Dukinfield is a town in Tameside, Greater Manchester, England, on the south bank of the River Tame opposite Ashton-under-Lyne,6.3 miles east of Manchester. At the 2011 Census, it had a population of 19,306, historically part of Cheshire, the town developed as a result of the Industrial Revolution when it became the site of coal mining and cotton manufacturing. The earliest evidence of activity around Dukinfield comes from a collection of four flints from the late Neolithic/early Bronze Age. The artefacts were discovered on the site of Dukinfield Hall and have taken as evidence of a prehistoric settlement on the site. There is no evidence of activity in the area until the Roman period. A 3rd century bronze Roman coin, from the reign of Emperor Tetricus I was discovered in the town, Dukinfield means open land of the ducks and derives from the Old English duce and feld. Early records show the township was included in the fee of Dunham Massey and it was held by Matthew de Bramhall in about 1190 and after that by a family who took the name De Dokenfeld.
During the English Civil War, Colonel Robert Duckenfield of Dukinfield Hall was a commander in the New Model Army. The baronetcy, Dukinfield of Dukinfield, Cheshire was created in 1665 for Robert Dukinfield, the Dukinfields held the manor for five centuries until the widow of Sir William Dukinfield Daniel married the artist, John Astley, in 1767. In 1848 his descendant, colliery owner Francis Dukinfield Palmer Astley, was the lord of the manor, Dukinfield Lodge was built by the Astleys on a hill overlooking the River Tame. Industrialisation – particularly the cotton trade – helped shape the town, two cotton mills were built before 1794 and by 1825 there were seven. The industry continued to expand and by the end of the 19th century 14 spinning mills of varying sizes were in operation. The largest mills were built in brick during the 1890s with four or five storeys, large windows, ornamental towers, engine houses and they included Tower, Tame Valley, Park Road and Queen Mills. Most of the mills have now been demolished, but some have been preserved and converted into flats.
Francis Dukinfield Astley developed two collieries in the town and Astley Deep Pit, and both had explosions killing many workers, Dukinfield Colliery was owned by Astleys Dukinfield Colliery Company. The colliery had two shafts, the downcast was 1,020 feet deep to the Black mine and was connected to the upcast ventilation shaft, on 4 June 1867,38 men and boys died of suffocation following an explosion caused by a faulty safety lamp and poor management. Astley Deep Pit, was off Kings Street opposite Brownlea Avenue was developed by Astley, the collierys downcast shaft was 2,058 feet deep and its workings extended over a mile to the south and about 1,300 yards to the north of the shaft. This colliery was reported to be at one time, the deepest coal mine in the world, on 14 April 1874 an underground gas explosion killed 54 men
Cooper Car Company
The Cooper Car Company was founded in December 1947 by Charles Cooper and his son John Cooper. Together with Johns boyhood friend, Eric Brandon, they began by building racing cars in Charless small garage in Surbiton, England, in 1946. The first cars built by the Coopers were single-seat 500-cc Formula Three racing cars driven by John Cooper and Eric Brandon, since materials were in short supply immediately after World War II, the prototypes were constructed by joining two old Fiat Topolino front-ends together. According to John Cooper, the stroke of genius that would make the Coopers an automotive legend—the location of the engine behind the driver—was merely a matter at the time. Because the car was powered by an engine, they believed it was more convenient to have the engine in the back. In fact there was nothing new about mid engined racing cars, Cooper built up to 300 single-and twin-cylinder cars during the 1940s and 1950s, and dominated the F3 category, winning 64 of 78 major races between 1951 and 1954.
Though Schell retired in the first lap, this marked the first appearance of a racer at a Grand Prix event since the end of WWII. The front-engined Formula Two Cooper Bristol model was introduced in 1952, until the company began building rear-engined sports cars in 1955, they really had not become aware of the benefits of having the engine behind the driver. Based on the 500-cc cars and powered by a modified Coventry Climax fire-pump engine, jack Brabham raised some eyebrows when he took sixth place at the 1957 Monaco Grand Prix in a rear-engined Formula 1 Cooper. The next year,1959, Brabham and the Cooper works team became the first to win the Formula One World Championship in a rear-engined car, both team and driver repeated the feat in 1960, and every World Champion since has been sitting in front of his engine. The little-known designer behind the car was Owen Maddock, who was employed by Cooper Car Company, Maddock was known as The Beard by his workmates, and Whiskers to Charles Cooper.
Describing how the revolutionary rear-engined Cooper chassis came to be, Maddock explained and he kept saying Nah, thats not it, try again. Finally, I got so fed up I sketched a frame in which every tube was bent, meant just as a joke, I showed it to Charlie and to my astonishment he grabbed it and said, Thats it. Maddock pioneered one of the first designs for a monocoque stressed skin composite chassis. Arriving at the Speedway 5 May 1961, the little car from Europe was mocked by the other teams. It took a few years, but the Indianapolis establishment gradually realized the writing was on the wall, beginning with Jim Clark, who drove a rear-engined Lotus in 1965, every winner of the Indianapolis 500 has had the engine in the back. The revolution begun by the little chain-driven Cooper 500 was complete, the Cooper teams decline was accelerated when John Cooper was seriously injured in a road accident in 1963 driving a twin-engined Mini, and Charles Cooper died in 1964. After the death of his father, John Cooper sold the Cooper Formula One team to the Chipstead Motor Group in April 1965
Mount St Mary's College
Mount St Marys College is an independent, coeducational and boarding school situated at Spinkhill, near Sheffield, England. Although most teaching staff are lay members, the school retains its Catholic ethos. Its affiliated preparatory school is Barlborough Hall School, just 2.2 miles down the road, the Jesuit mission to England began in 1580 with the secret arrival of Robert Persons, Edmund Campion, and Ralph Emerson. After Campion’s arrest the following year, Persons slipped back to the European mainland where he spent most of the rest of his life preparing others for the Jesuit mission to England. One of the first things he did was to set up a school for English boys who had no hope of receiving a Catholic education in their own country. Many of its students went on to become priests, returning to England to work, in England, there were several clandestine schools, one of them was at Stanley Grange in Derbyshire. When this school was discovered and dispersed by the authorities, it did not cease to exist, Spinkhill had been a centre of Jesuit activity from the 1600s.
The Jesuit English Province was organised territorially into a number of colleges, the founder of the college was Fr. Provincial of the Society of Jesus in England, the college buildings date, in part, from the 16th and 17th centuries, the Sodality Chapel being the earliest remaining building. The Jesuits had a college at Holbeck Woodhouse, near Welbeck, which was raided by the soldiers of Charles II, joseph Hansom, an architect and inventor of the Hansom Cab, built the first college buildings in 1840. In 1850 the Hopkins wing was constructed, the new college was begun in 1876 and completed in 1912. The school chapel, designed by Adrian Gilbert Scott, was completed in 1924 as a memorial to former pupils killed in World War I. In the atrium to the chapel can be more than 100 names of former pupils of the school killed in the Second Boer War, World War I. In 1939 Barlborough Hall, an Elizabethan manor some two miles from Spinkhill, was acquired to serve as a school to Mount St Marys College. The school was boys-only until the 1970s, when girls were admitted as day students, girls were allowed to board in 1984.
The Society of Jesus formally transferred property of the two schools, their capital and other assets to this trust, while legally separate from the Jesuits, the college is true to the Jesuit traditions and approach to education. For each year, there are three forms and each form applies to one of the schools houses, the school has had exchanges in the past with Notre Dame St Sigisbert in Nancy and with Col·legi Casp and Joan 23 school which are in Barcelona. In 2009, the school began an exchange with St. Michel in Saint-Étienne, Mount St Marys Combined Cadet Forces is 100-years-old
Connaught Engineering, often referred to simply as Connaught, was a Formula One and sports car constructor from the United Kingdom. Their cars participated in 18 Grands Prix, entering a total of 52 races with their A, B and they achieved 1 podium and scored 17 championship points. The name Connaught is a pun on Continental Autos, the garage in Send, which specialised in sales and repair of European sports cars such as Bugatti, and where the cars were built. In 1950 the first single-seaters, the Formula 2 A types, the engine was extensively re-engineered and therefore is truly a Connaught engine. The cars were of conventional construction for the time with drive through a gearbox to a de Dion rear axle. In 1952 and 1953 the races counting towards the World Championship were to Formula 2 rules so drivers of cars could take part in those events as the table below shows. The first cars were built with all-enveloping aerodynamic bodywork but rebodied conventionally. In 1955, driving a Connaught in this form, Tony Brooks scored the first win in a Grand Prix by a British driver in a British car since 1923, in a non World Championship race at Syracuse.
Prior to the racing cars they built a small number of road going sports cars developed on the Lea-Francis Sports Chassis. These were of types L2 and L3, and three examples of the stark Cycle Winged L3/SR Sports Racer, two sports cars, based on the A Type Formula 2 cars, the ALSRs were built for competition work. In 2004, the Connaught name was revived by Connaught Motor Company for their Type D Syracuse, *Constructors points not awarded until 1958 ± = Indicates a shared drive List of car manufacturers of the United Kingdom Connaught Motor Company
Aston Martin Lagonda Limited is a British manufacturer of luxury sports cars and grand tourers. It was founded in 1913 by Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford and their sports cars are regarded as a British cultural icon. Aston Martin has held a Royal Warrant as purveyor of motorcars to HRH the Prince of Wales since 1982, headquarters and the main production site are in Gaydon, England, on the site of a former RAF V Bomber airbase. One of Aston Martins recent cars was named after the 1950s Vulcan Bomber, Aston Martin has diversified to speed boats, and real estate development. Aston Martin had a troubled history after the quarter of the 20th century but has enjoyed long periods of success. “In the first century we went bankrupt seven times, ” incoming CEO Andy Palmer told Automotive News Europe, “The second century is about making sure that is not the case. ”Aston Martin was founded in 1913 by Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford. The two had joined forces as Bamford & Martin the previous year to sell cars made by Singer from premises in Callow Street, London where they serviced GWK, Martin raced specials at Aston Hill near Aston Clinton, and the pair decided to make their own vehicles.
The first car to be named Aston Martin was created by Martin by fitting a four-cylinder Coventry-Simplex engine to the chassis of a 1908 Isotta-Fraschini and they acquired premises at Henniker Mews in Kensington and produced their first car in March 1915. Production could not start because of the outbreak of World War I, all machinery was sold to the Sopwith Aviation Company. After the war found new premises at Abingdon Road, Kensington. Bamford left in 1920 and Aston Martin was revitalised with funding from Count Louis Zborowski, in 1922, Bamford & Martin produced cars to compete in the French Grand Prix, which went on to set world speed and endurance records at Brooklands. Approximately 55 cars were built for sale in two configurations, long chassis and short chassis, Aston Martin went bankrupt in 1924 and was bought by Dorothea, Lady Charnwood who put her son John Benson on the board. Aston Martin failed again in 1925 and the closed in 1926. Later that year, Bill Renwick, Augustus Bertelli and investors including Lady Charnwood took control of the business and they renamed it Aston Martin Motors and moved it to the former Whitehead Aircraft Limited Hanworth works in Feltham.
The only Renwick and Bertelli motor car made, it was known as Buzzbox, between 1926 and 1937 Bertelli was both technical director and designer of all new Aston Martins, since known as Bertelli cars. They included the 1½-litre T-type, International, Le Mans, MKII and its derivative, the Ulster, and the 2-litre 15/98 and its racing derivative. Most were open two-seater sports cars bodied by Bert Bertellis brother Enrico, with a number of long-chassis four-seater tourers, dropheads. Bertelli was a competent driver keen to race his cars, one of few owner/manufacturer/drivers, the LM team cars were very successful in national and international motor racing including at Le Mans and the Mille Miglia
Sebring International Raceway
Sebring International Raceway is a road course auto racing facility located near Sebring, Florida. Sebring Raceway is one of the oldest continuously operating tracks in the United States. Sebring is one of the race tracks in North American sports car racing. Sebring raceway occupies the site of Hendricks Army Airfield, a United States Army Air Forces training base for Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress pilots in operation from 1941 to 1946, Sebrings first race was held on New Years Eve of 1950, attracting thirty race cars from across North America. The Sam Collier 6 Hour Memorial race was won by Fritz Koster, the first 12 Hours of Sebring was held on March 15,1952, shortly growing into a major international race. In 1959, the hosted the U. S. first Formula One race. However poor attendance and high costs relocated the next U. S, Grand Prix to Riverside International Raceway in Southern California. For much of Sebrings history, the followed a 5.2 miles layout. This was closer to the hairpin and allowed a run through a very fast corner to the top of the track.
In 1983 the circuit was changed to allow use of the track. In 1987 more changes allowed use of another runway, in 1997, the hairpin was removed due to a lack of run-off, and replaced with what became known as the safety pin. Gendebien Bend was re-profiled to slow the entry to the Ullman straight. The track is often recognized for its famous, high-speed Turn 17, the corner can fit up to 3 cars wide. Skip Barber Racing School holds numerous programs at the facility, including a Scholarship opportunity for young racers, Sebring International Raceway consist of three tracks, the Full Circuit, the Short Circuit, and the Club Circuit. The course of the track itself is 3.74 miles long and it is a seventeen-turn road course with long straights, several high-speed corners, and very technical slower corners. Many of the turns and points along the track are named for the early teams, there is very little elevation change around the track and little camber on the surface, providing a challenging track for drivers, especially when it rains.
Sebring is renowned for its rough surface, the course still runs on old sections of World War II-era landing fields that were constructed of concrete sections with large seams. The transitions between sections are quite rough and often, sparks fly from the undercarriages of the cars as they traverse them, much of the track has intentionally been left with its original concrete runway surface
Auto racing is a sport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Almost as soon as automobiles had been invented, races of various sorts were organised, by the 1930s specialist racing cars had developed. There are now numerous different categories, each with different rules and it was won by the carriage of Isaac Watt Boulton. Internal combustion auto racing events began soon after the construction of the first successful gasoline-fueled automobiles, the first organized contest was on April 28,1887, by the chief editor of Paris publication Le Vélocipède, Monsieur Fossier. It ran 2 kilometres from Neuilly Bridge to the Bois de Boulogne, on July 22,1894, the Parisian magazine Le Petit Journal organized what is considered to be the worlds first motoring competition, from Paris to Rouen. One hundred and two competitors paid a 10-franc entrance fee, the first American automobile race is generally held to be the Thanksgiving Day Chicago Times-Herald race of November 28,1895. Press coverage of the event first aroused significant American interest in the automobile, brooklands, in Surrey, was the first purpose-built motor racing venue, opening in June 1907.
It featured a 4.43 km concrete track with high-speed banked corners, One of the oldest existing purpose-built automobile racing circuits in the United States, still in use, is the 2. 5-mile -long Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana. It is the largest capacity venue of any variety worldwide, with a top capacity of some 257. NASCAR was founded by Bill France, Sr. on February 21,1948, the first NASCAR Strictly Stock race ever was held on June 19,1949, at Daytona Beach, Florida. From 1962, sports cars temporarily took a seat to GT cars. From 1972 through 2003, NASCARs premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, the changes that resulted from RJRs involvement, as well as the reduction of the schedule from 48 to 31 races a year, established 1972 as the beginning of NASCARs modern era. The IMSA GT Series evolved into the American Le Mans Series, the European races eventually became the closely related Le Mans Series, both of which mix prototypes and GTs. The best-known variety of racing, Formula One, which hosts the famous Monaco Grand Prix.
In single-seater, the wheels are not covered, and the cars often have aerofoil wings front, in Europe and Asia, open-wheeled racing is commonly referred to as Formula, with appropriate hierarchical suffixes. In North America, the Formula terminology is not followed, the sport is usually arranged to follow an international format, a regional format, and/or a domestic, or country-specific, format. In North America, the used in the National Championship have traditionally been similar though less sophisticated than F1 cars. The series most famous race is the Indianapolis 500, the other major international single-seater racing series is GP2
1959 British Grand Prix
The 1959 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at the Aintree Circuit on 18 July 1959. It was the round of the 1959 Formula One season. It was the 14th British Grand Prix and the third to be held at the Aintree Motor Racing Circuit, the race was held over 75 laps of the four kilometre circuit for a race distance of 362 kilometres. The race was won by Australian Jack Brabham taking his second Grand Prix victory in a works Cooper T51, Brabham dominated the race, leading all 75 laps to win by 22 seconds over British driver Stirling Moss driving a British Racing Partnership entered BRM P25. It was the first time a BRP entry finished in the top three, brabhams Cooper Car Company team mate, New Zealader Bruce McLaren finished in third place, just 0.2 seconds behind Moss, having lost second place late in the race. Harry Schell finished fourth for the Owen Racing Organisation BRM team a lap behind Brabham, the British Grand Prix had the biggest entry of the season outside of the Indianapolis 500 with 30 cars competing and 24 starting the race, all despite the absence of Ferrari.
Strikes in Italy trapped the team at home, leaving the British teams to fight over the race, the win saw Brabham expand his points lead over Brooks to 13 points. Moss and McLaren moved into place just half a point behind the absent Phil Hill. On the last lap of race, McLaren became the youngest driver to set a fastest lap in Formula One. It was another 44 years before Fernando Alonso relieved him of that achievement with fastest lap in the 2003 Canadian GP and he was a day younger aged 21 years and 321 days. Notes, Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings, Brabham presses home his claim on the title. Archived from the original on 14 August 2007, GRAND PRIX RESULTS, BRITISH GP,1959. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007, archived from the original on 29 September 2007
Hotel de France (Le Mans / La Chartre sur le Loir)
The Hotel de France is a historic hotel in the centre of the town of La Chartre Sur Le Loir. The 22 room hotel, with its Art Deco facade, is located at 20 and it is famous for its long association with the drivers and cars of the Le Mans 24 Hours race. The hotel opened for business in 1905, having been run by the Pasteau family for the past four generations, from 1953, it was used as headquarters for Le Mans racing teams, most notably by teams managed by John Wyer. Wyer ran the victorious Aston Martin and Gulf Oil teams from the hotel, his first Le Mans victory, celebrated at the hotel, as a consequence, the hotel is full of motor racing history. The hotel is a mecca for fans of the Le Mans 24 Hours race, the bar walls are covered with photos of past and present racing drivers, many of them signed by the drivers themselves. The hotel underwent a refurbishment at the start of 2014. To date the hotel has been visited by famous racing drivers, film stars, leaders of state. Steve McQueen when preparing for the cult 1971 movie Le Mans, president Rene Coty of France, Prince Bertil of Sweden, Pierre Salinger and the children of both John F Kennedy and Robert Kennedy.
Hotel de France – Official Web Site
Formula Two, abbreviated to F2, was a type of open wheel formula racing first codified in 1948. It was replaced in 1985 by Formula 3000, but revived by the FIA from 2009–2012 in the form of the FIA Formula Two Championship. The goal of the 2009 revival was to develop a low-cost series to young drivers a chance to compete in the highest tiers of motorsport. In December 2012, series promoter MSV announced that Formula Two would not take place after 2013 due to declining entrant numbers, a third attempt at establishing the series was announced in 2015. Formula 2 returned in 2017, the former GP2 series became FIA Formula 2 in the March leading up to the 2017 season, for much of the history of Formula One, Formula Two has represented the penultimate step on the motorsport ladder. Prior to the Second World War, there existed a division of racing for cars smaller. This category was usually called voiturette racing and provided a means for amateur or less experienced drivers and smaller marques to prove themselves.
By the outbreak of war, the rules for voiturette racing permitted 1.5 L supercharged engines, in 1946, the 3.0 L supercharged rules were abandoned and Formulae A and B introduced. This left no category below Formula A/Formula One, so Formula Two was first formally codified in 1948 by FIA as a smaller and cheaper complement to the Grand Prix cars of the era. Among the races held in this first year of Formula Two was the 1948 Stockholm Grand Prix, the rules limited engines to two-litre naturally aspirated or 750 cc supercharged. As a result, the cars were smaller and this encouraged new marques such as Cooper to move up to Formula Two, before competing against the big manufacturers of Alfa Romeo and Maserati. In fact, Formula One in its early years attracted so few entrants that in 1952 and 1953 all World Championship Grand Prix races, except the unique Indianapolis 500, were run in Formula Two. F2 went into decline with the arrival of the 2.5 L F1 in 1954 and this became dominated by rear-engined Coopers drawing on their Formula 3 and Bobtail sports car, with Porsches based on their RSK sports cars enjoying some success.
Ferrari originally developed their Sharknose Dino 156 as a Formula Two car, the dominant engine of this formula was the Coventry Climax FPF four-cylinder, with the rare Borgward sixteen-valve unit enjoying some success. A slightly enlarged version of the F2 Cooper won the first two Formula One Grands Prix in 1958, marking the beginning of the era in Formula One. Formula Two was largely the domain of Formula One stars on their days off, engines were mostly by Cosworth and Honda, though some other units appeared, including various Fiat based units and dedicated racing engines from BMC and BRM. For 1967, the FIA increased the engine capacity to 1600cc. The FIA introduced the European Formula Two Championship in 1967, driving a Matra MS5, won the inaugural championship by 11 points from the Australian, Frank Gardner
1956 Formula One season
The 1956 Formula One season featured the tenth season of FIAs Formula One motor racing. It featured the seventh World Championship of Drivers as well as numerous non-championship races, the championship series commenced on 22 January 1956 and ended on 2 September after eight races. Juan Manuel Fangio won his third title, the fourth of his career. Until the 2006 season this was the last season during which no British constructor won any championship race, Fangio joined Ferrari after Mercedes-Benz, with whom he had won the 1954 and 1955 titles, withdrew from the sport. Ferrari acquired the folded Lancia teams D50 cars and put together a team containing Fangio, Eugenio Castellotti, Luigi Musso. Fangio won the race after commandeering Mussos car after his own car had broken down. Collins and Fangios team-mate at Mercedes, Stirling Moss – now driving for Maserati provided the biggest challenge to his title defence, in an open season the British Connaughts, Vanwalls and BRMs showed some signs of promise.
Going into the race of the season, Fangio had an eight-point lead over Collins. The only way he could lose the title would be to no points with Collins winning and setting fastest lap. Fangio retired, and with Musso unwilling to share his car with Fangio, Collins, in a remarkable act of sportsmanship, instead chose to hand his car over to Fangio to allow the Argentine to finish second in the race and win his third title in a row. The following races counted towards the 1956 World Championship of Drivers, the following teams and drivers competed in the 1956 FIA World Championship. The above list does not include competitors in the 1956 Indianapolis 500, Championship points were awarded at each race on an 8–6–4–3–2 basis to the first five finishers, with an additional point awarded to the driver setting the fastest lap of the race. Points for shared drives were divided equally between the drivers, regardless of who had driven more laps, Only the best five round results were counted. Italics indicate fastest lap Bold indicates pole position † Position shared between more drivers of the same car Only the best 5 results counted towards the Championship, numbers without parentheses are Championship points, numbers in parentheses are total points scored.
The following non-championship races for Formula One cars were held in 1956,1956 World Championship race results
1957 British Grand Prix
The 1957 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 20 July 1957 at the Aintree Circuit, near Liverpool. It was the tenth British Grand Prix, and the fifth World Championship race of the 1957 Formula One season, the race was won by Stirling Moss and Tony Brooks, who shared driving duties in a Vanwall. It was the third and final time that a Grand Prix had been won by two drivers in a shared car and this was the first occasion that a British-built car won a World Drivers Championship race, a feat achieved with two British drivers at their home Grand Prix. Last Grand Prix appearance for, Bob Gerard and Les Leston, career Firsts, Tony Brooks, Roy Salvadori. Car #20, Tony Brooks and Stirling Moss and they shared the 8 points for first place Car #16, Maurice Trintignant and Peter Collins. Trintignant received all 3 points for fourth place as it was determined that Collins did not drive a significant number of laps, Car #18, Stirling Moss and Tony Brooks. Drivers Championship standings Note, Only the top five positions are included