Thunder is heard at distances over 20 kilometers. A bright flash of lightning and an simultaneous sharp "crack" of thunder, a thundercrack, therefore indicates that the lightning strike was near. Thunderbolt Thunderstorm Brontophobia Castle Thunder sound effect Lightning List of thunder gods Mistpouffers Media related to Thunder at Wikimedia CommonsThe science of thunder Thunder: A Child of Lightning Wikibooks: Engineering Acoustics/Thunder acoustics
Walygator Parc is an amusement park located in Maizières-les-Metz, France. Since its opening, back in 1989, the park has taken on a variety of names. First designed within the extant halls of Sacilor's Laminoir by the Leisure division HHCP Architects in Maitland, the theme park was named The New World of the Smurfs, or Le Nouveau Monde des Schtroumpfs. After a decision was made to abandon the mill, the park was re-designed by Grady Larkins and opened up on May 9, 1989, as Big Bang Smurf. Built on the site of the former steel mills of Sacilor, the park was managed by Sorépark, a company headed by Pierre Jullien. Construction costs topped €110 million. In 1991, the park, on the verge of bankruptcy, is taken over by Walibi Group. An orange kangaroo is brought alongside Peyo's little blue men: Walibi Schtroumpf was born. In 1998, parent Walibi Group is bought out by Premier Parks. At this point, the land on which Walibi Schtroumpf sits, totals 162 hectares of which only 42 are in use. In 2003, Walibi Schtroumpf becomes Walibi Lorraine and the Smurfs characters are removed from the park.
In 2004 Six Flags, which had ownership of the park since 1998, divests itself of its European operations. The park changes hands to Star Parks, of London-based Palamon Partners. In 2006 Star Parks, in turn, sells the park to Didier Le Douarin. Around the same time, the Walibi brand is sold to French leisure giant Compagnie des Alpes; the new management team is left with no option but to adopt a new name. In 2007, the park opens its doors under a new name: Walygator Parc. In 2010, the park opens a new roller coaster, "The Monster", an inverted roller coaster by Swiss manufacturer Bolliger & Mabillard; the ride had anchored Expoland in Japan, is a clone of Raptor at Cedar Point. In 2013, the park, once again on the verge of bankruptcy, is sold to a group of investors made of Jacqueline Lejeune, Franck Déglin and Francois-Jérôme Parent. In 2016, Jacqueline Lejeune and Franck Déglin sell Walygator Parc to Aspro Parks; the park is located 15 km north of Metz, at 47.15984 N,2.988281 E. It is served by the eponymous SNCF station.
Official website of Walygator Park official website of Walygator Park in English
Colossos (Heide Park)
Colossos: Kampf der Giganten known as just Colossos, is a wooden roller coaster at Heide Park in Soltau, Lower Saxony, Germany. Unlike traditional wooden coasters, Colossos was prefabricated, its track was laser-cut in a factory to a high degree of precision, with sections designed to snap together like Lego pieces. Some of its planks were bonded in multiple layers instead of traditionally nailed together by hand; the coaster's "plug and play" design sped up reduced labor costs. Three other prefabricated wooden roller coasters have since been built: Balder at Liseberg in Sweden, El Toro at Six Flags Great Adventure in United States of America, T Express at Everland in South Korea. Colossos was the first wooden coaster with magnetic brakes just before the return to station, making its final braking smooth and comfortable compared to that of coasters with friction claw brakes. On July 28, 2016, Colossos was shut down and all paths to it were blocked. Heide Park announced that inspections had revealed significant problems with the coaster's track, that repairs would cost over €10 million.
In early January 2018, Heide announced that the entire track surface of Colossos would be replaced and that the ride would reopen for the 2019 summer season. The renovation is expected to cost around €12 million. In late 2018, the ride's new name and backstory were confirmed. Colossos would become Colossos: Kampf der Giganten in 2019. Colossos at the Roller Coaster DataBase Media related to Colossos at Wikimedia Commons
Stampida is a racing, wooden roller coaster built by Custom Coasters International at PortAventura Park in the resort PortAventura World, Catalonia, Spain. It is a rickety roller coaster with many drops and 2 tunnels, it features two parallel tracks with blue and red cars each one, but they run separately for a while. They come parallel again to the end of the ride, it shares a part of its route with a kiddie wooden roller coaster named Tomahawk. Stampida is one of only two duel-track roller coasters CCI built; the other is the now-defunct Twisted Twins at Kentucky Kingdom. Fireball World Coaster of the Year 2011
OzIris is a steel inverted roller coaster designed by Bolliger & Mabillard operating at Parc Astérix in France since 7 April 2012. It's one of the two only Bolliger and Mabillard inverted coasters in France, the other being The Monster at Walygator Parc, it is named after the Character Iris from the French comic Asterix. OzIris includes five inversions after the lift hill. After the initial drop, a dive loop follows going 30 metres upside-down; the track manoeuvres an overbanked to the right, banked at about 110°, followed by a vertical loop of 25 metres. The track passes into a trench and into an Immelmann of 22 metres, a second overbanked turn 15 metres; the coaster's track descends to an 6 metres deep underwater tunnel. A corkscrew comes after the tunnel an upward turn to the next inversion a zero-G roll, after this inversion the track follows a twisted course until reaching the main brake zone, back into the station; this roller coaster reduces the waiting time of other coasters in the park, Tonnerre de Zeus and Goudurix by 25%.
OzIris is part of a 2012 new egyptian themed zone inspired by one of the Asterix comic book series Asterix and Cleopatra which expanded the park by ten percent. With exotic plants, palm trees, lake, Egyptian monuments and a huge temple, the new area combines the characteristic of the Asterix cartoon with this custom design roller coaster. With the new theme for the park, the Zierer roller coaster Périférix was rethemed to SOS Numérobis to fit the theme. After walking outside below security nests, riders step into Iris' temple. In there, riders get to learn about different experiences Iris made with hypnotising, they get hypnotised; the coaster consists in Iris' ultimate experience: making people fly. Before the train is dispatched, riders can hear Iris' voice saying his hypnotising catchphrase "By Osiris and by Apis, you are now birds! Yes, birds!" 2012 in amusement parks Official website
Custom Coasters International
Custom Coasters International was one of the premier wooden roller coaster manufacturers in the world and produced 34 wooden coasters in the short span of eleven years — more than any other company in recent times. Custom Coasters Incorporated opened its doors on September 1, 1991; the company was founded by Denise Dinn-Larrick, the daughter of coaster designer Charles Dinn — founder of the Dinn Corporation, her brother Jeff Dinn and her husband Randy Larrick. The original designers for the company included freelance design engineers Mike Boodley and Bill Kelley of California. Larry Bill with Curtis D. Summers & Associates joined the design team in 1992; the company promoted small, family coasters but progressed to larger models known for their speed and intensity. Once the company started working with international clients the name was changed in November 1994 to Custom Coasters International. CCI filed for bankruptcy in 2002 while still building the New Mexico Rattler at Cliff's Amusement Park.
Cliff's was left with a completed coaster and hired the construction crew and completed the ride themselves. No attempt was made to reorganize the company and Denise Dinn, who by had been divorced from Randy Larrick, filed for Chapter 7 bankruptcy which resulted in liquidation of the company's assets. Denise Dinn was hired by S&S Power to start a new wooden coaster division for that company. Four coasters were produced. Four of the designers for CCI founded The Gravity Group in 2002. Other coaster designers Bill Kelley, Dennis McNulty and Mike Boodley left CCI years before the company went bankrupt. Mike Boodley started Great Coasters International in 1994, Dennis McNulty returned to civil engineering in 1999 and Bill Kelley works for Dynamic Designs, Inc. Over the span of 11 years, Custom Coasters International had built 34 roller coasters around the world; as of 2019, 29 continue to operate, one is closed, two have been demolished, two have been converted to steel roller coasters by Rocky Mountain Construction.
The roller coasters in the following table are listed in order of installation. The Gravity Group S&S Sansei
Megafobia is a wooden roller coaster located at Oakwood Theme Park, Wales, United Kingdom. It was built in 1996 by Custom Coasters International, who wanted a ride to showcase their company in Europe. Megafobia features a twister style layout. Megafobia was the first white-knuckle attraction to be installed at the Oakwood Theme Park in West Wales and transformed the park's fortunes from a small family leisure park to a major UK theme park; until the construction of Wicker Man commenced at Alton Towers in 2017, it was the most recent wooden roller coaster to be built in the UK. On 30 April 2016 it celebrated 20 Years at Oakwood. Megafobia has been rated among the top wooden coasters in the Golden Ticket Awards. Megafobia at Oakwood's website