Waymo LLC is a self-driving technology development company. It is a subsidiary of Alphabet Inc. Waymo originated as a project of Google before it became a stand-alone subsidiary in December 2016. In April 2017, Waymo started a limited trial of a self-driving taxi service in Arizona. On December 5, 2018, the service launched a commercial self-driving car service called "Waymo One". Google's development of self-driving technology began in January 17, 2009, at the company's secretive X lab run by co-founder Sergey Brin; the project was led by Sebastian Thrun, the former director of the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and co-inventor of Google Street View. Thrun's team at Stanford created the robotic vehicle Stanley, which won the 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge and its US$2 million prize from the United States Department of Defense, his team consisted of 15 Google engineers, including Chris Urmson, Dmitri Dolgov, Mike Montemerlo, Anthony Levandowski, who had worked on the DARPA Grand and Urban Challenges.
Starting in 2010, lawmakers in various states expressed concerns over how to regulate the emerging technology. Nevada passed a law in June 2011 concerning the operation of autonomous cars in Nevada, which went into effect on March 1, 2012. A Toyota Prius modified with Google's experimental driverless technology was licensed by the Nevada Department of Motor Vehicles in May 2012; this was the first license issue in the United States for a self-driven car. In late May 2014, Google revealed a new prototype of its driverless car, which had no steering wheel, gas pedal, or brake pedal, being 100% autonomous, unveiled a functioning prototype in December of that year that they planned to test on San Francisco Bay Area roads beginning in 2015. Called the Firefly, the car was intended to serve as a platform for experimentation and learning, not mass production. In 2015, Google provided "the world's first driverless ride on public roads" to a blind friend of principal engineer Nathaniel Fairfield; the ride was taken by Steve Mahan, former CEO of the Santa Clara Valley Blind Center, in Austin, Texas.
It was the first driverless ride, on a public road and was not accompanied by a test driver or police escort. The car had floor pedals. In December 2016, the unit was renamed Waymo, made into its own separate division in Alphabet; the name Waymo is derived from its mission, "a new way forward in mobility". Waymo moved to further test its cars on public roads after becoming its own subsidiary. In 2017, Waymo sued Uber for stealing trade secrets. A court filing in lawsuit revealed Google has spent over $1.1 billion on the project between 2009 and 2015, to be compared with the $1 billion acquisition of Cruise Automation by General Motors in March 2016, a similar investment by Ford in a joint venture with Argo AI in February 2017, or the $680 million for Otto's acquisition by Uber in August 2016. Waymo and Uber settled with Uber granting Waymo $245 million worth of Uber stock. Waymo began testing autonomous minivans without a safety driver on public roads in Chandler, Arizona, in October 2017; the company announced in January 2018 that it would begin its ride-hailing services in the Phoenix, area in the year.
In 2017, Waymo unveiled new sensors and chips that are less expensive to manufacture, cameras that improve visibility, wipers to clear the lidar system. Waymo manufactures a suite of self-driving hardware developed in-house; these sensors and hardware—enhanced vision system, improved radar, laser-based lidar—reduce Waymo's dependence on suppliers. The in-house production system allows Waymo to efficiently integrate its technology to the hardware. In the beginning of the self-driving car program, the company spent $75,000 for each lidar system from Velodyne; as of 2017, that cost was down 90 percent, due to Waymo designing its own version of lidar. Waymo officials said the cars the company uses are built for full autonomy with sensors that give 360 degree views and lasers that detect objects up to 300 meters away. Short-range lasers detect and focus on objects near the vehicle, while radar is used to see around vehicles and track objects in motion; the interior of these cars include buttons for riders to control certain functions: "Help", "Lock", "Pull over", "Start ride".
Waymo engineers have created a program called Carcraft, a virtual world where Waymo can simulate driving conditions. The simulator is named after the video game World of Warcraft. With Carcraft, 25,000 virtual self-driving cars navigate through models of Austin, Mountain View, Phoenix and other cities; as of 2018, Waymo has driven more than 5 billion miles in the virtual world. Waymo has created partnerships with Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, AutoNation, Avis and Jaguar Land Rover; the Waymo project team has equipped various types of cars with the self-driving equipment, including the Toyota Prius, Audi TT, Fiat Chrysler Pacifica and Lexus RX450h. Google developed their own custom vehicle, about 100 of which were assembled by Roush Enterprises with equipment from Bosch, ZF Lenksysteme, LG, Continental. In May 2016, Google and Fiat Chrysler Automobiles announced an order of 100 Chrysler Pacifica hybrid minivans to test the self-driving technology. Waymo ordered an additional 500 Pacifica hybrids in 2017 and in late May 2018, Alphabet announced plans to add up to 62,000 Pacifica Hybrid minivans to the fleet.
In March 2018, Jaguar Land Rover announced that Waymo had ordered up to 20,000 of its planned electric I-Pace cars, at an estimated cost more than $1 billion. Jaguar is to deliver the first I-Pace prototype in the year, the cars are to become part of
The Magic Link was a personal communicator and PDA marketed by Sony from 1994, based on the General Magic's Magic Cap operating system. The Magic Link was brought to market by Jerry Fiala Sr at Sony; the "Link" part of the name refers to the device's ability to receive data over a modem. A competing product to the Magic Link was the Motorola Envoy. In 1995, the Magic Link won the PC World World Class Award. Messages Address Book Clock and Calendar Notebook Spreadsheet Datebook Phone Fax machine Pocket Quicken Sony AV Remote Commander Calculator AT&T PersonaLink Services America Online mail client
Nest Labs is an American manufacturer of smart home products including thermostats, smoke detectors, security systems including smart doorbells and smart locks. Its flagship product, the company's first offering, is the Nest Learning Thermostat, introduced in 2011; the product is programmable, self-learning, sensor-driven, Wi-Fi-enabled – features that are found in other Nest products. It was followed by the Nest Protect smoke and carbon monoxide detector in October 2013. After its acquisition of Dropcam in 2014, the company introduced its Nest Cam branding of security cameras beginning in June 2015. Co-founded by former Apple engineers Tony Fadell and Matt Rogers in 2010, the company expanded to more than 130 employees by the end of 2012. Google acquired Nest Labs for US$3.2 billion in January 2014, when the company employed 280. As of late 2015, Nest added a primary engineering center in Seattle. Nest Labs was founded in 2010 by former Apple engineers Tony Matt Rogers; the idea came when Fadell was building a vacation home and found all of the available thermostats on the market to be inadequate, motivated to bring something better on the market.
Early investors in Nest Labs included Shasta Ventures and KPCB. On January 13, 2014, Google announced plans to acquire Nest Labs for $3.2 billion in cash. Google completed the acquisition the next day, on January 14, 2014; the company would operate independently from Google's other businesses. In June 2014, it was announced. With the purchase, Dropcam became integrated with other Nest products; that year, Nest acquired the hub service Revolv but did not continue its product line. In September 2014, the Nest Thermostat and Nest Protect became available in Belgium, France and the Netherlands, they are sold in 400 retail stores across Europe with another 150 stores to be added by the end of the year. In June 2015, the new Nest Cam, replacing the Dropcam, was announced, together with the second generation of the Nest Protect. In August 2015, Google announced that it would restructure its operations under a new parent company, Alphabet Inc. with Nest being separated from Google as a subsidiary of the new holding company.
The restructuring led to Tony Fadell, the Nest CEO, to announce in a blog post in June 2016 that he was leaving the company he founded with Matt Rogers and stepping into an "advisory" role. It culminated after months of rumors about Nest's demanding corporate culture under Fadell's leadership, the displeasure of former Dropcam CEO Greg Duffy, who regretted selling his company to Nest. By June 2016, the Nest acquisition was described by some press as a "disaster" for Google. Nest's problems in 2016 stem in a large part due to a limited market. According to Frank Gillet of Forrester Research, only 6% of American households possess internet-connected devices such as appliances, home-monitoring systems, speakers, or lighting, he predicted this percentage to grow to only 15% by 2021. Furthermore, 72% of respondents in a 2016 survey conducted by Pricewaterhouse Coopers did not foresee adopting smart-home technology over the next two to five years. On February 7, 2018, it was announced by hardware head Rick Osterloh that Nest had been merged into Google's hardware division, directly alongside units such as Google Home and Chromecast.
It would retain its separate Palo Alto headquarters, but Nest CEO Marwan Fawaz would now report to Osterloh, there were plans for tighter integration with Google platforms and software such as Google Assistant in future products. Shortly after the announcement, co-founder and chief product officer Matt Rogers announced that he planned to leave the company. On July 18, 2018, Nest CEO Marwan Fawaz stepped down. Nest was merged with Google's home devices team, led by Rishi Chandra; the Nest Learning Thermostat is an electronic and self-learning Wi-Fi-enabled thermostat that optimizes heating and cooling of homes and businesses to conserve energy. It is based on a machine learning algorithm: for the first weeks users have to regulate the thermostat in order to provide the reference data set. Nest can learn people's schedule, at which temperature they are used to and when. Using built-in sensors and phones' locations it can shift into energy saving mode when it realizes nobody is at home; the Nest Thermostat is built around an operating system that allows interaction with the thermostat via spinning and clicking of its control wheel, which brings up option menus for switching from heating to cooling, access to device settings, energy history, scheduling.
Users can control Nest without other input device. As the thermostat is connected to the Internet, the company can push updates to fix bugs, improve performance and add additional features. For updates to occur automatically, the thermostat must be connected to Wi‑Fi and the battery must have at least a 3.7 V charge to give enough power to complete the download and installation of the update. The operating system itself is based on many other free software components. Nest is available for sale in the United States, Mexico, the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, Austria and Spain, it is, compatible with many heating and cooling automation systems in other countries. Nest Labs have surveyed existing users known to be outside the areas where it is available. Use of the thermostat outside the United States and Canada is complicated by the software setting time and other functions based on the ZIP code. For int
RealNetworks, Inc. is a provider of Internet streaming media delivery software and services based in Seattle, United States. The company provides subscription-based online entertainment services and mobile entertainment and messaging services. RealNetworks was founded in 1994 by an ex-Microsoft executive, Rob Glaser and a management team including Phil Barrett, Andy Sharpless, Stephen Buerkle; the original goal of the company was to provide a distribution channel for politically progressive content. It evolved into a technology venture to leverage the Internet as an alternative distribution medium for audio broadcasts. Progressive Networks became RealNetworks in September 1997. RealNetworks are pioneers in the streaming media markets and broadcast one of the earlier audio events over the Internet — a baseball game between the New York Yankees and Seattle Mariners — on September 5, 1995, they announced streaming video technology in 1997. According to some accounts, by 2000, more than 85% of streaming content on the Internet was in the Real format.
Despite this success, problems arose because Real's primary business model depended upon the sale of streaming media server software, Microsoft and Apple were giving those products away. As servers from Microsoft and Apple became more capable, Real's server sales eroded. On January 20, 2000, RealNetworks, Inc. filed an injunction against Streambox, Inc. regarding the aforementioned company's product designed to convert Real Audio formatted files to other formats. On December 4, 2001, the company was to launch the first coordinated effort to sell and deliver music from major record labels over the Internet, part of a broader initiative by the company to develop subscription Internet services aimed at Web users with fast Internet connections. In 2002, a strategic alliance was formed between RealNetworks and Sony Corporation to expand collaboration. In October, 2005, Microsoft agreed to pay RealNetworks $460 million to settle an antitrust lawsuit. In August 2003, RealNetworks acquired Listen.com's Rhapsody music service, renamed it RealRhapsody.
It offered streaming music downloads for a monthly fee. In January 2004, RealNetworks announced the RealPlayer Music Store, featuring digital rights management restricted music in the AAC file format. After some initial tries to push their own DRM scheme onto all device manufacturers with the Creative Zen Xtra and the Sansa e200r as the only existing compliant devices, they sparked controversy by introducing a technology called Harmony that allowed their music to play on iPods as well as Microsoft Windows Media Audio DRM-equipped devices using a "wrapper" that would convert Helix DRM into the two other target DRM schemes; the domain real.com attracted at least 67 million visitors annually by 2008, according to a Compete.com study. On April 6, 2010, Rhapsody was spun off from RealNetworks. In July 2013, RealNetworks acquired Slingo for $15.6 million. The company introduced a mobile phone app called Listen in April 2014 that plays custom ringtones to those calling the user's phone. RealNetworks has its headquarters in Seattle, Washington in the Home Plate Center building in SoDo across from Safeco Field, sharing the building with King5 and Logic 20/20 Consulting.
In 2000, one of the initial products, the download manager RealDownload, was used for pushing small software, such as games, to subscribers' computers. On top of the subscription for RealDownload and using its RealVideo streaming technology, a service called GoldPass, including unlimited access for video snippets from ABC and movie previews, was offered to registered users for a monthly $10 fee. More content was added through deals with CBS for the reality show Big NBA basketball. After the dot-com bubble, RealNetworks cut most of the resources; some of the content was lost, some were limited to local markets, e.g. Ministry of Sound was available only to UK subscribers. With the increase in broadband usage, RealNetworks started offering live broadcasts of CNN International, BBC World, Al-Jazeera etc. separately for prices between $6 and $12, or bundled in the SuperPass for about $35 a month depending on the market. Between 2003 and 2006, SuperPass included, for European subscribers, unlimited access to UEFA Champions League full-length game recordings.
On September 30, 2008, RealNetworks launched a new product called RealDVD. The software allows any user to save a copy of a DVD movie they own; the company was found to have violated the Digital Millennium Copyright Act and RealNetworks' contract with the DVD Copy Control Association, as the software allowed anyone to save a movie they do not own.. The product's distribution was barred by a court injunction. Real Alternative is a discontinued software bundle that allows users to play RealMedia files without installing RealPlayer; the last version, 2.02, was released on February 19, 2010. It included Media Player Classic. Beginning in 2010, RealNetworks sued Hilbrand Edskes, a 26-year-old Dutch webmaster for having inserted hyperlinks to Real Alternative on his site www.codecpack.nl. RealNetworks alleges. Meanwhile, Download.com and FileHippo continue to host the software product, unchallenged. In November 2011 RealNetworks' case against Edskes was dismissed and RealNetworks was ordered to pay him €48,000 in damages.
Details of the case and judgement have been published. RealNetworks in September 2013 launched RealPlayer Cloud, a service that adds the ability to share videos recorded on smartphones and tablets. RealPlayer Cloud ties into the existing RealPlayer, however it has a Web app and apps for Android, iOS and Roku; the service has 2GB of free c
Alphabet Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate headquartered in Mountain View, California. It was created through a corporate restructuring of Google on October 2, 2015, became the parent company of Google and several former Google subsidiaries; the two founders of Google assumed executive roles in the new company, with Larry Page serving as CEO and Sergey Brin as president. Alphabet's portfolio encompasses several industries, including technology, life sciences, investment capital, research; some of its subsidiaries include Google, Chronicle, GV, CapitalG, Waymo, X, Loon and Google Fiber. Some of the subsidiaries of Alphabet have altered their names since leaving Google and becoming part of the new parent company—Google Ventures becoming GV, Google Life Sciences becoming Verily and Google X becoming just X. Following the restructuring, Page became CEO of Alphabet and Sundar Pichai took his position as CEO of Google. Shares of Google's stock have been converted into Alphabet stock, which trade under Google's former ticker symbols of "GOOG" and "GOOGL".
As of 2018, Alphabet is ranked No. 22 on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. The establishment of Alphabet was prompted by a desire to make the core Google Internet services business "cleaner and more accountable" while allowing greater autonomy to group companies that operate in businesses other than Internet services. On August 10, 2015, Google Inc. announced plans to create a new public holding company, Alphabet Inc. Google CEO Larry Page made this announcement in a blog post on Google's official blog. Alphabet would be created to restructure Google by moving subsidiaries from Google to Alphabet, narrowing Google's scope; the company would consist of Google as well as other businesses including X, CapitalG, GV. Sundar Pichai, Product Chief, became the new CEO of Google. In his announcement, Page described the planned holding company as follows: Alphabet is a collection of companies; the largest of which, of course, is Google. This newer Google is a bit slimmed down, with the companies that are pretty far afield of our main internet products contained in Alphabet instead.
Fundamentally, we believe this allows us more management scale, as we can run things independently that aren't related. As well as explaining the origin of the company's name: We liked the name Alphabet because it means a collection of letters that represent language, one of humanity's most important innovations, is the core of how we index with Google search! We like that it means alpha‑bet, which we strive for! In a 2018 talk, Schmidt disclosed that the original inspiration for the name came from the location of the Google Hamburg office's street address: ABC-Straße. Page says the motivation behind the reorganization is to make Google "cleaner and more accountable", he said he wanted to improve "the transparency and oversight of what we're doing", to allow greater control of unrelated companies. On February 1, 2016, Alphabet Inc. surpassed Apple to become the world's most valuable publicly traded company until February 3, 2016, when Apple surged back over Alphabet to retake the position. Experts cited Apple's lack of innovation as well as increasing Chinese competition as reasons for the poor performance.
Alphabet has chosen the domain abc.xyz with the.xyz top-level domain, introduced in 2014. It does not own the domain alphabet.com, owned by a fleet management division of BMW. BMW has said. Additionally, it does not own the domain abc.com, the promoted domain of the Disney-owned American Broadcasting Company. The website features an Easter egg in the paragraph where Larry Page writes, "Sergey and I are in the business of starting new things. Alphabet will include our X lab, which incubates new efforts like Wing, our drone delivery effort. We are stoked about growing our investment arms and Capital, as part of this new structure." The period after "drone delivery effort" is a hyperlink to "hooli.xyz", a reference to the television series Silicon Valley. Alphabet's largest subsidiary is Google, other subsidiaries being Calico, Dandelion, DeepMind, GV, CapitalG, X, Google Fiber, Sidewalk Labs, Verily and Wing; as of September 1, 2017, their equity are held by a subsidiary known as XXVI Holdings, Inc. so that they can be valued and separated from Google.
At the same time, it was announced that Google will be reorganized as a limited liability company, Google LLC. While many companies or divisions a part of Google became subsidiaries of Alphabet, Google remains the umbrella company for Alphabet's Internet-related businesses; these include many of the most used products and services long associated with Google, such as the Android mobile operating system, YouTube, LLC, Google Search, which remain direct components of Google. Former subsidiaries include Nest Labs, merged into Google in February 2018; as per its 2017 annual report, 86% of Alphabet's revenues came from Performance advertising and Brand Advertising. Of these, 53% came from its international operations; this translated to a total revenue of US$110,855 million in 2017 and a net income of US$12,662 million. Eric Schmidt said at an Internet Association event in 2015 that there may be more than 26 Alphabet subsidiaries, he said that he was meeting with the CEOs of the current an
The iPod is a line of portable media players and multi-purpose pocket computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The first version was released on October 23, 2001, about 8 1⁄2 months after the Macintosh version of iTunes was released; as of July 27, 2017, only the iPod Touch remains in production. Like other digital music players, iPods can serve as external data storage devices. Apple's iTunes software can be used to transfer music, videos, contact information, e-mail settings, Web bookmarks, calendars, to the devices supporting these features from computers using certain versions of Apple macOS and Microsoft Windows operating systems. Before the release of iOS 5, the iPod branding was used for the media player included with the iPhone and iPad, a combination of the Music and Videos apps on the iPod Touch; as of iOS 5, separate apps named "Music" and "Videos" are standardized across all iOS-powered products. While the iPhone and iPad have the same media player capabilities as the iPod line, they are treated as separate products.
During the middle of 2010, iPhone sales overtook those of the iPod. The iPod was released in late 2001; the iPod line came from Apple's "digital hub" category, when the company began creating software for the growing market of personal digital devices. Digital cameras and organizers had well-established mainstream markets, but the company found existing digital music players "big and clunky or small and useless" with user interfaces that were "unbelievably awful," so Apple decided to develop its own; as ordered by CEO Steve Jobs, Apple's hardware engineering chief Jon Rubinstein assembled a team of engineers to design the iPod line, including hardware engineers Tony Fadell and Michael Dhuey, design engineer Sir Jonathan Ive. Rubinstein had discovered the Toshiba hard disk drive while meeting with an Apple supplier in Japan, purchased the rights to it for Apple, had already worked out how the screen and other key elements would work; the aesthetic was inspired by the 1958 Braun T3 transistor radio designed by Dieter Rams, while the wheel-based user interface was prompted by Bang & Olufsen's BeoCom 6000 telephone.
The product was developed in less than one year and unveiled on October 23, 2001. Jobs announced it as a Mac-compatible product with a 5 GB hard drive that put "1,000 songs in your pocket."Apple did not develop the iPod software in-house, instead using PortalPlayer's reference platform based on two ARM cores. The platform had rudimentary software running on a commercial microkernel embedded operating system. PortalPlayer had been working on an IBM-branded MP3 player with Bluetooth headphones. Apple contracted another company, Pixo, to help design and implement the user interface under the direct supervision of Steve Jobs; as development progressed, Apple continued to feel. Starting with the iPod Mini, the Chicago font was replaced with Espy Sans. IPods switched fonts again to Podium Sans—a font similar to Apple's corporate font, Myriad. Color display iPods adopted some Mac OS X themes like Aqua progress bars, brushed metal meant to evoke a combination lock. In 2007, Apple modified the iPod interface again with the introduction of the sixth-generation iPod Classic and third-generation iPod Nano by changing the font to Helvetica and, in most cases, splitting the screen in half by displaying the menus on the left and album artwork, photos, or videos on the right.
In 2006 Apple presented a special edition for iPod 5G of Irish rock band U2. Like its predecessor, this iPod has engraved the signatures of the four members of the band on its back, but this one was the first time the company changed the colour of the metal; this iPod was only available with 30GB of storage capacity. The special edition entitled purchasers to an exclusive video with 33 minutes of interviews and performance by U2, downloadable from the iTunes Store. In September 2007, during a lawsuit with patent holding company Burst.com, Apple drew attention to a patent for a similar device, developed in 1979. Kane Kramer applied for a UK patent for his design of a "plastic music box" in 1981, which he called the IXI, he was unable to secure funding to renew the US$120,000 worldwide patent, so it lapsed and Kramer never profited from his idea. The name iPod was proposed by Vinnie Chieco, a freelance copywriter, called by Apple to figure out how to introduce the new player to the public. After Chieco saw a prototype, he thought of the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey and the phrase "Open the pod bay doors, Hal", which refers to the white EVA Pods of the Discovery One spaceship.
Chieco saw an analogy to the relationship between the spaceship and the smaller independent pods in the relationship between a personal computer and the music player. Apple researched the trademark and found that it was in use. Joseph N. Grasso of New Jersey had listed an "iPod" trademark with the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office in July 2000 for Internet kiosks; the first iPod kiosks had been demonstrated to the public in New Jersey in March 1998, commercial use began in January 2000, but had been discontinued by 2001. The trademark was registered by the USPTO in November 2003, Grasso assigned it to Apple Computer, Inc. in 2005. The earliest recorded use in commerce of an "iPod" trademark was in 1991 by Chrysalis Corp. of Sturgis, styled "iPOD". In mid-2015, several new color schemes for all of the current iPod models were spotted in the latest version of iTunes, 12.2. Belgian website Belgium iPhone found the images
University of Michigan
The University of Michigan simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The university is Michigan's oldest; the school was moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres of. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet spread out over a Central Campus and North Campus, two regional campuses in Flint and Dearborn, a Center in Detroit; the university is a founding member of the Association of American Universities. Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States with annual research expenditures approaching $1.5 billion, Michigan is classified as one of 115 Doctoral Universities with Very High Research by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. As of October 2018, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 25 Nobel Prize winners, 6 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with University of Michigan.
Its comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, STEM fields as well as professional degrees in architecture, medicine, pharmacy, social work, public health, dentistry. Michigan's body of living alumni comprises more than 540,000 people, one of the largest alumni bases of any university in the world. Michigan's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Wolverines, they are members of the Big Ten Conference. More than 250 Michigan athletes or coaches have participated in Olympic events, winning more than 150 medals; the University of Michigan was established in Detroit on August 26, 1817 as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, by the governor and judges of Michigan Territory. Judge Augustus B. Woodward invited The Rev. John Monteith and Father Gabriel Richard, a Catholic priest, to establish the institution. Monteith became its first president and held seven of the professorships, Richard was vice president and held the other six professorships.
Concurrently, Ann Arbor had set aside 40 acres in the hopes of being selected as the state capital. But when Lansing was chosen as the state capital, the city offered the land for a university. What would become the university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 thanks to Governor Stevens T. Mason; the original 40 acres was the basis of the present Central Campus. This land was once inhabited by the Ojibwe and Bodewadimi Native tribes and was obtained through the Treaty of Fort Meigs. In 1821, the university was renamed the University of Michigan; the first classes in Ann Arbor were held in 1841, with six freshmen and a sophomore, taught by two professors. Eleven students graduated in the first commencement in 1845. By 1866, enrollment had increased to 1,205 students. Women were first admitted in 1870, although Alice Robinson Boise Wood had become the first woman to attend classes in 1866-7. James Burrill Angell, who served as the university's president from 1871 to 1909, aggressively expanded U-M's curriculum to include professional studies in dentistry, engineering and medicine.
U-M became the first American university to use the seminar method of study. Among the early students in the School of Medicine was Jose Celso Barbosa, who in 1880 graduated as valedictorian and the first Puerto Rican to get a university degree in the United States, he returned to Puerto Rico to practice medicine and served in high-ranking posts in the government. From 1900 to 1920, the university constructed many new facilities, including buildings for the dental and pharmacy programs, natural sciences, Hill Auditorium, large hospital and library complexes, two residence halls. In 1920 the university reorganized the College of Engineering and formed an advisory committee of 100 industrialists to guide academic research initiatives; the university became a favored choice for bright Jewish students from New York in the 1920s and 1930s, when the Ivy League schools had quotas restricting the number of Jews to be admitted. Because of its high standards, U-M gained the nickname "Harvard of the West."
During World War II, U-M's research supported military efforts, such as U. S. Navy projects in proximity fuzes, PT boats, radar jamming. After the war, enrollment expanded and by 1950, it reached 21,000, of which more than one third were veterans supported by the G. I. Bill; as the Cold War and the Space Race took hold, U-M received numerous government grants for strategic research and helped to develop peacetime uses for nuclear energy. Much of that work, as well as research into alternative energy sources, is pursued via the Memorial Phoenix Project. In the 1960 Presidential campaign, U. S. Senator John F. Kennedy jokingly referred to himself as "a graduate of the Michigan of the East, Harvard University" in his speech proposing the formation of the Peace Corps speaking to a crowd from the front steps of the Michigan Union. Lyndon B. Johnson gave his speech outlining his Great Society program as the lead speaker during U-M's 1964 spring commencement ceremony. During the 1960s, the university campus was the site of numerous protests against the Vietnam War and university administration.
On March 24, 1965, a group of U-M faculty members and 3,000 students held the nation's first faculty-led "teach-in" to protest against American policy in