Bureau of Meteorology
The Bureau of Meteorology is an Executive Agency of the Australian Government responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas. It was established in 1906 under the Meteorology Act, brought together the state meteorological services that existed before then; the states transferred their weather recording responsibilities to the Bureau of Meteorology on 1 January 1908. The Bureau of Meteorology is the main provider of weather forecasts and observations to the Australian public; the Bureau distributes weather images via radiofax and is responsible for issuing flood alerts in Australia. The Bureau's head office is in Melbourne Docklands, which includes the Bureau's Research Centre, the Bureau National Operations Centre, the National Climate Centre, the Victorian Regional Forecasting Centre as well as the Hydrology and Satellite sections. Regional offices are located in each territory capital; each regional office includes a Regional Forecasting Centre and a Flood Warning Centre, the Perth and Brisbane offices house Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres.
The Adelaide office incorporates the National Tidal Centre, while the Darwin office the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre and Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre. The Australian Bureau of Meteorology issues Tropical Cyclone Advices and developed the Standard Emergency Warning Signal used for warnings; the Bureau is responsible for tropical cyclone naming for storms in waters surrounding Australia. Three lists of names used to be maintained, one for each of the western and eastern Australian regions. However, as of the start of the 2008–09 Tropical Cyclone Year these lists have been rolled into one main national list of tropical cyclone names; the regional offices are supported by the Bureau National Operations Centre, located at the head office in Melbourne Docklands. The Bureau maintains a network of field offices across the continent, on neighbouring islands and in Antarctica. There is a network of some 500 paid co-operative observers and 6,000 voluntary rainfall observers; the following people have been directors of the Bureau of Meteorology: In the head office a Cray XC40 supercomputer called "Australis" provides the operational computing capability for weather, climate and wave numerical prediction and simulation, while other Unix servers support the computer message switching system and real-time data base.
The Australian Integrated Forecast System affords the main computing infrastructure in the regional offices. Numerical weather prediction is performed using the Unified Model software; the Bureau of Meteorology announced the Cray contract in July 2015, commissioned the Cray XC40 supercomputer on 30 June 2016 and decommissioned their Oracle HPC system in October 2016. World Meteorological Organization, co-ordination body for weather and environment services Weatherzone, another Australian weather service provider International Cloud Experiment, which collected data on tropical cyclones in January and February 2006 2018–19 Australian region cyclone season Water Data Transfer Format Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council Bureau of Meteorology main page Federation and Meteorology: the history of meteorology in Australia
Monash University is a public research university based in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1958, it is the second oldest university in the State of Victoria; the university has a number of campuses, four of which are in Victoria, one in Malaysia. Monash has a research and teaching centre in Prato, Italy, a graduate research school in Mumbai, India and a graduate school in Suzhou, China. Monash University courses are delivered at other locations, including South Africa. Monash is home to major research facilities, including the Monash Law School, the Australian Synchrotron, the Monash Science Technology Research and Innovation Precinct, the Australian Stem Cell Centre, 100 research centres and 17 co-operative research centres. In 2016, its total revenue was over $2.2 billion dollars, with external research income around $282 million. In 2016, Monash enrolled over 22,000 graduate students, it has more applicants than any other university in the state of Victoria. Monash is a member of Australia's Group of Eight, a coalition of Australia's eight leading research Universities, a member of the ASAIHL, is the only Australian member of the M8 Alliance of Academic Health Centers and National Academies.
Monash is one of two Australian universities to be ranked in the École des Mines de Paris ranking on the basis of the number of alumni listed among CEOs in the 500 largest worldwide companies. The original campus was in the City of Clayton; the university was granted an expansive site of 100 hectares of open land in Clayton. The 100 hectares of land consists of the former Talbot Epileptic Colony. From its first intake of 357 students at Clayton on 13 March 1961, the university grew in size and student numbers so that by 1967, it had enrolled more than 21,000 students since its establishment. In its early years, it offered undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in engineering, science, economics, politics and law, it was a major provider for international student places under the Colombo Plan, which saw the first Asian students enter the Australian education system. In its early years of teaching and administration, Monash was not disadvantaged by entrenched traditional practices. Monash was able to adopt modern approaches without resistance from those who preferred the status quo.
A modern administrative structure was set up. The university was named after the prominent Australian general Sir John Monash; this was the first time in Australia that a university had been named after a person, rather than a city or state. From the mid-1960s to the early 1970s, Monash became the centre of student radicalism in Australia, it was the site of many mass student demonstrations concerning Australia's role in Vietnam War and conscription. By the late 1960s, several student organisations, some of which were influenced by or supporters of communism, turned their focus to Vietnam, with numerous blockades and sit-ins. In one extraordinary event that came to be known as the Monash Siege, students forced Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser to hide in a basement at the Alexander Theatre, in a major protest over the Whitlam dismissal. In the late 1970s and 1980s, some of Monash's most publicised research came through its pioneering of in-vitro fertilisation. Led by Carl Wood and Alan Trounson, the Monash IVF Program achieved the world's first clinical IVF pregnancy in 1973.
In 1980, they delivered the first IVF baby in Australia. This became a massive source of revenue for the university at a time when university funding in Australia was beginning to slow down. In the late 1980s, the Dawkins Reforms changed the landscape of higher education in Australia. Under the leadership of Vice-Chancellor Mal Logan, Monash transformed dramatically. In 1988, Monash University had only one campus in Clayton, with around 15,000 students. Just over a decade it had 8 campuses, a European research and teaching centre, more than 50,000 students, making it the largest and most internationalised Australian university. Expansion of the university began in 1990 with a series of mergers between Monash, the Chisholm Institute of Technology, the Gippsland Institute of Advanced Education. In 1991 a merger with the Victorian College of Pharmacy created a new faculty of the university; this continued with the establishment of the Berwick campus. In 1998, the university opened the Malaysia campus, its first overseas campus and the first foreign university in Malaysia.
In 2001, Monash South Africa opened its doors in Johannesburg, making Monash the first foreign university in South Africa. The same year, the university secured an 18th-century Tuscan palace to open a research and teaching centre in Prato, Italy. At the same time, Australian universities faced unprecedented demand for international student places, which Monash met on a larger scale than most. Today, around 30% of its students are from outside Australia. Monash students come from over 100 different countries, speak over 90 different languages; the increase in international students, combined with the university's expansion, meant that Monash's income increased throughout the 1990s, it is now one of Australia's top 200 exporters. In recent years, the university has been prominent in medical research. A highlight of this came in 2000, when Alan Trounson led the team of scientists which announced to the world that nerve stem cells could be derived from embryonic stem cells, a discovery which led to a dramatic increase in interest in the potential of stem cells.
It has led to Monash being ranked in the top
Sunrise (Australian TV program)
Sunrise is an Australian breakfast show program. It is broadcast on the Seven Network, is hosted by David Koch and Samantha Armytage; the program follows Seven Early News, runs from 5:30 am to 9:00 am. It is followed by The Morning Show; the history of Sunrise can be traced back to at least 17 January 1991 when 11AM news presenter Darren McDonald began presenting an early morning Seven News – Sunrise Edition bulletin prior to hostilities breaking out during the Gulf War. In 1996, Seven introduced a one-hour weekday bulletin called Sunrise News renamed Sunrise. Seven recruited Chris Bath from NBN Television to present the bulletin alongside Peter Ford. Ford was replaced by finance editor David Koch. In 1997, Chris Bath was replaced by Melissa Doyle. In 1998 Sunrise was presented by Nick McArdle. Seven launched a Sunday bulletin hosted by Stan Grant, entitled Sunday Sunrise, in 1997. Weekday Sunrise was cancelled in 1999, replaced by children's program The Big Breakfast. Seven maintained half-hourly news updates during The Big Breakfast and their Sunday bulletin was not affected by the axing.
Other temporary Sunrise hosts up until this time include Anne Fulwood, Leigh Hatcher and Nick McArdle. During the Sydney 2000 Olympics, Andrew Daddo and Johanna Griggs presented Olympic Sunrise from a leased apartment near Lavender Bay, New South Wales, in Sydney which provided the Sydney Harbour Bridge and Sydney Opera House as waterside backdrops. On 1 May 2000, the program was replaced by a new version of Sunrise produced by Adam Boland, it was hosted by Melbourne sport reporter Mark Beretta. It was followed by music video program AMV. According to Boland's Brekky Central, in late 2001 producers had created a plan to take on Today on Channel Nine, the leader at breakfast, taking inspiration from Fox America's Fox and Friends. Set to debut in March 2002, the multimillion-dollar production would have its own dedicated studio and fronted by Australian Radio personality Andrew Daddo and Lisa Forrest; however a month before its launch, the network's board axed the idea and believed money could be better spent.
In 2002, Seven revamped their breakfast television schedule with Seven Early News at 6:00 am, hosted by Chris Reason, a new version of Sunrise from 6:30 am to 9:00 am, hosted by Reason and Melissa Doyle. Sunrise ran from 6:00 am to 9:00 am from February the same year. David Koch was brought in to present the finance reports. In October of that year, Reason discovered he had another cancerous tumour behind his kidney and had to resign from his position. Four years earlier he had undergone treatment for another growth. Koch was appointed temporary presenter, a position made permanent. Sunrise was yet again revamped in December 2002 soon after Koch's appointment, focusing less on hard news and became more family friendly; the show, along with its rival Today on Nine, have become more tabloid focused which has boosted ratings. In 2003, the show began to pick up ratings, appointed Natalie Barr to present the news updates, followed by the appointment of former Network Ten journalist Grant Denyer to present weather reports the re-appointment of Mark Beretta, brought in to present sports updates.
The new plan to take on Today, following the ratings rise, was some dramatic point of difference which included news updates every thirty minutes, big interviews, less formal presenting than a news bulletin, "the soapbox", ROS wall, natural chemistry but most a shift in viewers interest. "Kochie" and "Mel", as they became informally known, replied less on scripts but more on talking points. They would debate the issues of the day and the viewers would influence those topics. On 30 August 2004, Seven News Sydney and Seven Morning News moved from their studios in Epping to the new Seven News centre at Martin Place. On 29 January 2007 Sunrise had a complete makeover with changes to on-screen graphics. Due to continued viewer feedback, the Sunrise set changed again on 10 June 2007; this glass, similar to that on the new Boeing 787 allows for the transparency of the glass to be adjusted, ranging from clear, to transparent to opaque, showing as a solid blue. These changes have proved useful in shielding viewers from the actions of some passers by, cast members of the ABC show The Chaser's War on Everything.
The set was modified so The Morning Show's set could fit into the Martin Place current affairs studio. In October 2009, it was announced that at the start of 2010, Sunrise will receive a brand new set, format and logo on 25 January 2010. In April 2010, Sunrise added a feature show that shows a selection of highlights from the previous day's Sunrise. In 2011, there was much speculation that Melissa Doyle would be leaving the show to present Today Tonight and that David Koch may be moved to a prime-time position. However, Doyle continued with the show for her tenth consecutive year in 2012. On 29 February 2012, Sunrise celebrated its 10th anniversary with Koch. Doyle is the only original presenter remaining from the March 2002 launch. Koch started presenting Sunrise on a permanent bas
Shane Webcke is an Australian former professional rugby league footballer, who spent his entire club career playing for the Brisbane Broncos. Webcke represented Queensland in the State of Origin 21 times and captained the side, he made 26 test appearances for Australia. His position was prop forward and at his peak he was renowned as the best front rower in the world. Alongside Glenn Lazarus and Arthur Beetson, Webcke is considered by many to have been one of the finest post-war front-rowers to play the game. After retiring in 2006, Webcke became the Sunday–Thursday sports presenter on Seven News in his hometown of Brisbane, a position he holds to this day. Webcke was born in Queensland, of German and Scottish descent. From Leyburn and having played for Toowoomba, Webcke was scouted by Wayne Bennett, whom he acknowledges as the greatest influence on his career, after seeing him play as a schoolboy in 1993; the following year Webcke's father was killed in a work accident. Webcke made his debut for the Broncos in the 1995 ARL season.
Within two seasons he had his first premiership ring, when he helped Brisbane to victory over the Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks in the 1997 Super League season's grand final. Webcke made his first appearance for the Queensland Maroons in the first game of the 1998 State of Origin series and was named man of the match in the third and deciding game that year. From his debut until his retirement from representative football following Game III in 2004, no other player wore the number 8 for Queensland. Webcke won his second grand final in 1998. In 2000 Webcke broke his arm during the finals series that season but went on to play for the Broncos in their grand final victory over the Sydney Roosters. Post-season he was a member of the Australian team. Webcke was awarded the Australian Sports Medal for his contribution to Australia's international standing in rugby league. Following Australia's World Cup victory and teammate Gorden Tallis wrote an open letter to players appealing for an end to scandalous behaviour amongst footballers, tarnishing the sport.
Having won the 2000 NRL Premiership, the Broncos travelled to England to play against 2000's Super League V Champions, St. Helens for the 2001 World Club Challenge, with Webcke playing at prop forward in Brisbane's loss. Webcke won the Broncos' best player award for the 2001 season. Post-season he refused to tour with the Kangaroos in the wake of the 11 September attacks. At the end of the 2003 NRL season, he went on the 2003 Kangaroo tour of Great Britain and France, helping Australia to victory over Great Britain the last time rugby league's Ashes series was contested. Webcke was selected in the Australian team to compete in the 2004 Tri-Nations tournament. In the final against Great Britain he played in the Kangaroos' 44–4 victory. Webcke again won the Paul Morgan Medal for the Broncos' best and fairest player for the 2005 season. Webcke announced on 26 April 2006. Webcke's final game was the Broncos' victory in the 2006 grand final against the Melbourne Storm, days after his 32nd birthday.
Post-football, Webcke went on to release his successful auto-biography and ventured into media with the Seven Network in his hometown of Brisbane, presenting sport on the local Seven News bulletin on Sundays to Thursdays. He worked on-screen with Matthew Johns in the first and only season of The Matty Johns Show. Webcke's pub at Leyburn, Queensland – the Royal Hotel – is the longest, continuously licensed premises in Queensland. Webcke was set to become the first player to give the annual Tom Brock Lecture when he was invited to do so in 2007, but this did not eventuate. In 2007 at the Broncos' 20-year anniversary celebration, the club announced a list of the 20 best players to play for them to date which included Webcke. In February 2008, Webcke was named in the list of Australia's 100 Greatest Players, commissioned by the NRL and ARL to celebrate the code's centenary year in Australia. A few months the Brisbane Broncos appointed Shane Webcke, along with Allan Langer as full-time assistant coaches to work alongside new head coach Ivan Henjak from the 2009 season.
However shortly after the start of the season Webcke quit his post in the wake of controversy surrounding the release of his new book in which he was critical of the Broncos administration not standing down star players Darius Boyd, Sam Thaiday and Karmichael Hunt when police were investigating sexual assault allegations against them in September 2008. He went on to state, he wrote that Andrew Johns should never have been included in the Australian rugby league team of the century after his confessions of illicit drug use during his career. Junior Club: Wattles Allora/Clifton First Grade Debut: Round 10, Brisbane v. Norths at North Sydney, 19 May 1995 won First Grade Premierships: 1997, 1998, 2000 and 2006 with Brisbane Broncos Career Stats: 254 career appearances with 18 tries State of Origin: 21 games for Queensland between 1998 and 2004 International: 26 tests for Australia Webcke, Shane. Warhorse: Life and Other Battles. Australia: Pan Macmillan. ISBN 9781405037525. Shane Webcke. Icons of Australian sport: Shane Webcke.
HyperActive Inc. ISBN 9780980301526. Shane Webcke. Hard road. Pan Macmillan. ISBN 9781405038874. Shane Webcke at the Brisbane Broncos official website. Shane Webcke at the Former Origin Greats website. Queensland re
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
Angela Tsun is an Australian television and radio presenter. Tsun is weekend news presenter on Seven News in Perth, she currently co-hosts The Dead Set Legends on Mix 94.5. Tsun lived and worked in Sydney before taking up residence in Perth, she holds a Bachelor of Science Communications from the University of New South Wales. During Tsun's first semester of studying Science Communications at the University of New South Wales, after an excursion to Foxtel's The Weather Channel, she was offered the job of a weather presenter by the television station. Tsun began her reporting career as a weather presenter in 2002 on Foxtel's The Weather Channel in Sydney where she hosted the documentary series Wild World of Weather and presented the Beach and Surf reports. In 2008, Tsun moved to Perth to join the Nine Network and WIN Television news team at Nine News Perth, she presented weather on 6 pm news bulletins. She regularly filed travels stories for Getaway and reported on Today. In January 2013, Tsun joined the Seven Network as a weather presenter on the Seven News Perth to anchor the local Seven 4.30 News and present the weather on the 6pm news from Monday to Thursday.
In February 2015, Tsun was appointed weekend presenter of Seven News Perth. She co-hosts The Dead Set Legends with Adrian Barich on Mix 94.5. Tsun is a member of the Australian Science Communicators Association. Website Twitter Facebook
Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826