Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils of rapid onset. It is a type of pharyngitis. Symptoms may include sore throat, enlargement of the tonsils, trouble swallowing, large lymph nodes around the neck. Complications include peritonsillar abscess. Tonsillitis is most caused by a viral infection, with about 5% to 40% of cases caused by a bacterial infection; when caused by the bacterium group A streptococcus, it is referred to as strep throat. Bacteria such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, or Haemophilus influenzae may be the cause; the infection is spread between people through the air. A scoring system, such as the Centor score, may help separate possible causes. Confirmation may be by rapid strep test. Treatment efforts involve decreasing complications. Paracetamol and ibuprofen may be used to help with pain. If strep throat is present the antibiotic penicillin by mouth is recommended. In those who are allergic to penicillin, cephalosporins or macrolides may be used. In children with frequent episodes of tonsillitis, tonsillectomy modestly decreases the risk of future episodes.
About 7.5% of people have a sore throat in any three-month period and 2% of people visit a doctor for tonsillitis each year. It is most common in school aged children and occurs in the fall and winter months; the majority of people recover without medication. In 40% of people, symptoms resolve within three days, in 80% symptoms resolve within one week, regardless of whether streptococcus is present or not. Antibiotics decrease symptom duration by 16 hours. Common signs and symptoms include: sore throat red, swollen tonsils pain when swallowing high temperature headache tiredness chills a general sense of feeling unwell white pus-filled spots on the tonsils swollen lymph nodes in the neck pain in the ears or neck weight loss difficulty ingesting and swallowing meal/liquid intake difficulty sleepingLess common symptoms include: nausea fatigue stomach ache vomiting furry tongue bad breath voice changes difficulty opening the mouth loss of appetite anxiety/fear of chokingIn cases of acute tonsillitis, the surface of the tonsil may be bright red and with visible white areas or streaks of pus.
Tonsilloliths occur in up to 10% of the population due to episodes of tonsillitis. The most common cause is viral infection, it accounts for 50 to 80% of tonsillitis cases. It most includes adenovirus, influenza, parainfluenza and respiratory syncytial virus, it is caused by Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, or HIV. About 1 to 10% of the cases are caused by Epstein-Barr virus; the second most common cause is bacterial infection of which the predominant is Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus, which causes strep throat. Bacterial infection of the tonsils follows the initial viral infection. Less common bacterial causes include: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Bordetella pertussis, Fusobacterium sp. Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Treponema pallidum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Anaerobic bacteria have been implicated in tonsillitis and a possible role in the acute inflammatory process is supported by several clinical and scientific observations.
Under normal circumstances, as viruses and bacteria enter the body through the nose and mouth, they are filtered in the tonsils. Within the tonsils, white blood cells of the immune system destroy the viruses or bacteria by producing inflammatory cytokines like phospholipase A2, which lead to fever; the infection may be present in the throat and surrounding areas, causing inflammation of the pharynx. Sometimes, tonsillitis is caused by an infection of spirochaeta and treponema, in this case called Vincent's angina or Plaut-Vincent angina. In primary care settings, Centor criteria is used to determine the likelihood of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus infection in an acute tonsilitis and the need of antibiotics for tonsilitis treatment. However, Centor criteria has its weaknesses in making precise diagnosis for adults. Besides, it is ineffective in diagnosis for tonsilitis in children and in secondary care settings. There are four major criteria in Centor score: presence of tonsillar exudate, painful neck lymph nodes, history of fever, age between 5 and 15 years, the absence of cough.
The possibility of GABHS infection increases with increasing score. The probability for getting GABHS is 2 to 23% for the score of 1, 25 to 85% for the score of 4; the diagnosis of GABHS tonsillitis can be confirmed by culture of samples obtained by swabbing the throat and plating them on sheep blood agar medium. The isolation rate can be increased by incubating the cultures under anaerobic conditions and using selective growth media. A single throat culture has a sensitivity of 90–95% for the detection of GABHS; this small percentage of false-negative results are part of the characteristics of the tests used but are possible if the patient has received antibiotics prior to testing. Identification requires 24 to 48 hours by culture but rapid screening tests, which have a sensitivity of 85–90%, are available. True infection with GABHS, rather than colonization, is defined arbitrarily as the presence of >10 colonies of GABHS per blood agar plate. However, this method is difficult to implement because of the overlap between carriers and infected patients.
In 40% of the people without any sympt
Persistence hunting is a hunting technique in which hunters, who may be slower than their prey over short distances, use a combination of running and tracking to pursue prey until it is exhausted. A persistence hunter must be able to run a long distance over an extended period of time; the strategy is used by a variety of canids such as African wild dogs, by human hunter-gatherers. Humans are the only surviving primate species. In addition to a capacity for endurance running, human hunters have comparatively little hair, which makes sweating an effective means of cooling the body. Meanwhile and other mammals may need to pant to cool down enough, which means that they must slow down if not remain still. Persistence hunting is believed to have been one of the earliest hunting strategies used by humans, it is still used by the San people in the Kalahari Desert, by the Rarámuri people of Northwestern Mexico. Persistence hunting is found in canids such as domestic hounds; the African wild dog is an extreme persistence predator, tiring out individual prey by following them for many miles at low speed, compared for example to the cheetah's brief high-speed pursuit.
Persistence hunting was one of a number of tactics used by early hominins, could have been practised with or without projectile weapons such as darts, spears, or slings. As hominins adapted to bipedalism they would have lost some speed, becoming less able to catch prey with short, fast charges, they would, have gained endurance and become better adapted to persistence hunting. Although many mammals sweat, few have evolved to use sweating for effective thermoregulation and horses being notable exceptions; this coupled with relative hairlessness would have given human hunters an additional advantage by keeping their bodies cool in the midday heat. The persistence hunt is still practiced by hunter-gatherers in the central Kalahari Desert in Southern Africa; the procedure is to run down an antelope, such as a kudu, in the midday heat, for up to five hours and a distance of up to 35 km in temperatures of as much as 42 °C. The hunter chases the kudu. By tracking it down at a fast running pace the hunter catches up with it before it has had time to rest and cool down in the shade.
The animal is chased and tracked down until it is too exhausted to run. The hunter kills it with a spear; the Tarahumara of northwestern Mexico in the Copper Canyon area may have practiced persistence hunting. Persistence hunting has been used against the fastest land animal, the cheetah. In November 2013, four Somali-Kenyan herdsmen from northeast Kenya used persistence hunting in the heat of the day to capture cheetahs, killing their goats. In the absence of hunting tools, people have reverted to persistence hunting, as with the Lykov family in Siberia. Bernd Heinrich's book Why We Run, Harper Collins, 2002, p. 128. Tracking Scott Carrier's book Running After Antelope describes the author's attempt at a persistence hunt in Middle America Bramble, Dennis M.. "Endurance running and the evolution of Homo". Nature. 432: 345–52. Bibcode:2004Natur.432..345B. Doi:10.1038/nature03052. PMID 15549097. Chen, Ingfei. "Born to Run". Discover. Liebenberg, Louis. "Persistence Hunting by Modern Hunter‐Gatherers". Current Anthropology.
47: 1017–26. Doi:10.1086/508695. JSTOR 508695. Attenborough, David. "Program 10: Food For Thought". Documentary The Life of Mammals. BBC; this documentary shows a bushman hunting a kudu antelope. "The Barefoot Professor". Nature Publishing Group. Daniel Lieberman talks about persistence hunting and barefoot running "Russian Family Cut Off for 40 Years from Human Contact". Smithsonian. Mentions that the family "lacking guns and bows, they could hunt only by digging traps or pursuing prey across the mountains until the animals collapsed from exhaustion."
The 1995 PPG/Firestone Indy Lights Championship Powered By Buick consisted of 12 races. Canadian Greg Moore dominated the season, winning 10 times and winning the championship by over 100 points over his closest rival. Held March 5 at Miami Bicentennial Park. Greg Moore won the bonus point for leading the most laps. Top Five Results Greg Moore Jeff Ward Pedro Chaves Robbie Buhl Doug BoyerFull Results Held April 2 at Phoenix International Raceway. Claude Bourbonnais won the pole. Affonso Giaffone jumped the field on the final restart and finished the race first but he was assessed a one-lap penalty for jumping the restart, handing the win to Greg Moore. Giaffone still got the bonus point for leading the most laps. Top Five Results Greg Moore Robbie Buhl Buzz Calkins Doug Boyer Affonso GiaffoneFull Results Held April 9 at Long Beach, California Street Course. Greg Moore got the bonus point for leading the most laps. Top Five Results Greg Moore Robbie Buhl David DeSilva Alex Padilla Pedro ChavesFull Results Held April 23 at Nazareth Speedway.
Bob Dorricott Jr won the Greg Moore got the bonus point for leading the most laps. Robbie Buhl set fastest qualifying time, but was disqualified due to underweight. Top Five Results Greg Moore Affonso Giaffone Robbie Buhl Buzz Calkins Doug BoyerFull Results Held June 4 at The Milwaukee Mile. Robbie Buhl won the Greg Moore got the bonus point for leading the most laps. Top Five Results Greg Moore Affonso Giaffone Buzz Calkins Robbie Buhl Mark HotchkisFull Results Held June 11 at Belle Isle Raceway. Robbie Buhl won the pole, got the bonus point for leading the most laps, won the race at his home track; this race featured a huge crash on the first lap. He would walk away uninjured. Top Five Results Robbie Buhl Greg Moore Jeff Ward Nick Firestone Affonso GiaffoneFull Results Held June 25 at Portland International Raceway. Greg Moore got the bonus point for leading the most laps. Top Five Results Greg Moore Affonso Giaffone Nick Firestone Mike Borkowski Buzz CalkinsFull Results Held July 16 at Exhibition Place.
Greg Moore got the bonus point for leading the most laps. Top Five Results Greg Moore Robbie Buhl Doug Boyer Affonso Giaffone José Luis Di PalmaFull Results Held July 23 at Burke Lakefront Airport. Greg Moore won the pole, got the bonus point for leading the most laps, by winning this race he clinched the championship with three races remaining. On the last lap Trevor Seibert had a spectacular end over end accident, he was not injured. Top Five Results Greg Moore Pedro Chaves Doug Boyer Mark Hotchkis Buzz CalkinsFull Results Held August 20 at New Hampshire International Speedway. Robbie Buhl got the bonus point for leading the most laps. Top Five Results Greg Moore Claude Bourbonnais Robbie Buhl Pedro Chaves Mark HotchkisFull Results Held September 3 at Pacific Place. Greg Moore got the bonus point for leading the most laps. Top Five Results Pedro Chaves Doug Boyer Robbie Buhl Affonso Giaffone Greg MooreFull Results Held September 10 at Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca. Greg Moore got the bonus point for leading the most laps.
This was his seventh race of the season. Top Five Results Greg Moore Affonso Giaffone Doug Boyer Pedro Chaves Nick FirestoneThis was Greg Moores 13th and final Indy Lights victory in his final Indy Lights race, his race victory total is an all time record. Full Results For every race the points were awarded: 20 points to the winner, 16 for runner-up, 14 for third place, 12 for fourth place, 10 for fifth place, 8 for sixth place, 6 seventh place, winding down to 1 points for 12th place. Additional points were awarded to the driver leading the most laps. R22=retired, but classified NS=did not start
Yanxi class weapon trials ship is a class of little known naval auxiliary ship of the People's Liberation Army Navy. The name of this class is after the first unit commissioned, with the exact type still remains unknown. Contrary to the usual naming conventions of Chinese military where the ship is designated by a combination of two Chinese characters followed by three-digit number, Yanxi class is designated by only a single Chinese character, Xun, short for Xun-Lian, meaning training in Chinese, because these ships of this class is used as training ships, but only a single unit of this class has been built. However, the pennant numbers may have changed due to the change of Chinese naval ships naming convention. Yanxi class carried no systems other than anti-aircraft guns and radars, but it did support Soviet Styx surface-to-surface missile launch and recovery during tests. In addition to weapon trials ship, Yanxi class is used as a training ship, it can carry thirty instructors with two hundred cadets when used in that role.
With more advanced and larger weapon trials ships and training ships entering Chinese service to replace its original weapon trials and training role, Yanxi class has been carrying out drone launch and recovery trials to support the development of naval UAVs
Zvezda po imeni Solntse is an album of the Soviet rock band Kino, released in 1989. It is notable for its personal struggle-oriented lyrics and thoughtful, lonely or sometimes sinister atmosphere; the cover art depicts a solar eclipse. The album cover did not exist until the album was re-released in 1993. "Песня без слов" — 5:06 "Звезда по имени Солнце" — 3:45 "Невесёлая песня" — 4:18 "Сказка" — 5:58 "Место для шага вперёд" — 3:39 "Пачка сигарет" — 4:28 "Стук" — 3:50 "Печаль" — 5:32 "Апрель" — 4:40 Viktor Tsoi – Vocals, Guitar Yuri Kasparyan – Lead Guitar Igor Tikhomirov – Bass Guitar Georgiy Guryanov – Yamaha RX-5
Eudonia philerga is a species of moth of the family Crambidae. It is endemic to New Zealand; this species was named by Edward Meyrick is 1884. Meyrick gave a detailed description of the adult moth in 1885; the wingspan is 17–21 mm. The forewings are mixed with grey and irrorated with black. There is a thick interrupted blackish streak from the base of the costa; the first line is blackish-margined posteriorly. The second line is dark-margined anteriorly; the hindwings are pale whitish-grey, somewhat tinged with ochreous. Adults have been recorded on wing in December, January and April; the larvae of this species feed on mosses. Adults of the species have been observed visiting the flowers of Leptospermum scoparium and Olearia virgata feeding from them