Colchester (UK Parliament constituency)
Colchester is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2015 by Will Quince, a Conservative. The borough has sent representatives to Parliament since the Model Parliament of 1295: two members were sent until 1885, when representation was reduced to one, being one of 36 English boroughs and three Irish boroughs to which this occurred under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885. 1918-1950: The Municipal Borough of Colchester, the Rural District of Lexden and Winstree except the detached part of the civil parish of Inworth, wholly surrounded by the civil parishes of Great Braxted and Kelvedon. 1950-1983: The Municipal Borough of Colchester, the Urban District of West Mersea, the Rural District of Lexden and Winstree. 1997-2010: The Borough of Colchester wards of Berechurch, Harbour, Mile End, New Town, Prettygate, St Andrew's, St Anne's, St John's, St Mary's, Shrub End, Stanway. 2010–present: The Borough of Colchester wards of Berechurch, Christ Church, Highwoods, Mile End, New Town, Prettygate, St Andrew's, St Anne's, St John's, Shrub End.
The present Colchester constituency most resembles the old seat of Colchester North, held by the Conservative Bernard Jenkin from 1992 to 1997. Once the basis for one or two semi-rural seats, the modern-day Colchester constituency is a compact, urban core, containing the town centre and surrounding neighbourhoods; the seat has one of Britain's largest residential military populations. The non-military vote in Colchester swang further in favour of the Liberal Democrats since 1997 when Bob Russell stood, he was elected for the party with a small majority. Russell increased his votes and percentage share in three elections. In the 2010 election this was the only non-Conservative seat in Essex. Russell was defeated in the 2015 general election by an 11.5 % majority. In the 2017 election Quince was re-elected by a decreased margin by percentage yet increased votes in an election where turnout nationally had increased — the seat saw a 19.1% increase in the Labour vote in 2017, a Labour candidate had last achieved second place in the area in 1979, with the seat now becoming a somewhat marginal contest between them and the Conservatives.
}} General Election 1939/40: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1940. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place from 1939 and by the end of this year, the following candidates had been selected. General Election 1914/15: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected. Manners was appointed First Commissioner of Public Buildings, requiring a by-election. Manners resigned causing a by-election. Miller resigned. Rebow's death caused a by-election. List of Parliamentary constituencies in Essex Notes References Robert Beatson, "A Chronological Register of Both Houses of Parliament" D Brunton & D H Pennington, Members of the Long Parliament Cobbett's Parliamentary history of England, from the Norman Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803 F W S Craig, "British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885" J E Neale, The Elizabethan House of Commons Henry Stooks Smith, The Parliaments of England from 1715 to 1847 Victoria County History of Essex online at www.british-history.ac.uk
Edwin Duncan Sandys, Baron Duncan-Sandys, was a British politician and minister in successive Conservative governments in the 1950s and 1960s. He was a son-in-law of Winston Churchill. Sandys, born on 24 January 1908 at the Manor House, Sandford Orcas, was the son of George John Sandys, a Conservative Member of Parliament and Mildred Helen Cameron. Sandys' parents divorced in January 1921, his mother married Frederick Hamilton Lister in October that year. He was educated at Magdalen College, Oxford, he entered the diplomatic service in 1930, serving at the Foreign Office in London as well as at the embassy in Berlin. He became Conservative Party Member of Parliament for Norwood in south London in a by-election in March 1935, at which he was opposed by a candidate put up by Randolph Churchill. In May 1935, he was in effect saying that Germany should have a predominant place in central Europe, so that Britain could be free to pursue her colonial interests without rival. In 1937, Sandys was commissioned into the 51st Anti-Aircraft Brigade, Royal Artillery, of the Territorial Army.
In 1938, he asked questions in the House of Commons on matters of national security that reflected his TA experience. He was subsequently approached by two unidentified men representing the secret services, threatened with prosecution under section 6 of the Official Secrets Act 1920. Sandys reported the matter to the Committee of Privileges which held that the disclosures of Parliament were not subject to the legislation, though an MP could be disciplined by the House; the Official Secrets Act 1939 was enacted in reaction to this incident. During the Second World War he fought with 51st HAA Regiment in the Norwegian campaign and was wounded in action, his father-in-law gave him his first ministerial post as Financial Secretary to the War Office from 1941 to 1944 during the wartime coalition government. From 1944 to 1945 he served as Minister of Works for the remainder of the coalition and in the Churchill Caretaker Ministry. While a Minister he was chairman of a War Cabinet Committee for defence against German flying bombs and rockets, where he clashed with the scientist and intelligence expert R.
V. Jones. However, he lost his seat in the 1945 general election, he resigned his TA commission as a lieutenant-colonel the following year. Sandys was responsible for establishing the European Movement in Britain in 1947 and served as a member of the European Consultative Assembly from 1950 until 1951, he was elected to parliament once again at the 1950 general election for Streatham and, when the Conservatives regained power in 1951, he was appointed Minister of Supply. For most of his time in that role, his private secretary was Jack Charles; as Minister of Housing from 1954, he introduced the Clean Air Act and in 1955 introduced the green belts. He was appointed Minister of Defence in 1957 and produced the 1957 Defence White Paper that proposed a radical shift in the Royal Air Force by ending the use of fighter aircraft in favour of missile technology. Though ministers reversed the policy, the lost orders and cuts in research were responsible for several British aircraft manufacturers going out of business.
As Minister of Defence he saw the rationalisation of much of the British military aircraft and engine industry. Sandys continued as a minister at the Commonwealth Relations Office combining it with the Colonies Office, until the Conservative government lost power in 1964. In this role he was responsible for granting several colonies their independence and was involved in managing the British response to several conflicts involving the armed forces of the newly independent countries of East Africa, he remained in the shadow cabinet until 1966. He had supported Ian Smith in the dispute over Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence, he was not offered a post when the Conservatives won the 1970 general election, but instead served as leader of the United Kingdom delegation to the Council of Europe and Western European Union until 1972 when he announced his retirement. The next year he was made a Companion of Honour. In 1974 he was awarded a life peerage; as the title of Baron Sandys was held by another family, he followed the example of George Brown and incorporated his first name in the title Baron Duncan-Sandys of the City of Westminster.
He was an active early member of the Conservative Monday Club. In 1935, Duncan Sandys married Diana Churchill, daughter of the future prime minister Winston Churchill, they divorced in 1960. In 1962, he married Marie-Claire, married to Robert Hudson, 2nd Viscount Hudson; the marriage lasted until Sandys' death. It has long been speculated that he may have been the'headless man' whose identity was concealed during the scandalous divorce trial of Margaret, Duchess of Argyll, in 1963, he died on 26 November 1987 at his home in London. From his first marriage, with Diana Churchill: The Hon. Julian Sandys The Hon. Edwina Sandys The Hon. Celia Sandys, she married firstly Michael Kennedy and secondly Dennis Walters. From his second marriage, with Marie Claire Schmitt: The Hon. Laura Sandys, she was a Conservative Member of Parliament for South Thanet. She is incorrectly referred to as being related to Winston Churchill. Among Sandys' other interests was historic architecture, he was its President.
The Oxford Union Society referred to as the Oxford Union, is a debating society in the city of Oxford, whose membership is drawn from the University of Oxford. Founded in 1823, it is one of Britain's oldest University Unions; the Oxford Union exists independently from the University and is separate from the Oxford University Student Union. The Oxford Union has a tradition of hosting some of the world's most prominent individuals across politics and popular culture, including US Presidents Ronald Reagan, Jimmy Carter, Richard Nixon and Bill Clinton, British Prime Ministers Winston Churchill, Margaret Thatcher, David Cameron and Theresa May, Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan, activists Malcolm X, Dalai Lama and Mother Teresa, actor Morgan Freeman, musicians Sir Elton John and Michael Jackson and sportspeople Diego Maradona and Manny Pacquiao; the University university restricted junior members from discussing certain issues. Although such restrictions have since been lifted, the Oxford Union has remained separate from and independent of the University, is constitutionally bound to remain so.
Only members of Oxford University are eligible to become life members of the Union, but students at certain other educational institutions are entitled to join for the duration of their time in Oxford, including: Magna Carta College Oxford Brookes University Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies Ripon College, Cuddesdon Ruskin College Sarah Lawrence ProgrammeShorter membership is extended to those participating in some visiting study programmes in Oxford as well as staff members of the University of Oxford or any of its colleges or Permanent Private Halls. Residential memberships are available to Oxford residents who are not from the university, but only if they are deemed worthy by a full meeting of officers of the Union; the Union buildings are owned by a separate charitable trust, the Oxford Literary and Debating Union Trust. The Oxford Union buildings are located in Frewin Court, off Cornmarket Street, on St Michael's Street; the original Union buildings were designed by Benjamin Woodward and opened in 1857.
The society soon outgrew these premises and commissioned Alfred Waterhouse to design a free-standing debating chamber in the gardens, opened in 1879. This was about a decade after the completion of the Cambridge Union's premises designed by Waterhouse, the exterior of the two buildings is similar; the original Woodward debating chamber is now known as "The Old Library". The Old Library is best known for its Pre-Raphaelite paintings by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris, referred to as the Oxford Union murals; the current debating chamber, several further extensions to the main buildings were added over the next forty years. The final extension was designed in a conventional Gothic Revival style by Walter Mills and Thorpe and built in 1910-11, it provides the MacMillan Room as well as the Goodman Library, underneath which there are basement library stacks. The Union consists of a Bar on the ground floor, the Morris Room and Snooker Room on the first floor, a Members' TV Room on the third floor, along with separate offices for the President, Librarian and Secretary.
Many of the rooms in the Union are named after figures from the Union's past, such as the Goodman Library, with its oriel windows, the wood-panelled MacMillan Room with barrel ceiling. The buildings have been added to with paintings and statues of past presidents and prominent members; the Old Library contains a fireplace situated in the middle of the floor, with a concealed flue, a rare design of which only a handful of examples survive in the UK. In the debating chamber there are busts of such notables as Roy Jenkins, Edward Heath, Michael Heseltine, George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston and William Ewart Gladstone. There is a grand piano in the debating chamber known as the "Bartlet-Jones Piano" after the Oxford University Music Society president who found it dusty and forgotten in a cupboard in the Holywell Music Room and placed it on permanent loan to the Union; the piano was unveiled by Vladimir Ashkenazy, who famously refused to play it in front of the packed chamber because he "had not warmed up".
The despatch boxes which continue to be used in Union debates are modelled on those in the House of Commons, were offered to the House during World War II. As as the 1970s the Oxford Union still provided a full silver service dining room for its members, which like its famous bar was the afternoon and evening venue of choice for many of the university's leading undergraduate journalists and politicos. To be invited to dine at the large table in the bay window, the usual domain of the Union's president, was considered the acme of attainment in that particular sphere of the university, it was said more plots were hatched around that particular table on a regular evening than in the Houses of Parliament on Bonfire Night. The Union's two libraries were extensively used by that same cadre of undergraduates studying humanities, who were rushing at the last minute to complete the obligatory weekly essay for their formal university education; the Union's buildings were used as a location for the films Oxford Blues and The Madness of King George.
Debating at the Oxford Union takes two forms — competitive debating and chamber debating. Competitive debating offers members of the Union debate workshops and a platform upon which to practice and improve their debating skills; the Union's best debaters compete internationally against other top debating societies, the Oxford Union fields one of
Rossendale (UK Parliament constituency)
Rossendale was a parliamentary constituency in the Lancashire, England. Created in 1885, it elected one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, elected by the first-past-the-post voting system; when created it comprised the districts of Rawtenstall and Haslingden. The constituency ceased to exist with the implementation of the 1983 boundary changes and was replaced by the Rossendale and Darwen constituency; the exact nature of the changes were as follows: 9,882 electors of the Rossendale seat were transferred to Bury North. 25,918 electors were added from 5,267 from Heywood and Royton. 1885-1918: The Sessional Division of Rossendale, part of the Borough of Bacup. 1918-1950: The Boroughs of Bacup and Rawtenstall. 1950-1983: The Boroughs of Bacup and Rawtenstall, the Urban District of Ramsbottom. Cavendish succeeded to the peerage, causing a by-election. General Election 1914/15: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915.
The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected. General Election 1939/40: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1940; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the Autumn of 1939, the following candidates had been selected.
Privy Council of the United Kingdom
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council known as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords; the Privy Council formally advises the sovereign on the exercise of the Royal Prerogative, corporately it issues executive instruments known as Orders in Council, which among other powers enact Acts of Parliament. The Council holds the delegated authority to issue Orders of Council used to regulate certain public institutions; the Council advises the sovereign on the issuing of Royal Charters, which are used to grant special status to incorporated bodies, city or borough status to local authorities. Otherwise, the Privy Council's powers have now been replaced by its executive committee, the Cabinet of the United Kingdom. Certain judicial functions are performed by the Queen-in-Council, although in practice its actual work of hearing and deciding upon cases is carried out day-to-day by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
The Judicial Committee consists of senior judges appointed as Privy Counsellors: predominantly Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and senior judges from the Commonwealth. The Privy Council acted as the High Court of Appeal for the entire British Empire, continues to hear appeals from the Crown Dependencies, the British Overseas Territories, some independent Commonwealth states; the Privy Council of the United Kingdom was preceded by the Privy Council of Scotland and the Privy Council of England. The key events in the formation of the modern Privy Council are given below: In Anglo-Saxon England, Witenagemot was an early equivalent to the Privy Council of England. During the reigns of the Norman monarchs, the English Crown was advised by a royal court or curia regis, which consisted of magnates and high officials; the body concerned itself with advising the sovereign on legislation and justice. Different bodies assuming distinct functions evolved from the court; the courts of law took over the business of dispensing justice, while Parliament became the supreme legislature of the kingdom.
The Council retained the power to hear legal disputes, either in the first instance or on appeal. Furthermore, laws made by the sovereign on the advice of the Council, rather than on the advice of Parliament, were accepted as valid. Powerful sovereigns used the body to circumvent the Courts and Parliament. For example, a committee of the Council—which became the Court of the Star Chamber—was during the 15th century permitted to inflict any punishment except death, without being bound by normal court procedure. During Henry VIII's reign, the sovereign, on the advice of the Council, was allowed to enact laws by mere proclamation; the legislative pre-eminence of Parliament was not restored until after Henry VIII's death. Though the royal Council retained legislative and judicial responsibilities, it became a administrative body; the Council consisted of forty members in 1553, but the sovereign relied on a smaller committee, which evolved into the modern Cabinet. By the end of the English Civil War, the monarchy, House of Lords, Privy Council had been abolished.
The remaining parliamentary chamber, the House of Commons, instituted a Council of State to execute laws and to direct administrative policy. The forty-one members of the Council were elected by the House of Commons. In 1653, Cromwell became Lord Protector, the Council was reduced to between thirteen and twenty-one members, all elected by the Commons. In 1657, the Commons granted Cromwell greater powers, some of which were reminiscent of those enjoyed by monarchs; the Council became known as the Protector's Privy Council. In 1659, shortly before the restoration of the monarchy, the Protector's Council was abolished. Charles II restored the Royal Privy Council, but he, like previous Stuart monarchs, chose to rely on a small group of advisers. Under George I more power transferred to this committee, it now began to meet in the absence of the sovereign, communicating its decisions to him after the fact. Thus, the British Privy Council, as a whole, ceased to be a body of important confidential advisers to the sovereign.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the definition of the word privy in Privy Council is an obsolete meaning "of or pertaining to a particular person or persons, one's own". It is related to the word private, derives from the French word privé; the sovereign, when acting on the Council's advice, is known as the King-in-Council or Queen-in-Council. The members of the Council are collectively known as The Lords of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council; the chief officer of the body is the Lord President of the Council, the fourth highest Great Officer of State, a Cabinet member and either the Leader of the House of Lords or of the House of Commons. Another important official is the Clerk, whose signature is appended to all orders made in the Council. Both Privy Counsellor and Privy Councillor may be used to refer to a member of the Council; the former, however, is preferred by the Privy Council Office, emphasising English usage of the term Counsellor a
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force. Formed towards the end of the First World War on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world. Following victory over the Central Powers in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world. Since its formation, the RAF has taken a significant role in British military history. In particular, it played a large part in the Second World War where it fought its most famous campaign, the Battle of Britain; the RAF's mission is to support the objectives of the British Ministry of Defence, which are to "provide the capabilities needed to ensure the security and defence of the United Kingdom and overseas territories, including against terrorism. The RAF describes its mission statement as "... an agile and capable Air Force that, person for person, is second to none, that makes a decisive air power contribution in support of the UK Defence Mission". The mission statement is supported by the RAF's definition of air power.
Air power is defined as "the ability to project power from the air and space to influence the behaviour of people or the course of events". Today the Royal Air Force maintains an operational fleet of various types of aircraft, described by the RAF as being "leading-edge" in terms of technology; this consists of fixed-wing aircraft, including: fighter and strike aircraft, airborne early warning and control aircraft, ISTAR and SIGINT aircraft, aerial refueling aircraft and strategic and tactical transport aircraft. The majority of the RAF's rotary-wing aircraft form part of the tri-service Joint Helicopter Command in support of ground forces. Most of the RAF's aircraft and personnel are based in the UK, with many others serving on operations or at long-established overseas bases. Although the RAF is the principal British air power arm, the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm and the British Army's Army Air Corps deliver air power, integrated into the maritime and land environments. While the British were not the first to make use of heavier-than-air military aircraft, the RAF is the world's oldest independent air force: that is, the first air force to become independent of army or navy control.
Following publication of the "Smuts report" prepared by Jan Smuts the RAF was founded on 1 April 1918, with headquarters located in the former Hotel Cecil, during the First World War, by the amalgamation of the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service. At that time it was the largest air force in the world. After the war, the service was drastically cut and its inter-war years were quiet, with the RAF taking responsibility for the control of Iraq and executing a number of minor actions in other parts of the British Empire; the RAF's naval aviation branch, the Fleet Air Arm, was founded in 1924 but handed over to Admiralty control on 24 May 1939. The RAF developed the doctrine of strategic bombing which led to the construction of long-range bombers and became its main bombing strategy in the Second World War; the RAF underwent rapid expansion prior to and during the Second World War. Under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan of December 1939, the air forces of British Commonwealth countries trained and formed "Article XV squadrons" for service with RAF formations.
Many individual personnel from these countries, exiles from occupied Europe served with RAF squadrons. By the end of the war the Royal Canadian Air Force had contributed more than 30 squadrons to serve in RAF formations approximately a quarter of Bomber Command's personnel were Canadian. Additionally, the Royal Australian Air Force represented around nine percent of all RAF personnel who served in the European and Mediterranean theatres. In the Battle of Britain in 1940, the RAF defended the skies over Britain against the numerically superior German Luftwaffe. In what is the most prolonged and complicated air campaign in history, the Battle of Britain contributed to the delay and subsequent indefinite postponement of Hitler's plans for an invasion of the United Kingdom. In the House of Commons on 20 August, prompted by the ongoing efforts of the RAF, Prime Minister Winston Churchill eloquently made a speech to the nation, where he said "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few".
The largest RAF effort during the war was the strategic bombing campaign against Germany by Bomber Command. While RAF bombing of Germany began immediately upon the outbreak of war, under the leadership of Air Chief Marshal Harris, these attacks became devastating from 1942 onward as new technology and greater numbers of superior aircraft became available; the RAF adopted night-time area bombing on German cities such as Hamburg and Dresden, developed precision bombing techniques for specific operations, such as the "Dambusters" raid by No. 617 Squadron, or the Amiens prison raid known as Operation Jericho. Following victory in the Second World War, the RAF underwent significant re-organisation, as technological advances in air warfare saw the arrival of jet fighters and bombers. During the early stages of the Cold War, one of the first major operations undertaken by the Royal Air Force was in 1948 and the Berlin Airlift, codenamed Operation Plainfire. Between 26 June and the lifting of the Russian blockade of the city on 2 May, the RAF provided 17% of the total supplies delivered du
Gillian, Lady Greenwood of Rossendale
Gillian Greenwood, Baroness Greenwood of Rossendale, was an English artist and designer, co-creator of The Ministry of Information's Make Do and Mend pamphlet series and an important early member of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. Born Gillian Crawshay-Williams in London to parents Leslie Crawshay-Williams and Joyce Collier Kilburn, Jill was the younger of their two children. Leslie Crawshay-Williams was the son of Welsh MP Arthur John Williams, while Joyce was the only child of artists John Collier and Marian Collier, making Jill’s maternal great-grandfather English biologist and "Darwin's Bulldog" Thomas Henry Huxley. Leslie and Joyce married in 1906 and divorced in 1918. Joyce Collier remarried automobile retail agent Drysdale Kilburn. After her parents' divorce, Jill was sent to a boarding school near Bishop's Stortford where she became head girl and a skilled tennis player. Jill attended art school in Chelsea and joined the fashion brand Jaeger in 1931, where she known as "Crawshay".
Employed in retail at their flagship Regent Street store, Jill's artistic flair was recognised and she was put in charge of display. During WWII, Jill illustrated Make Do and Mend pamphlets for the Ministry of Information; these iconic publications provided tips to housewives on harsh rationing, giving advice on how to stay frugal yet chic by reusing old clothing, creating ‘decorative patches’ to cover holes in worn garments. She remained at Jaeger for 30 years, playing a role in the design of their distinctive criss-crossed'J' logo, developing a reputation for her innovative and whimsical window dressings: "Post-war at a time of shortage she famously designed an enormous pair of scales for the window of Jaeger's Regent Street shop balancing sheep, representing cashmere sweaters available only for export, against vital imports such as tea and New Zealand butter. Underneath in the shop window there was the laconic statement "Britain must balance her budget", she devised the Regent Street decorations for the Festival of Britain in 1951, in 1954 was the designer of Regent Street's first Christmas lights.
In 1959 she arranged the decoration of Oxford Street's lampposts between Tottenham Court Road and Marble Arch for the first Christmas display. She was put in charge of Jaeger's window displays across the country, before retiring in 1960. Jill married German-born illustrator and cartoonist Walter Goetz in 1938, they divorced shortly afterward but they and their families remained good friends. In 1940 she married British Labour Party politician Tony Greenwood, who entered Parliament as member for Heywood and Radcliffe in a by-election in February 1946, becoming a prominent Cabinet Minister in the 1950s and 1960s, they had two daughters and Dinah. Tony Greenwood died in 1982. A committed socialist and pacifist, Jill was an important early member of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmanent; as a male and prominent politician, her husband Tony was more visible, but Jill was the driving force behind their involvement. Overcoming Tony's initial caution, they were both familiar figures at the head of Aldermaston marches in the early 1960's, while their daughter Susanna helped to found CND's youth wing.
Jill Greenwood's personal and professional papers are held within the "Arthur William James Greenwood, Baron Greenwood of Rossendale Papers" at the Bodleian Library, University of Oxford: A photograph of Jill Greenwood is held by the National Portrait Gallery in London. It features the portrait of her Grandmother by her Grandfather in the background