Crawley is a large town and borough in West Sussex, England. It is 28 miles south of Charing Cross, 18 miles north of Brighton and Hove, 32 miles north-east of the county town of Chichester. Crawley covers an area of 17.36 square miles and had a population of 106,597 at the time of the 2011 Census. The area has been inhabited since the Stone Age, was a centre of ironworking in Roman times. Crawley developed as a market town from the 13th century, serving the surrounding villages in the Weald, its location on the main road from London to Brighton brought passing trade, which encouraged the development of coaching inns. A rail link to London opened in 1841. Gatwick Airport, nowadays one of Britain's busiest international airports, opened on the edge of the town in the 1940s, encouraging commercial and industrial growth. After the Second World War, the British Government planned to move large numbers of people and jobs out of London and into new towns around South East England; the New Towns Act 1946 designated Crawley as the site of one of these.
A master plan was developed for the establishment of new residential, commercial and civic areas, rapid development increased the size and population of the town over a few decades. The town contains 13 residential neighbourhoods radiating out from the core of the old market town, separated by main roads and railway lines; the nearby communities of Ifield, Pound Hill and Three Bridges were absorbed into the new town at various stages in its development. In 2009, expansion was being planned in the west and north-west of the town, in cooperation with Horsham District Council, which has now become a new neighborhood named Kilnwood Vale, but it not in Crawley. Economically, the town has developed into the main centre of industry and employment between London and the south coast, its large industrial area supports manufacturing and service companies, many of them connected with the airport. The commercial and retail sectors continue to expand; the area may have been settled during the Mesolithic period: locally manufactured flints of the Horsham Culture type have been found to the southwest of the town.
Tools and burial mounds from the Neolithic period, burial mounds and a sword from the Bronze Age, have been discovered. Crawley is on the western edge of the High Weald, which produced iron for more than 2,000 years from the Iron Age onwards. Goffs Park—now a recreational area in the south of the town—was the site of two late Iron Age furnaces. Ironworking and mineral extraction continued throughout Roman times in the Broadfield area where many furnaces were built. In the 5th century, Saxon settlers named the area Crow's Leah—meaning a crow-infested clearing, or Crow's Wood; this name evolved over time, the present spelling appeared by the early 14th century. By this time, nearby settlements were more established: the Saxon church at Worth, for example, dates from between 950 and 1050 AD. Although Crawley itself is not mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086, the nearby settlements of Ifield and Worth are recorded; the first written record of Crawley dates from 1202, when a licence was issued by King John for a weekly market on Wednesdays.
Crawley grew in importance over the next few centuries, but was boosted in the 18th century by the construction of the turnpike road between London and Brighton. When this was completed in 1770, travel between the newly fashionable seaside resort and London became safer and quicker, Crawley prospered as a coaching halt. By 1839 it offered an hourly service to both destinations; the George, a timber-framed house dating from the 15th century, expanded to become a large coaching inn, taking over adjacent buildings. An annexe had to be built in the middle of the wide High Street; the original building has become the George Hotel, with 84 bedrooms. Crawley's oldest church is St John the Baptist's, between the Broadway, it is said to have 13th-century origins, but there has been much rebuilding and the oldest part remaining is the south wall of the nave, believed to be 14th century. The church has a 15th-century tower which contained four bells cast in 1724. Two were replaced by Thomas Lester of London in 1742.
The Brighton Main Line was the first railway line to serve the Crawley area. A station was opened at Three Bridges in the summer of 1841. Crawley railway station, at the southern end of the High Street, was built in 1848 when the Horsham branch was opened from Three Bridges to Horsham. A line was built eastwards from Three Bridges to East Grinstead in 1855. Three Bridges had become the hub of transport in the area by this stage: one-quarter of its population was employed in railway jobs by 1861; the Longley company—one of South East England's largest building firms in the late 19th century, responsible for buildings including Christ's Hospital school and the King Edward VII Sanatorium in Midhurst—moved to a site next to Crawley station in 1881. In 1898 more than 700 people were employed at the site. There was a major expansion in house building in the late 19th century. An area known as "New Town" was created around the railway level crossing and down the Brighton Road.
Dixie Chicks are an American music group composed of founding members Martie Erwin Maguire and Emily Erwin Robison, lead singer Natalie Maines. The band formed in 1989 in Dallas and was composed of four women performing bluegrass and country music and touring the bluegrass festival circuits and small venues for six years without attracting a major label. After the departure of one bandmate, the replacement of their lead singer, a slight change in their repertoire, the Dixie Chicks soon achieved commercial success, beginning in 1998 with hit songs "There's Your Trouble" and "Wide Open Spaces"; as of 2015, the Dixie Chicks had won 13 Grammy Awards, including five in 2007 for Taking the Long Way—which received the Grammy Award for Album of the Year—and "Not Ready to Make Nice", a single from that album. By December 2015, with 30.5 million certified albums sold, sales of 27.5 million albums in the U. S. alone, they had become the top selling all-female band and biggest-selling country group in the U.
S. during the Nielsen SoundScan era. On March 10, 2003, during a London concert, nine days before the 2003 invasion of Iraq, lead vocalist Maines told the audience: "We don't want this war, this violence, we're ashamed that the President of the United States is from Texas", which garnered a positive reaction from the British audience contrasting with the negative reaction, ensuing boycotts, in the United States, where talk shows denounced the band, their albums were discarded in public protest and corporate broadcasting networks blacklisted them for the remainder of the Bush years. After a touring hiatus, they toured again in 2010, 2013 and 2016; the Dixie Chicks were founded by Laura Lynch on upright bass, guitarist Robin Lynn Macy, the multi-instrumentalist sisters Martie and Emily Erwin in 1989. The Erwin sisters have since changed their names to Martie Maguire and Emily Strayer; the four took their band name from the song and album Dixie Chicken by Lowell George of Little Feat playing predominantly bluegrass and a mix of country standards.
All four women played and sang, though Maguire and Robison provided most of the instrumental accompaniment for the band while Lynch and Macy shared lead vocals. Maguire played fiddle and viola, while Robison's specialties included five-stringed banjo and dobro. In 1990, thanks to the generosity of Penny Cook, daughter of Senator John Tower, who wrote them a check for $10,000 so that they could record an album, the Dixie Chicks recorded their first studio album, Thank Heavens for Dale Evans, named after the pioneering, multi-talented performer Dale Evans, they paid $5,000 for the 14-track album. The album included two instrumental tunes. In 1987, Maguire had won second place, in 1989, third place in the National fiddle championships held at the Walnut Valley Festival in Winfield, Kansas. A Christmas single was released at the end of the year – a 45 RPM vinyl record titled Home on the Radar Range, with "Christmas Swing" on one side and the song on the flip side named "The Flip Side"; the record titles were significant.
However with an appearance at the Grand Ole Opry, with few exceptions, such as Garrison Keillor's radio show A Prairie Home Companion, they didn't get much national airplay. The Dixie Chicks began building up a fan base, winning the prize for "best band" at the Telluride Bluegrass Festival and opening for established country music artists, including such big names in that genre as Garth Brooks, Reba McEntire, George Strait. In 1992, a second independent album, Little Ol' Cowgirl, moved towards a more contemporary country sound, as the band enlisted the help of more sidemen, developed a richer sound with larger and more modern arrangements. Robin Lynn Macy was not pleased with their change in sound, however, she left in late 1992 to devote herself to a "purer" bluegrass sound, remaining active in the Dallas and Austin music scenes. It was during this period that professional steel guitarist Lloyd Maines introduced them to his daughter, Natalie, an aspiring singer. Lloyd Maines thought his daughter would be a good match to replace the departed Macy, had passed along Natalie's audition demo tape, which had won her a full scholarship to the Berklee College of Music, to both Maguire and Robison.
Her distinctive voice was a match for Robison's alto harmonies. As Maguire and Robison considered their options and the major record labels waffled over whether they should take a risk on an all-woman band, a few reviewers took note of their talents: Some record label executives will be kicking themselves soon enough when the Dixie Chicks are queens of the honky-tonk circuit. If their show at the Birchmere last week was any indication, these Chicks have what it takes to make the big time, yet no major label has taken the plunge to sign them. Lynch, thrust into the role of sole lead singer on their third independent album, Shouldn't a Told You That in 1993, was unable to attract support from a major record label, the band struggled to expand their fan base beyond Texas and Nashville. New manager Simon Renshaw approached music executive Scott Siman and he signed them to a developmental deal with Sony Music Entertainment's Nashville division; the deal was finalized with Sony over the summer of 1995.
The Chicks replaced Lynch with singer Maines. Accounts of the departure have varied. At the time, the sisters stated that Lynch had been considering leaving the band for over a year, weary of touring, hoping to spend more time with her daughter a
Raëlism is a religion, founded in 1974 by Claude Vorilhon, now known as Raël. The Raëlian Movement teaches that life on Earth was scientifically created by a species of humanoid extraterrestrials, called the Elohim. Members of this species appeared human when having personal contacts with the descendants of the humans that they made, they purposefully misinformed early humanity that they were cherubim, or gods. Raëlians believe that messengers, or prophets, of the Elohim include Buddha, Jesus and others who informed humans of each era; the founder of Raëlism received the final message of the Elohim and that its purpose is to inform the world about Elohim and that if humans become aware and peaceful enough, they wish to be welcomed by them. The Raëlian Church has a quasi-clerical structure of seven levels. Joining the movement requires an official apostasy from other religions. Raëlian ethics include striving for world peace, sharing and nonviolence. Raël founded Clonaid in 1997, but handed it over to a Raëlian bishop, Brigitte Boisselier in 2000.
In 2002 the company said that an American woman underwent a standard cloning procedure that led to the birth of a daughter, Eve. Although few believe the claim, it nonetheless attracted national authorities and the mainstream media to look further into the Raëlians' cult status; the Raëlians claim the swastika as a symbol of peace, which halted Raëlian requests for territory in Israel, Lebanon, for establishing an embassy for extraterrestrials. The religion uses the swastika embedded on the Star of David. Between 1991 and 2007, this symbol was replaced by a variant star and swirl symbol in an attempt to improve public relations with Israel; the beginnings of Raëlism are rooted in the experiences of a French former automobile journalist and race car driver Claude Vorilhon. In his books The Book Which Tells the Truth and Extraterrestrials Took Me to their Planet, Vorilhon had alien encounters with beings who gave him knowledge of the origins of all major religions; the movement traces its beginnings to a conference in Paris, France of two thousand people in 1974.
From there, the MADECH organization was born. The name MADECH is a double acronym in the French language. By 1976, Claude Vorilhon transformed MADECH into the International Raelian Movement. From 1980 to 1992 Raël and his movement became global. In 1980 Claude Raël's fifth Raëlian book Sensual Meditation was published and formal publication of the Raëlian Messages in the Japanese language began as part of the Raëlian mission to Japan. Two years Africa became another target area in the mission to spread the Raëlian messages. On 26 December 2002, Brigitte Boisselier, a Raëlian Bishop and CEO of a biotechnology company called Clonaid, announced the birth of baby Eve the first-ever human clone; the announcement ignited much media attention, ethical debate, doubt and claims of a hoax. Spokespeople for the movement, including Claude Vorilhon, have suggested that this is one of the first steps in achieving a more important agenda, they say that through cloning they can combine an accelerated growth process with some form of mind transfer, in such, may achieve eternal life.
The structure of the Raëlian Church is hierarchical, with seven levels ascending from level 0 to level 6. The top four levels consist of "Guides"; the level 6 guide, known as the "Guide of Guides", has the final say on who becomes a level 5 "Bishop Guide" or a level 4 "Priest Guide". Bishops and priests promote lower-level members one level at a time during annual seminars; each bishop or priest can propose a new guide as long as the candidate is from a level below their own. Guides can assist "Regional Guides"—level 3 and above—in their assigning of non-guide members to levels 3, 2 and 1. Members of the Raëlian structure begin as level 0 "trainees" during annual seminars; the Raelian structure said in 2007 to have about 2,300 members, 170 "Raëlian guides", 41 bishops. Claude Vorilhon has held the highest position for three seven-year terms. Women make up only a third of the membership in the Raëlian Church, though two anecdotes in the Raëlian Contact newsletter report female majorities joining the movement's Asian Mongolian chapter.
Women such as Brigitte Boisselier, the Chief Executive Officer of Clonaid, play a powerful role in the Raëlian Church. There are two major groups of women in the Raëlian Church; the Order of Angels, founded in the 1990s, consists of over a hundred Raëlian women who call for femininity and refinement for all of humanity. The initiation rites include declaring an oath or making a contract in which one agrees to become defender of the Raëlian ideology and its founder Raël; the Order of Angels has its own hierarchy of "rose angels" and "white angels" which, as of 2003, are six and 160 women, respectively. After the Clonaid human cloning announcement made the headlines, the Daily Telegraph wrote that members of the order not only provided sexual pleasure for Raël, but helped donate eggs for efforts towards human cloning. A few days Time magazine wrote that French chemist Brigitte Boisselier was an Order of Angels member. Around this time, cult specialist Mike Kropveld called the Order of Angels "one of the most transparent movements" he had witnessed, though he was alarmed by the women's pr
Donovan is a Scottish singer and guitarist. He developed an eclectic and distinctive style that blended folk, pop and world music, he has lived in Scotland, London and since at least 2008 in County Cork, with his family. Emerging from the British folk scene, Donovan reached fame in the United Kingdom in early 1965 with live performances on the pop TV series Ready Steady Go!. Having signed with Pye Records in 1965, he recorded singles and two albums in the folk vein, after which he signed to CBS/Epic Records in the US – the first signing by the company's new vice-president Clive Davis – and became more successful internationally, he began a long and successful collaboration with leading British independent record producer Mickie Most, scoring multiple hit singles and albums in the UK, US, other countries. His most successful singles were the early UK hits "Catch the Wind", "Colours" and "Universal Soldier" in 1965. In September 1966 "Sunshine Superman" topped America's Billboard Hot 100 chart for one week and went to number two in Britain, followed by "Mellow Yellow" at US No. 2 in December 1966 1968's "Hurdy Gurdy Man" in the Top 5 in both countries "Atlantis", which reached US No. 7 in May 1969.
He became a friend of pop musicians including Brian Jones and The Beatles. He taught John Lennon a finger-picking guitar style in 1968 that Lennon employed in "Dear Prudence", "Julia", "Happiness Is a Warm Gun" and other songs. Donovan's commercial fortunes waned after parting with Most in 1969, he left the industry for a time. Donovan continued to record sporadically in the 1970s and 1980s, his musical style and hippie image were scorned by critics after punk rock. His performing and recording became sporadic until a revival in the 1990s with the emergence of Britain's rave scene, he recorded the 1996 album Sutras with producer Rick Rubin and in 2004 made a new album, Beat Cafe. Donovan was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2012 and the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 2014. Donovan was born on 10 May 1946, in Glasgow, to Donald and Winifred Leitch, his father was Protestant and his mother was Catholic. He contracted polio as a child; the disease and treatment left him with a limp. In 1956, his family moved to the new town of Hatfield, England.
Influenced by his family's love of folk music, he began playing the guitar at 14. He enrolled in art school but soon dropped out, to live out his beatnik aspirations by going on the road. Returning to Hatfield, Donovan spent several months playing in local clubs, absorbing the folk scene around his home in St Albans, learning the crosspicking guitar technique from local players such as Mac MacLeod and Mick Softley and writing his first songs. In 1964, he travelled to Manchester with Gypsy Dave spent the summer in Torquay, Devon. In Torquay he stayed with Mac MacLeod and took up busking, studying the guitar, learning traditional folk and blues. In late 1964, Donovan was offered a management and publishing contract by Peter Eden and Geoff Stephens of Pye Records in London, for which he recorded a 10-track demo tape, which included the original of his first single, "Catch the Wind", "Josie"; the first song revealed the influence of Woody Guthrie and Ramblin' Jack Elliott, who had influenced Bob Dylan.
Dylan comparisons followed for some time. In an interview with KFOK radio in the US on 14 June 2005, MacLeod said: "The press were fond of calling Donovan a Dylan clone as they had both been influenced by the same sources: Ramblin' Jack Elliott, Jesse Fuller, Woody Guthrie, many more."While recording the demo, Donovan befriended Brian Jones of the Rolling Stones, recording nearby. He had met Jones' ex-girlfriend, Linda Lawrence, the mother of Jones' son, Julian Brian Leitch; the on-off romantic relationship that developed over five years was a force in Donovan's career. She influenced Donovan's music but refused to marry him and she moved to the United States for several years in the late 1960s, they married soon after. Donovan had other relationships – one of which resulted in the birth of his first two children, Donovan Leitch and Ione Skye, both of whom became actors. During Bob Dylan's trip to the UK in the spring of 1965, the British music press were making comparisons of the two singer-songwriters and going so far as to stir up allegations of a rivalry, other luminaries of the pop scene were chiming in.
The Rolling Stones guitarist Brian Jones said, We've been watching Donovan too. He isn't too bad. His'Catch The Wind' sounds like'Chimes of Freedom'. He's got a song,'Hey Tangerine Eyes' and it sounds like Dylan's'Mr. Tambourine Man'. Donovan is the undercurrent In D. A. Pennebaker's film Dont Look Back documenting Dylan's tour. Near the start of the film, Dylan opens a newspaper and exclaims, "Donovan? Who is this Donovan?" and his associates spur the rivalry on by telling Dylan that Donovan is a better guitar player, but that he had only been around for three months. Throughout the film Donovan's name is seen next to Dylan's on newspaper headlines and on posters in the background, Dylan and his friends refer to him consistently. Donovan appears in the second half of the film, along with Derroll Adams, in Dylan's suite at the Savoy Hotel despite Donovan's management refusing to allow journalists to be present, saying they did not want "any stunt on the lines of the disciple meeting the messiah".
According to Pennebaker, Dylan told him not to film the encounter, Donovan played a song that sounded just like "Mr. Tambourine Man" but with different
Unidentified flying object
An unidentified flying object is an object observed in the sky, not identified. Most UFOs are identified as conventional objects or phenomena; the term is used for claimed observations of extraterrestrial spacecraft. The term "UFO" was coined in 1953 by the United States Air Force to serve as a catch-all for all such reports. In its initial definition, the USAF stated that a "UFOB" was "any airborne object which by performance, aerodynamic characteristics, or unusual features, does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type, or which cannot be positively identified as a familiar object." Accordingly, the term was restricted to that fraction of cases which remained unidentified after investigation, as the USAF was interested in potential national security reasons and/or "technical aspects". During the late 1940s and through the 1950s, UFOs were referred to popularly as "flying saucers" or "flying discs"; the term UFO became more widespread during the 1950s, at first in technical literature, but in popular use.
UFOs garnered considerable interest during the Cold War, an era associated with a heightened concern for national security, more in the 2010s, for unexplained reasons. Various studies have concluded that the phenomenon does not represent a threat to national security, nor does it contain anything worthy of scientific pursuit; the Oxford English Dictionary defines a UFO. The first published book to use the word was authored by Donald E. Keyhoe; the acronym "UFO" was coined by Captain Edward J. Ruppelt, who headed Project Blue Book the USAF's official investigation of UFOs, he wrote, "Obviously the term'flying saucer' is misleading when applied to objects of every conceivable shape and performance. For this reason the military prefers the more general, if less colorful, name: unidentified flying objects. UFO for short." Other phrases that were used and that predate the UFO acronym include "flying flapjack", "flying disc", "unexplained flying discs", "unidentifiable object". The phrase "flying saucer" had gained widespread attention after the summer of 1947.
On June 24, a civilian pilot named Kenneth Arnold reported seeing nine objects flying in formation near Mount Rainier. Arnold estimated the speed of discs to be over 1,200 mph. At the time, he claimed he described the objects flying in a saucer-like fashion, leading to newspaper accounts of "flying saucers" and "flying discs". Ufo's were referred to colloquially, as a "Bogey" by military personal and pilots during the cold war; the term "bogey" was used to report anomalies in radar blips, to indicate possible hostile forces that might be roaming in the area. In popular usage, the term UFO came to be used to refer to claims of alien spacecraft, because of the public and media ridicule associated with the topic, some ufologists and investigators prefer to use terms such as "unidentified aerial phenomenon" or "anomalous phenomena", as in the title of the National Aviation Reporting Center on Anomalous Phenomena. "Anomalous aerial vehicle" or "unidentified aerial system" are sometimes used in a military aviation context to describe unidentified targets.
Studies have established that the majority of UFO observations are misidentified conventional objects or natural phenomena—most aircraft, noctilucent clouds, nacreous clouds, or astronomical objects such as meteors or bright planets with a small percentage being hoaxes. Between 5% and 20% of reported sightings are not explained, therefore can be classified as unidentified in the strictest sense. While proponents of the extraterrestrial hypothesis suggest that these unexplained reports are of alien spacecraft, the null hypothesis cannot be excluded that these reports are other more prosaic phenomena that cannot be identified due to lack of complete information or due to the necessary subjectivity of the reports. Instead of accepting the null hypothesis, UFO enthusiasts tend to engage in special pleading by offering outlandish, untested explanations for the validity of the ETH; these violate Occam's razor. No scientific papers about UFOs have been published in peer-reviewed journals. There was, in the past, some debate in the scientific community about whether any scientific investigation into UFO sightings is warranted with the general conclusion being that the phenomenon was not worthy of serious investigation except as a cultural artifact.
UFOs have been the subject of investigations by various governments who have provided extensive records related to the subject. Many of the most involved government-sponsored investigations ended after agencies concluded that there was no benefit to continued investigation; the void left by the lack of institutional or scientific study has given rise to independent researchers and fringe groups, including the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena in the mid-20th century and, more the Mutual UFO Network and the Center for UFO Studies. The term "Ufology" is used to describe the collective efforts of those who study reports and associated evidence of unidentified flying objects. UFOs have become a prevalent theme in modern culture, the social phenomena have been the subject of academic research in sociology and psychology. Unexplained aerial observations have been reported throughout history; some were undoubtedly astronomical in nature: comets, bright meteors, one or more of the five planets that can be readily
Andrew James Somers, known professionally as Andy Summers, is an English guitarist, a member of the rock band the Police. Summers has recorded solo albums, collaborated with other musicians, composed film scores, exhibited his photography in galleries. Andrew James Summers was born in Lancashire. During Summers' childhood, his family moved to Bournemouth in England. After several years of piano lessons, he took up the guitar. At an early age he played jazz guitar. In his teens he saw a concert by Thelonious Monk and Dizzy Gillespie in London that left a lasting impression. By he was playing in local clubs and by nineteen he had moved to London with his friend Zoot Money to form Zoot Money's Big Roll Band. Summers' professional career began in the mid-1960s in London as guitarist for the British rhythm and blues band Zoot Money's Big Roll Band, which came under the influence of the psychedelic scene and evolved into the acid rock group Dantalian's Chariot. In September 1966, Summers was the first guitarist encountered by Jimi Hendrix after landing in the UK.
The young Summers is portrayed in fiction as one of the "two main love interests" in Jenny Fabian and Johnny Byrne's 1969 book Groupie, in which he is given the pseudonym "Davey". After the demise of Dantalion's Chariot, Summers joined Soft Machine for three months and toured the United States. For a brief time in 1968, he was a member of the Animals known as Eric Burdon and the Animals, with whom he recorded one album, Love Is; the album features a recording of Traffic's "Coloured Rain", which includes a 4 minute and 15 second guitar solo by Summers. The LP included a reworked version of Dantalion's Chariot's sole single "Madman Running Through the Fields". After five years in Los Angeles spent studying classical guitar and composition at California State University, Northridge, he returned to London with his American girlfriend Kate Lunken. In London, Summers recorded and toured with acts including Kevin Coyne, Jon Lord, Joan Armatrading, David Essex, Neil Sedaka and Kevin Ayers. In October 1976 he participated in an orchestral rendition of Mike Oldfield's seminal "Tubular Bells".
In 1977, Summers was invited by ex-Gong bassist Mike Howlett to join his band Strontium 90, but was soon coaxed away by future Police bandmates Sting and Stewart Copeland. Summers achieved international fame as the guitarist for the Police, which he joined in 1977 replacing original guitarist Henry Padovani. Emerging from London's punk scene, the Police gained international renown with many hit songs, including "Message in a Bottle", "Roxanne", "Don't Stand So Close to Me", "Every Breath You Take", "Every Little Thing She Does is Magic". During his time with the band, Summers twice won a Grammy Award for Best Rock Instrumental Performance, first in 1979 for "Reggatta de Blanc" and in 1980 with for "Behind My Camel". Although Sting was the lead singer of the band, Summers contributed lead vocals, as in "Be My Girl/Sally", "Friends", "Mother", "Someone to Talk To". Other notable Summers compositions from this period are "Omegaman", "Shambelle", "Once Upon a Daydream", "Murder by Numbers" both co-written with Sting.
In early 1984, after seven years together and record sales around eighty million, the Police disbanded. Though not given songwriting credit, Summers wrote the guitar riff for "Every Breath You Take", it was recorded in one take with his 1961 Fender Stratocaster during the Synchronicity sessions. The song was number one for eight weeks. Sting won the 1983 Grammy Award for Song of the Year, the Police won Best Pop Performance by a Duo Or Group With Vocal for this song. Summers provides an account of the session in his memoir, One Train Later. Summers' solo career has included recording, composing for films, exhibiting his photography in art galleries around the world, he recorded the duet albums I Advance Masked and Bewitched with guitarist Robert Fripp of King Crimson, as well as duet albums with Victor Biglione, John Etheridge, Benjamin Verdery. His solo debut album, XYZ, was released in 1987 and is the only non-instrumental album in his catalogue. Although it included pop material, such as the single "Love is the Strangest Way", it failed to dent the charts.
In 1987 Sting invited Summers to perform on his second album... Nothing Like the Sun, a favour the singer returned by playing bass on Charming Snakes and contributing vocals to "'Round Midnight" on Summers' tribute album to Thelonious Monk, Green Chimneys, in 1999. In the mid-1990s Summers returned to a more rock-oriented sound with Synesthesia and The Last Dance of Mr X before recording a string of jazz albums. During the 2007 Grammys Award show, the Police appeared, playing "Roxanne" and subsequently announcing that they would be going on tour; the Police Reunion Tour began in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada on 28 May 2007, continued until August 2008, becoming the third highest-grossing tour of all time. In August 2013, Summers announced he had formed a new band, Circa Zero, with Rob Giles from the Rescues. Drummer Emmanuelle Caplette was a member of the band, their debut show was 25 July 2013 at the El Rey Theatre in Los Angeles. The band's debut album, Circus Hero, was released 25 March 2014.
It is titled after a malapropism of the band's name made by a radio disc jockey during an interview of Summers. The first single, "Levitation," was released to US adult album alternative radio on 3
Joan Chandos Baez is an American singer, songwriter and activist whose contemporary folk music includes songs of protest or social justice. Baez has performed publicly for over 60 years, releasing over 30 albums. Fluent in Spanish and English, she has recorded songs in at least six other languages. Although regarded as a folk singer, her music has diversified since the counterculture era of the 1960s, encompasses genres such as folk rock, pop and gospel music. Although a songwriter herself, Baez interprets other composers' work, having recorded songs by Bob Dylan, the Allman Brothers Band, the Beatles, Jackson Browne, Leonard Cohen, Woody Guthrie, Violeta Parra, the Rolling Stones, Pete Seeger, Paul Simon, Stevie Wonder and many others. On her past several albums, she has found success interpreting songs of more recent songwriters, including Ryan Adams, Josh Ritter, Steve Earle, Natalie Merchant and Joe Henry, she achieved immediate success. Her first three albums, Joan Baez, Joan Baez, Vol. 2, Joan Baez in Concert all achieved gold record status.
Songs of acclaim include "Diamonds & Rust" and covers of Phil Ochs's "There but for Fortune" and The Band's "The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down". She is known for "Farewell, Angelina", "Love Is Just a Four-Letter Word", "Forever Young", "Here's to You", "Joe Hill", "Sweet Sir Galahad" and "We Shall Overcome", she was one of the first major artists to record the songs of Bob Dylan in the early 1960s. Baez performed fourteen songs at the 1969 Woodstock Festival and has displayed a lifelong commitment to political and social activism in the fields of nonviolence, civil rights, human rights and the environment. Baez was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on April 7, 2017. Baez was born on Staten Island, New York, on January 9, 1941. Joan's grandfather, the Reverend Alberto Baez, left the Catholic Church to become a Methodist minister and moved to the U. S. when her father was two years old. Her father, Albert Baez, was born in Puebla and grew up in Brooklyn, New York, where his father preached to—and advocated for—a Spanish-speaking congregation.
Albert first considered becoming a minister but instead turned to the study of mathematics and physics and received his PhD degree at Stanford University in 1950. Albert was credited as a co-inventor of the x-ray microscope. Joan's cousin, John C. Baez, is a mathematical physicist, her mother, Joan Baez, referred to as Joan Senior or "Big Joan", was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1913 as the second daughter of an English Anglican priest who claimed to be descended from the Dukes of Chandos. Born in April 1913, she died on days after her one hundredth birthday. Baez had two sisters – Pauline Thalia Baez Bryan, sometimes professionally known as Pauline Marden. To varying degrees, both women were political activists and musicians like their sister, they are notable for having been married to other American artists – Pauline to painter Brice Marden and Mimi to author and musician Richard Fariña with whom she collaborated for several years. The Baez family converted to Quakerism during Joan's early childhood, she has continued to identify with the tradition in her commitment to pacifism and social issues.
While growing up, Baez was subjected to racial slurs and discrimination due to her Mexican heritage. She became involved with a variety of social causes early in her career, she declined to play in any white student venues that were segregated, which meant that when she toured the Southern states, she would play only at black colleges. Joan graduated from Palo Alto High School in 1958. Due to her father's work with UNESCO, their family moved many times, living in towns across the U. S, as well as in England, Switzerland, Spain and the Middle East, including Iraq. Joan Baez became involved with a variety of social causes early in her career, including civil rights and non-violence. Social justice, she stated in the PBS series American Masters, is the true core of her life, "looming larger than music"; the opening line of Baez's memoir And a Voice to Sing With is "I was born gifted". A friend of Joan's father gave her a ukulele, she learned four chords, which enabled her to play rhythm and blues, the music she was listening to at the time.
Her parents, were fearful that the music would lead her into a life of drug addiction. When Baez was 13, her aunt and her aunt's boyfriend took her to a concert by folk musician Pete Seeger, Baez found herself moved by his music, she soon began performing them publicly. One of her earliest public performances was at a retreat in Saratoga, California for a youth group from Temple Beth Jacob, a Redwood City, California Jewish congregation. A few years in 1957, Baez bought her first Gibson acoustic guitar. In 1958, her father accepted a faculty position at MIT, moved his family to Massachusetts. At that time, it was in the center of the up-and-coming folk-music scene, Baez began performing near home in Boston and nearby Cambridge, she performed in clubs, attended Boston University for about six weeks. In 1958, at the Club 47 in Cambridge, she gave her first concert; when designing the poster for the performance, Baez considered changing her performing name to either Rachel Sandperl, the surname of her long-t