University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed
The MG T series is a range of body-on-frame open two-seater sports cars with little weather protection that were produced by MG from 1936 to 1955. The series included the MG TA, MG TB, MG TC, MG TD, MG TF Midget models; the last of these models, the TF, was replaced by the MGA. The TF name was reinstated in 2002 on the mid-engined MG TF sports car; the TA Midget replaced the PB in 1936. It was an evolution of the previous car and was 3 inches wider in its track at 45 inches and 7 inches longer in its wheelbase at 94 inches; the previous advanced overhead-cam inline-four engine was by not in use by any other production car so it was replaced by the MPJG OHV unit from the Wolseley 10, but with twin SU carburettors, modified camshaft and manifolding. The engine displaced just 1292 cc, with a stroke of 102 mm and a bore of 63.5 mm and power output was 50 hp at 4,500 rpm. The four-speed manual gearbox now had synchromesh on the two top ratios and was connected to the engine by a cork-faced clutch running in oil.
Unlike the PB, hydraulic brakes were fitted with 9-inch drums. Like the PB, most were two-seat open cars with a steel body on an ash frame. A bench-type seat was fitted with storage space behind; the T-type was capable of reaching 80 mph in standard tune with a 0–60 mph time of 23.1 seconds. Allan Tomlinson won the 1939 Australian Grand Prix handicap driving an MG TA. 3,003 were made and in 1936 it cost £222 on the home market, the same as the PB. When first introduced the model was known as the T Type and only after the advent of the TB did the TA designation come into use. From 1938 the car could be had with a more luxurious Tickford drophead coupé body by Salmons of Newport Pagnell, 252 were made; the soft top could be used in three positions open, closed or open just over the seats. Wind-up windows were fitted to the higher topped doors making the car more weathertight and individual bucket seats used in the carpeted interior. Complete chassis were fitted with a basic body at the Abingdon factory and driven to Newport Pagnell to have their coachwork fitted.
A closed Airline coupé made by Carbodies, as fitted to the P type, was offered but only one or two are thought to have been made. The TA was replaced by the TB Midget in May 1939, it had a smaller but more modern XPAG engine as fitted to the Morris Ten Series M, but in a more tuned state and like the TA with twin SU carburettors. This 1250 cc I4 unit featured a less undersquare 66.6 mm bore and 90 mm stroke and had a maximum power output of 54 hp at 5200 rpm. The oil-immersed clutch was replaced by a dry-plate type and gear ratios revised. Available as an open two-seater or more luxurious Tickford drophead coupé, this is the rarest of the T-type cars, as production began just prior to Britain's entry into World War II. Only 379 TBs were made before the MG factory emptied its buildings and switched to making major aircraft components and modifying tanks; the TC Midget was the first postwar MG, was launched in 1945. The TC is quite well known as the car that caused the Sport Car "craze" in America.
It was quite similar to the pre-war TB, sharing the same 1,250 cc pushrod-OHV engine with a higher compression ratio of 7.4:1 giving 54.5 bhp at 5200 rpm. The makers provided information for several alternative stages of tuning for "specific purposes"; the XPAG engine is well known for its tunability. The TC engine was a improved version of the XPAG first introduced to MG in the TB. Notable improvement was through the addition of a hydraulically adjusted timing chain tensioner. All TCs utilized a 12 volt electrical system. All TCs came with 19" Dunlop wire wheels. Automatic mechanical timing advance was built into the ignition distributor, it was exported to the United States though only built in right-hand drive. The export version had smaller US specification sealed-beam headlights and twin tail lights, as well as turn signals and chromed front and rear bumpers with over riders; the body was 4 inches wider than the TB measured at the rear of the doors to give more cockpit space. The overall car width remained the same resulting in narrower running boards with two tread strips as opposed to the previous three.
The tachometer was directly in front of the driver, while the speedometer/odometer was on the other side of the dash in front of the passenger, a nod to MG's trials history. 10,001 TCs were produced, from September 1945 to Nov. 1949, more than any previous MG model. It cost £527 on the home market in 1947. Fuel consumption was 28 mpg‑imp, its 0–60 mph time was 22.7 seconds, a respectable performance at the time. A low fuel warning light would glow on the dash to alert the driver; the 1950 TD Midget announced in January 1950 combined the TC's drivetrain, a modified hypoid-geared rear axle, the MG Y-type chassis, a familiar T-type style body and independent suspension on front axle using coil springs from the MG Y-type saloon: a 1950 road-test report described as "most striking" the resulting "transformation... in the comfort of riding". The reference cited here was incorrect to infer the entire drive train was lifted from the TC, as along with the new hypoid differential, a different transmission was used.
Lifted from the company's successful 1¼-litre saloon was the rack and pinion steering. In addition the TD featured smaller 15-inch disc type road wheels, a left-hand drive option and standard equipment bumpers and ov
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
2010 United States House of Representatives elections in Michigan
Elections were held on November 2, 2010, to determine Michigan's 15 members of the United States House of Representatives. Representatives were elected for two-year terms to serve in the 112th United States Congress from January 3, 2011 until January 3, 2013. Primary elections were held on August 3, 2010. Of the 15 elections, the 1st, 7th and 9th districts were rated as competitive by Sabato's Crystal Ball, CQ Politics and The Rothenberg Political Report, while The Cook Political Report rated the 1st, 3rd, 7th and 9th districts as competitive. Three of Michigan's fifteen incumbents did not seek re-election. Of the twelve who did, one was not renominated by her party, one was unsuccessful in the general election. In total, nine Republicans and six Democrats were elected. A total of 3,194,901 votes were cast, of which 1,671,707 were for Republicans, 1,415,212 were for Democrats, 43,279 were for Libertarian Party candidates, 27,273 were for U. S. Taxpayers Party candidates, 25,739 were for Green Party candidates, 11,238 were for independent candidates, 409 were for a Natural Law Party candidate and 44 were for write-in candidates.
In 2010 the 1st district included Marquette and Sault Ste. Marie; the district's population was 93 percent white. Its median income was $40,243. In the 2008 presidential election the district gave 50 percent of its vote to Democratic nominee Barack Obama and 48 percent to Republican nominee John McCain. In 2010 the district had a Cook Partisan Voting Index of R+3. Democrat Bart Stupak, who took office in 1993, was the incumbent. Stupak was re-elected in 2008 with 65 percent of the vote. In 2010 Stupak retired rather than seeking re-election; the candidates in the general election were Democratic nominee Gary McDowell, a member of the Michigan House of Representatives. S. Taxpayers Party nominee Patrick Lambert, a shift supervisor at Kalitta Air. Lonnie Lee Snyder had intended to run as a Tea Party candidate, but was found ineligible to do so in August 2010. McDowell ran unopposed in the Democratic primary, as Mike Prusi, a member of the Michigan Senate, announced in April 2010 that he would not run.
Jason Allen, a member of the state Senate. Linda Goldthorpe, a lawyer, suspended her campaign in July 2010. Dennis Lennox, the Cheboygan County drain commissioner, ended his campaign for the Republican nomination in March 2010. Jim Barcia, a former U. S. Representative. A poll conducted by Practical Political Consulting and released in July 2010, with a sample size of 140, found Benishek leading with 21 percent followed by Allen with 19 percent. McDowell raised $838,208 and spent $838,160. Benishek raised $1,379,311 and spent $1,343,624. Wilson raised $127,237 and spent $118,276. Allen raised $379,899 and spent $379,979. Goldthorpe raised $9,244 and spent $5,410. A poll of 1,016 registered voters, conducted in August 2010 by We Ask America, found Benishek leading with 45 percent to McDowell's 29 percent, while 27 percent chose "Other/Unsure". In a poll of 406 voters by TargetPoint Consulting, conducted for Benishek's campaign between August 31 and September 1, 2010, Benishek led McDowell by 39 percent to 25 percent when the names of Wilson and Snyder were given, by 54 percent to 31 percent when Benishek and McDowell were the only names offered.
A poll of 400 voters conducted by Hill Research Associates for the National Republican Congressional Committee between September 19 and September 21, 2010, found Benishek leading with 40 percent to McDowell's 24 percent. In a poll by Greenberg Quinlan Rosner for McDowell's campaign, conducted on September 21 and 22, 2010 with a sample size of 505 voters, Benishek led with 41 percent while McDowell received 38 percent, Wilson received 12 percent and 9 percent were undecided. A poll of 401 voters published by The Hill, conducted between October 2 and 7, 2010, 42 percent of respondents supported Benishek while 39 percent favored McDowell and 18 percent were undecided. In a poll of 400 voters by EPIC/MRA, conducted on October 17 and 18, 2010, Benishek led with 42 percent to McDowell's 40 percent. Though Benishek won the Republican primary by a margin of only 15 votes, who placed second, chose not to seek a recount. Sabato's Crystal Ball rated the race as "Leans Republican". In October 2010 The Cook Political Report and CQ Politics rated the race as "Leans Republican".
In November 2010 The Rothenberg Political Report rated the race as "Toss-up/Tilt Repub
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation, it grew from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge; the two'ancient universities' are jointly called'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world; the university is made up of 38 constituent colleges, a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities, it does not have a main campus, its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre.
Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. It operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £2.237 billion, of which £579.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university is ranked first globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as of 2019 and is ranked as among the world's top ten universities, it is ranked second in all major national league tables, behind Cambridge. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world; as of 2019, 69 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford, while its alumni have won 160 Olympic medals.
Oxford is the home of numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programmes. The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being, it grew from 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190; the head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge forming the University of Cambridge; the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two'nations', representing the North and the South.
In centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a Lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III.
Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England in London. The new learning of the Renaissance influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling at the University of Douai; the method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment. In 1636 William Laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its gove
Cobblestone is a natural building material based on cobble-sized stones, is used for pavement roads and buildings. In England, it was commonplace since ancient times for flat stones with a flat narrow edge to be set on edge to provide an paved surface; this was known as a'pitched' surface and was common all over Britain, as it did not require rounded pebbles. Pitched surfaces predate the use of regularly-sized granite setts by more than a thousand years; such pitched paving is quite distinct from that formed from rounded stones, although both forms are referred to as'cobbled' surfaces. Most surviving genuinely old'cobbled' areas are in reality pitched surfaces. A cobbled area is known as a "causey", "cassay" or "cassie" in Scots. Setts are referred to as "cobbles", although a sett is distinct from a cobblestone by being quarried or shaped to a regular form, whereas cobblestone is of a occurring form. Cobblestones are either set in sand or similar material, or are bound together with mortar. Paving with cobblestones allows a road to be used all year long.
It prevents the build-up of ruts found in dirt roads. It has the additional advantage of not dusty in dry weather. Shod horses are able to get better traction on stone cobbles, pitches or setts than tarmac or asphalt; the fact that carriage wheels, horse hooves and modern automobiles make a lot of noise when rolling over cobblestone paving might be thought a disadvantage, but it has the advantage of warning pedestrians of their approach. In England, the custom was to strew the cobbles outside the house of a sick or dying person with straw to dampen the sound. Cobblestones set in sand have the environmental advantage of being permeable paving, of moving rather than cracking with movements in the ground. Cobblestones were replaced by quarried granite setts in the nineteenth century; the word cobblestone is used to describe such treatment. Setts were even and rectangular stones that were laid in regular patterns, they gave a smoother ride for carts than cobbles, although in used sections, such as in yards and the like, the usual practice was to replace the setts by parallel granite slabs set apart by the standard axle length of the time.
Cobblestoned and "setted" streets gave way to macadam roads, to tarmac, to asphalt concrete at the beginning of the 20th century. However, cobblestones are retained in historic areas for streets with modern vehicular traffic. Many older villages and cities in Europe pitched. In recent decades, cobblestones have become a popular material for paving newly pedestrianised streets in Europe. In this case, the noisy nature of the surface is an advantage as pedestrians can hear approaching vehicles; the visual cues of the cobblestones clarify that the area is more than just a normal street. The use of cobblestones/setts is considered to be a more "upmarket" roadway solution, having been described as "unique and artistic" compared to the normal asphalt road environment. In older U. S. cities such as Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, New York City, San Francisco, New Castle, Baltimore and New Orleans, many of the older streets are paved in cobblestones and setts. In some places such as Saskatoon, Canada, as late as the 1990s some busy intersections still showed cobblestones through worn down sections of pavement.
In Toronto streets using setts were used by streetcar routes and disappeared by the 1980s, but are still found in the Distillery District. Many cities in Latin America, such as Buenos Aires, Argentina, they are still maintained and repaired the traditional manner, by placing and arranging granite stones by hand. In the Czech Republic, there are old cobblestone paths with colored limestones; the design with three colors has a long tradition in Bohemia. The cubes of the old ways are handmade. In the Finger Lakes Region of New York State, the retreat of the glaciers during the last ice age left numerous small, rounded cobblestones available for building. Pre-Civil War architecture in the region made heavy use of cobblestones for walls. Today, the fewer than 600 remaining cobblestone buildings are prized as historic locations, most of them private homes, they are clustered south of Lake Ontario, between Syracuse. There is a cluster of cobblestone buildings in the Town of Paris, Ontario. In addition to homes, cobblestones were used to build barns, stagecoach taverns, stores, schools and cemetery markers.
The only public cobblestone building in the US is the Alexander Classical School, located in Alexander, New York. In cycling road races, cobblestones are used as an additional difficulty for the riders, it requires a certain skill to ride cobblestones efficiently, without falling or getting a flat tire. Tour of Flanders and Paris–Roubaix are notable cobbled classics. Calade, a harmonious, decorative arrangement of medium-sized pebbles, fixed to the ground Flagstone Portuguese pavement Sett List of cobblestone streets List of cobblestone buildings The Cobblestone Society & Museum - Albion, New York
The London–Sydney Marathon was a car rally from the United Kingdom to Australia. It was first run in 1968, a second event was organised in 1977 and a third in 1993 to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the original. Three further rallies have subsequently been contested in 2000, 2004 and 2014; the original event was won by Colin Malkin and Brian Coyle, driving a Hillman Hunter. Fifty-six cars finished; the original Marathon was the result of a lunch in late 1967, during a period of despondency in Britain caused by the devaluation of the pound. Sir Max Aitken, proprietor of the Daily Express and two of his editorial executives, Jocelyn Stevens and Tommy Sopwith, decided to create an event which their newspaper could sponsor, which would serve to raise the country's spirits; such an event would, it was felt, act as a showcase for British engineering and would boost export sales in the countries through which it passed. The initial UK£10,000 winner's prize offered by the Daily Express was soon joined by a £3,000 runners-up award and two £2,000 prizes for the third-placed team and for the highest-placed Australians, all of which were underwritten by the Daily Telegraph newspaper and its proprietor Sir Frank Packer, eager to promote the Antipodean leg of the rally.
An eight-man organising committee was established to create a suitably challenging but navigable route. Jack Sears, organising secretary and himself a former racing driver, plotted a 7,000-mile course covering eleven countries in as many days, arranged that the P&O liner S. S. Chusan would ferry the first 72 cars and their crews on the nine-day voyage from India, before the final 2,600 miles across Australia: The remaining crews departed Bombay at 3 am on Thursday 5 December, arriving in Fremantle at 10 am on Friday 13 December before they restarted in Perth the following evening. Any repairs attempted on the car during the voyage would lead to the crew's exclusion. Roger Clark established an early lead through the first genuinely treacherous leg, from Sivas to Erzincan in Turkey, averaging 60 mph in his Lotus Cortina for the 170 mile stage. Despite losing time in Pakistan and India, he maintained his lead to the end of the Asian section in Bombay, with Simo Lampinen's Ford Taunus second and Lucien Bianchi's DS21 in third.
However, once into Australia, Clark suffered several setbacks. A piston failure dropped him to third, would have cost him a finish had he not been able to cannibalise fellow Ford Motor Company driver Eric Jackson's car for parts. After repairs were effected, he suffered. Encountering a Cortina by the roadside, he persuaded the reluctant owner to sell his rear axle and resumed once more, although at the cost of 80 minutes' delay while it was replaced; this left Lucien Bianchi and co-driver Jean-Claude Ogier in the lead ahead of Gilbert Staepelaere/Simo Lampinen in the German Ford Taunus, with Andrew Cowan in the Hillman Hunter 3rd. Staepelaere's Taunus hit a gate post, breaking a track rod; this left Paddy Hopkirk's Austin 1800 in third place. Approaching the Nowra checkpoint at the end of the penultimate stage with only 98 miles to Sydney, the Frenchmen were involved in a head-on collision which wrecked their Citroën and hospitalised the pair. Hopkirk, the first driver on the scene stopped to tend to the injured and extinguish the flames in the burning cars.
Andrew Cowan, next on the scene slowed but was waved through with the message that everything was under control. Hopkirk rejoined the rally, neither he nor Cowan lost penalties in this stage. So Andrew Cowan, who had requested "a car to come last" from the Chrysler factory on the assumption that only half a dozen drivers would reach Sydney, took victory in his Hillman Hunter and claimed the £10,000 prize. Hopkirk finished second, while Australian Ian Vaughan was third in a factory-entered Ford XT Falcon GT. Ford Australia won the Teams' Prize with their three Falcons GTs, placing 6th and 8th; the success of the 1968 marathon spawned the World Cup rallies although after the controversial 1974 event no further World Cup event would be held. While the original event was to prove a triumph for the Rootes Group, the 1977 edition, this time sponsored by Singapore Airlines, was dominated by Mercedes-Benz; the German marque claimed a 1–2 finish and had two other cars in the top eight, with Andrew Cowan in a 280E repeating his success of nine years previous, followed home by teammate Tony Fowkes in a similar car.
Paddy Hopkirk, this time driving a Citroën CX, took the final podium spot. Nick Brittan, a competitor in the original event in a Lotus Cortina, established his company as an organiser of modern endurance rallies with a 25th anniversary re-run of the marathon in 1993, he persuaded 21 drivers who had competed in 1968 to return, including Andrew Cowan and Roger Clark, altogether 106 teams from 17 countries entered. Cowan drove the same car as the first time, having his Hillman Hunter loaned to him by the Scottish Automobile Club museum, while other competitors drove pre-1970 era cars; the entry fee was £12,900, the estimated cost of participating was put at £45,000. The 16,000 km rally had three major differences to its ancestor. First, the changing political climate in the Middle East meant that several countries such as Iran and Afghanistan were now out of bounds, although in Europe and Australia much of the original route was retraced; the old scheduled open road sections were replaced with more modern timed special stages for safety reasons.
With the demise of the great passenger liners there would be no great voyage across the Indian Ocean to Australia, Brittan instead negotiating for two Antonov An-124 cargo plane