Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical and secular music. While a more precise term is used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820, this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods; the central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, known as the common-practice period. The major time divisions of Western art music are as follows: the ancient music period, before 500 AD the early music period, which includes the Medieval including the ars antiqua the ars nova the ars subtilior the Renaissance eras. Baroque the galant music period the common-practice period, which includes Baroque the galant music period Classical Romantic eras the 20th and 21st centuries which includes: the modern that overlaps from the late-19th century, impressionism that overlaps from the late-19th century neoclassicism, predominantly in the inter-war period the high modern the postmodern eras the experimental contemporary European art music is distinguished from many other non-European classical and some popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the 11th century.
Catholic monks developed the first forms of modern European musical notation in order to standardize liturgy throughout the worldwide Church. Western staff notation is used by composers to indicate to the performer the pitches, tempo and rhythms for a piece of music; this can leave less room for practices such as improvisation and ad libitum ornamentation, which are heard in non-European art music and in popular-music styles such as jazz and blues. Another difference is that whereas most popular styles adopt the song form or a derivation of this form, classical music has been noted for its development of sophisticated forms of instrumental music such as the symphony, fugue and mixed vocal and instrumental styles such as opera and mass; the term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven as a golden age. The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1829.
Given the wide range of styles in European classical music, from Medieval plainchant sung by monks to Classical and Romantic symphonies for orchestra from the 1700s and 1800s to avant-garde atonal compositions for solo piano from the 1900s, it is difficult to list characteristics that can be attributed to all works of that type. However, there are characteristics that classical music contains that few or no other genres of music contain, such as the use of music notation and the performance of complex forms of solo instrumental works. Furthermore, while the symphony did not exist prior to the late 18th century, the symphony ensemble—and the works written for it—have become a defining feature of classical music; the key characteristic of European classical music that distinguishes it from popular music and folk music is that the repertoire tends to be written down in musical notation, creating a musical part or score. This score determines details of rhythm, and, where two or more musicians are involved, how the various parts are coordinated.
The written quality of the music has enabled a high level of complexity within them: fugues, for instance, achieve a remarkable marriage of boldly distinctive melodic lines weaving in counterpoint yet creating a coherent harmonic logic that would be difficult to achieve in the heat of live improvisation. The use of written notation preserves a record of the works and enables Classical musicians to perform music from many centuries ago. Musical notation enables 2000s-era performers to sing a choral work from the 1300s Renaissance era or a 1700s Baroque concerto with many of the features of the music being reproduced; that said, the score does allow the interpreter to make choices on. For example, if the tempo is written with an Italian instruction, it is not known how fast the piece should be played; as well, in the Baroque era, many works that were designed for basso continuo accompaniment do not specify which instruments should play the accompaniment or how the chordal instrument should play the chords, which are not notated in the part.
The performer and the conductor have a range of options for musical expression and interpretation of a scored piece, including the phrasing of melodies, the time taken during fermatas or pauses, the use of effects such as vibrato or glissando. Although Classical music in the 2000s has lost most of its tradition for musical improvisation, from the Baroque era to the Romantic era, there are examples of performers who could improvise in the style of their era. In the Baroque era, organ performers would improvise preludes, keyboard performers playing harpsichord would improvise chords from the figured bass symbols beneath the bass notes of the basso continuo part and b
PRS Guitars is an American guitar and amplifier manufacturer in Stevensville, Maryland, founded by luthier Paul Reed Smith in 1985. The company is known for its hand-made, high end, electric guitars; the company was founded in 1985 by luthier, Paul Reed Smith, building guitars since the mid-1970s. Early adopters included Derek St. Holmes and Howard Leese; the company's big break came. Smith set up a partnership to create a factory in Maryland, he found a niche in the upscale guitar market. After three years the company employed 45 people producing 15 guitars per day. By 1995, the factory was employing 80 people. In 1996, production moved to a new factory in Stevensville on Kent Island. By the end of 1998, PRS was producing 700 guitars a month with a staff of 110; the company was hurt badly by the American recession of 2008 and sales declined by 12% in 2009 but grew by 30% the following year. In 2013 Smith commented that "things are better now, but they ain't great." Nuts are synthetic and tuners are of PRS's own design, although some models feature Korean-made Kluson-style tuners.
PRS guitars feature three original bridge designs: a one-piece pre-intonated stoptail, a vibrato, a wrapover tailpiece. The Vibrato was designed with the help of guitar engineer John Mann, it was an update on the classic Fender vibrato and used cam-locking tuners, which offered wide pitch bending with exceptional tuning stability. Pickups wound in-house. While most of the pickups are humbuckers, some are a pair of single coils wound in opposing directions, one intended for the neck and one for the bridge position. Through the use of a unique rotary pickup selector switch, PRS pickups offer 5 different sounds: a combination of thick humbucking Gibson-like tones, chimey single-coil Stratocaster-like tones; the standard treble and standard bass pick ups use magnetic pole pieces in the non-adjustable inner coil, a rear-placed feeder magnet in order to achieve a more authentic single-coil tone when split by the rotary switchPRS developed pickups for the aggressive rock market, offering pick ups such as the chainsaw, the Hot-Fat-Screams used on the Special model.
In 1998, an electronic upgrade kit was released for pre-1993 instruments which included lighter-weight tuner buttons, nickel-plated brass screws for saddles and intonation, a simulated tone control, high-capacitance hookup wire. In 2012, PRS released the 408 pickups used on Paul's Guitar models; these pickups include innovations. They have an exclusive agreement to use wire drawn from the same machine that made wire for Les Paul and Stratocaster pickups in the 1950s. Certain models of PRS Guitars have used pickups by Lindy Fralin, notably in the EG II and certain specs of the Custom 22. In 1992 PRS introduced the Dragon 1 model. Only 50 units were produced, it featured an intricate dragon inlay which ran down the finger board, a wide 22 fret neck, a non-vibrato Stop-tail bridge and a new pick up design. The changes in design from previous models added a noticeable tonal improvement which led the company to use the same characteristics in models such as the PRS Custom 22; the Dragon 2 was released in 1993, the Dragon 3 in 1994.
Both featured dragon inlays. Only 100 of each of the 2 models were made. In 1999 PRS released the Dragon 2000, which featured complex body curves, a 3 dimensional dragon inlay. Just 50 Dragon 2000's were produced. PRS introduced a more affordable line of guitars in 2000 referred to as the "SE" which are manufactured in Korea by World Musical Instrument Co. Ltd. for the electrics and Wildwood for the acoustics. PRS produces a large range of models in the SE series including the Custom 24, SE245, SE Kestrel and Kingfisher bass guitars as well as signature guitars such as the Bernie Marsden, Zach Myers and Santana amongst others. In 2013, PRS added the S2 Series and in February 2018 PRS began producing a Silver Sky model based on two of John Mayer's favourite guitars from the 1960s. In 2001, PRS released their Singlecut model. Gibson Guitar Corporation filed a trademark infringement lawsuit against Paul Reed Smith. An injunction was ordered that required PRS to stop manufacturing of the Singlecut at the end of 2004.
Federal District Court Judge William J. Haynes ruled the Singlecut was an imitation of the Gibson Les Paul. However, in 2005, the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit reversed the lower court decision and ordered the dismissal of Gibson's suit and PRS resumed production. While no changes to the design of the Singlecut occurred as a result of the lawsuit, some Singlecut owners and sellers have adopted the term'pre-lawsuit' to differentiate their Singlecut guitar from others; the company's signature models are named after Carlos Santana, John Mayer, Mark Holcomb of Periphery, Alex Lifeson. PRS Guitars Paul Reed Smith Interview NAMM Oral History Library
Beppe Gambetta is an Italian acoustic guitarist and singer. A native of Genoa, he is a composer, teacher and researcher of traditional music and instruments. In 1977, Gambetta founded an Italian bluegrass band, he wrote the first Italian instructional book on flatpicking. His flatpicking style is similar to Moravian folk music; this style is characterized by flashy licks, intricate cross-picking patterns, open tunings, fluid slides up and down the neck of the guitar. Although Beppe lives in Genoa, he travels throughout North America every year, he has performed in the Walnut Valley Festival in Winfield, MerleFest in North Carolina, the Kerrville Folk Festival in Texas and festivals in Winnipeg and Edmonton. He has appeared on the radio programs All Things eTown. Beppe has performed with David Grisman, Gene Parsons, Doc Watson, Norman Blake and the band Men of Steel, which comprises Dan Crary, Tony McManus, Don Ross, he toured with banjo player Tony Trischka and released the accompanying live album Alone and Together.
In 2015, Gambetta embarked on a brief tour with cellist Rushad Eggleston. Gambetta recorded the album Traversata: Italian Music in America with mandolinist David Grisman and mandolinist Carlo Aonzo. On the album, he used a 14-string harp guitar custom made for him by Italian luthier Antonello Saccu. Beppe has been called a "virtual United Nations of influences: Italian, Appalachian, Celtic", he has been described by The Huffington Post as one of the "best flatpickers anywhere." Dialogs Alone & Together Good News from Home Serenata Synergia Traversata Blu di Genova Livel Slade Stomp Four-Way Mirrorl Rendez-vous The American Album Round Trip Short Stories Official site
Éric Alfred Leslie Satie, who signed his name Erik Satie after 1884, was a French composer and pianist. Satie was an influential artist in the late 19th- and early 20th-century Parisian avant-garde, his work was a precursor to artistic movements such as minimalism, repetitive music, the Theatre of the Absurd. An eccentric, Satie was introduced as a "gymnopedist" in 1887, shortly before writing his most famous compositions, the Gymnopédies, he referred to himself as a "phonometrician", preferring this designation to that of "musician", after having been called "a clumsy but subtle technician" in a book on contemporary French composers published in 1911. In addition to his body of music, Satie was "a thinker with a gift of eloquence" who left a remarkable set of writings, having contributed work for a range of publications, from the dadaist 391 to the American culture chronicle Vanity Fair. Although in life he prided himself on publishing his work under his own name, in the late 19th century he appears to have used pseudonyms such as Virginie Lebeau and François de Paule in some of his published writings.
Erik Satie was born on 17 May 1866, the son of Alfred Satie and his wife Jane Leslie, born in London to Scottish parents. Erik was born at Honfleur in Normandy; when Satie was four years old, his family moved to Paris, his father having been offered a translator's job in the capital. After his mother's death in 1872, he was sent, together with his younger brother, back to Honfleur to live with his paternal grandparents. There he received his first music lessons from a local organist. In 1878, when he was 12 years old, his grandmother died, the two brothers were reunited in Paris with their father, who remarried shortly afterwards. From the early 1880s onwards, Satie started publishing salon compositions by his step-mother and himself, among others. In 1879, Satie entered the Paris Conservatoire, where he was soon labelled untalented by his teachers. Georges Mathias, his professor of piano at the Conservatoire, described his pupil's piano technique in flatly negative terms, "insignificant and laborious" and "worthless".
Émile Decombes called him "the laziest student in the Conservatoire". Years Satie related that Mathias, with great insistence, had told him that his real talent lay in composing. After being sent home for two and a half years, he was readmitted to the Conservatoire at the end of 1885, but was unable to make a much more favourable impression on his teachers than he had before, and, as a result, resolved to take up military service a year later. However, Satie's military career did not last long. Satie moved from his father's residence to lodgings in Montmartre in 1887, when he became 21. By this time he had started what was to be an enduring friendship with the romantic poet Patrice Contamine, had his first compositions published by his father, he soon integrated with the artistic clientele of the Le Chat Noir Café-cabaret, started publishing his Gymnopédies. Publication of compositions in the same vein followed. In the same period he befriended Claude Debussy, he moved to a smaller room, still in Montmartre, in 1890.
By 1891 he was the official composer and chapel-master of the Rosicrucian Order "Ordre de la Rose-Croix Catholique, du Temple et du Graal", led by Sâr Joséphin Péladan, which led to compositions such as Salut drapeau!, Le Fils des étoiles, the Sonneries de la Rose+Croix. Satie gave performances at the Salon de la Rose + Croix, organized by Péladan. By mid-1892, Satie had composed the first pieces in a compositional system of his own making, provided incidental music to a chivalric esoteric play, had his first hoax published, broken from Péladan, starting that autumn with the Uspud project, a "Christian Ballet", in collaboration with Contamine de Latour. While the comrades from both the Chat Noir and Miguel Utrillo's Auberge du Clou sympathised, a promotional brochure was produced for the project, which reads as a pamphlet for a new esoteric sect. Satie and Suzanne Valadon began an affair early in 1893. After their first night together, he proposed marriage; the two did not marry. Satie became obsessed with her, calling her his Biqui and writing impassioned notes about "her whole being, lovely eyes, gentle hands, tiny feet".
During their relationship, Satie composed the Danses gothiques as a means of calming his mind, Valadon painted a portrait of Satie, which she gave to him. After six months she moved away. Afterwards, he said that he was left with "nothing but an icy loneliness that fills the head with emptiness and the heart with sadness", it is believed this was the only intimate relationship Satie had. In 1893, Satie met the young Maurice Ravel for the first time, Satie's style emerging in the first compositions of the youngster. One of Satie's own compositions of that period, was to remain undisclosed until after his death. By the end of the year he had founded the Église Métropolitaine d'Art de Jésus Conducteur; as its only member, in the role of "Parcier et Maître de Chapelle", he started
Christian Lemaitre is a French musician specialising in the folk Music of Brittany, with an emphasis on Breton traditional fiddle music. He learned the instrument in his teens in Paris and moved to Brittany, he joined Kornog in 1981 and formed a Breton dance-band. He has performed for many years with fiddlers Kevin Burke and the late Johnny Cunningham in Celtic Fiddle Festival. Page on him http://www.celticfiddlefestival.com/
Charles Mingus Jr. was an American jazz double bassist, pianist and bandleader. A major proponent of collective improvisation, he is considered to be one of the greatest jazz musicians and composers in history, with a career spanning three decades and collaborations with other jazz legends such as Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Dannie Richmond, Herbie Hancock. Mingus' compositions continue to be played by contemporary musicians ranging from the repertory bands Mingus Big Band, Mingus Dynasty, Mingus Orchestra, to the high school students who play the charts and compete in the Charles Mingus High School Competition. In 1993, The Library of Congress acquired Mingus's collected papers—including scores, sound recordings and photos—in what they described as "the most important acquisition of a manuscript collection relating to jazz in the Library's history". Charles Mingus was born in Arizona, his father, Charles Mingus Sr. was a sergeant in the U. S. Army. Mingus was raised in the Watts area of Los Angeles.
His maternal grandfather was a Chinese British subject from Hong Kong, his maternal grandmother was an African-American from the southern United States. Mingus was the third great-grandson of the family's founding patriarch who was, by most accounts, a German immigrant, his ancestors included German American, African American, Native American. In Mingus's autobiography Beneath the Underdog his mother was described as "the daughter of an Englishman and a Chinese woman", his father was the son "of a black farm worker and a Swedish woman". Charles Mingus Sr. claims to have been raised by his mother and her husband as a white person until he was fourteen, when his mother revealed to her family that the child's true father was a black slave, after which he had to run away from his family and live on his own. The autobiography doesn't confirm whether Charles Mingus Sr. or Mingus himself believed this story was true, or whether it was an embellished version of the Mingus family's lineage. His mother allowed only church-related music in their home, but Mingus developed an early love for other music Duke Ellington.
He studied trombone, cello, although he was unable to follow the cello professionally because, at the time, it was nearly impossible for a black musician to make a career of classical music, the cello was not yet accepted as a jazz instrument. Despite this, Mingus was still attached to the cello. In Beneath the Underdog, Mingus states that he did not start learning bass until Buddy Collette accepted him into his swing band under the stipulation that he be the band's bass player. Due to a poor education, the young Mingus could not read musical notation enough to join the local youth orchestra; this had a serious impact on his early musical experiences, leaving him feeling ostracized from the classical music world. These early experiences, in addition to his lifelong confrontations with racism, were reflected in his music, which focused on themes of racism and justice. Much of the cello technique he learned was applicable to double bass when he took up the instrument in high school, he studied for five years with Herman Reinshagen, principal bassist of the New York Philharmonic, compositional techniques with Lloyd Reese.
Throughout much of his career, he played a bass made in 1927 by the German maker Ernst Heinrich Roth. Beginning in his teen years, Mingus was writing quite advanced pieces. A number of them were recorded in 1960 with conductor Gunther Schuller, released as Pre-Bird, referring to Charlie "Bird" Parker. Mingus gained a reputation as a bass prodigy, his first major professional job was playing with former Ellington clarinetist Barney Bigard. He toured with Louis Armstrong in 1943, by early 1945 was recording in Los Angeles in a band led by Russell Jacquet, which included Teddy Edwards, Maurice Simon, Bill Davis, Chico Hamilton, in May that year, in Hollywood, again with Teddy Edwards, in a band led by Howard McGhee, he played with Lionel Hampton's band in the late 1940s. A popular trio of Mingus, Red Norvo and Tal Farlow in 1950 and 1951 received considerable acclaim, but Mingus's race caused problems with club owners and he left the group. Mingus was a member of Ellington's band in 1953, as a substitute for bassist Wendell Marshall.
Mingus's notorious temper led to his being one of the few musicians fired by Ellington, after an on-stage fight between Mingus and Juan Tizol. In the early 1950s, before attaining commercial recognition as a bandleader, Mingus played gigs with Charlie Parker, whose compositions and improvisations inspired and influenced him. Mingus considered Parker the greatest genius and innovator in jazz history, but he had a love-hate relationship with Parker's legacy. Mingus blamed the Parker mythology for a derivative crop of pretenders to Parker's throne, he was conflicted and sometimes disgusted by Parker's self-destructive habits and the romanticized lure of drug addiction they offered to other jazz musicians. In response to the many sax players who imitated Parker, Mingus titled a song, "If Charlie Parker were a Gunslinger, There'd be a Whole Lot of Dead Copycats". Mingus was married four tim
Kevin Burke (musician)
Kevin Burke is an Irish master fiddler considered one of the finest living Irish fiddlers. For nearly four decades he has been at the forefront of Irish traditional music and Celtic music and recording with the seminal groups The Bothy Band, Patrick Street, the Celtic Fiddle Festival. In addition to his solo albums, Burke has had successful project collaborations with Christy Moore, Andy Irvine & Paul Brady, Mícheál Ó Domhnaill, Jackie Daly, Ged Foley and Cal Scott. In 2002, Burke was awarded a National Heritage Fellowship from the National Endowment for the Arts, the highest honour given in the United States for folk and traditional arts. In 2016, Kevin Burke was awarded the "Gradam Ceoil" in the traditional-music awards presented by the Irish-language TV channel TG4. Kevin Burke was born in 1950 in England to parents from County Sligo in Ireland. Inheriting a love of Irish music from his parents, he took up the fiddle at the age of eight, studied under Jessie Christopherson, acquired a virtuosic technique in the Sligo fiddling style.
He travelled to Ireland to visit relatives and immersed himself in the local Sligo music. By the age of thirteen, he was playing with Irish musical groups, he joined a céilí band, the Glenside, played weekends at various Irish dance halls around London. In 1966, the Glenside performed at the céilí band competition at the All-Ireland Fleadh in Boyle in County Roscommon and won the competition. In 1972, Burke met American singer-songwriter Arlo Guthrie in a pub in Milltown Malbay in County Clare. Impressed with Burke's fiddling, Guthrie invited him to Los Angeles to play on his album Last of the Brooklyn Cowboys. Burke's exposure to the musicians he met in the United States—including accordionist Joe Burke and fiddler Andy McGann—inspired him to devote his life to playing music. In 1974, Burke moved to Dublin, where he teamed up with singer-songwriter Christy Moore, a former member of the Irish band Planxty. Together with Jimmy Faulkner and Declan McNelis, they played throughout Ireland for the next few years.
In 1976, Burke became a member of the influential Irish traditional music group The Bothy Band. During the late 1970s, they emerged as one of the most exciting bands in Celtic music. While much of their repertoire centred around the traditional folk music of Ireland, their "enthusiasm and musical virtuosity" influenced a generation of young Irish musicians. Burke replaced Tommy Peoples on fiddle, soon became an integral member of the group, appearing on three of their albums: Old Hag You Have Killed Me, Out of the Wind – Into the Sun, After Hours. Burke developed an strong musical bond with the band's guitarist and vocalist, Mícheál Ó Domhnaill, soon the two began appearing together as a duo; when the Bothy Band disbanded in 1979, they toured the United Kingdom and Europe together, recorded a acclaimed album, Promenade. In 1980, Burke and Ó Domhnaill moved to the United States and toured throughout the country before settling in Portland, where they recorded a second acclaimed album, Portland.
In 1985, Burke joined the Legends of Irish Music tour, where he played with influential Irish musicians Andy Irvine and Jackie Daly. Together they formed the group Patrick Street. During the next two decades, the group released nine albums: Patrick Street, No. 2 Patrick Street, Irish Times, All in Good Time, Made in Cork, Live from Patrick Street, Street Life, On the Fly. In 1992, Burke recorded the solo album Open House with Mark Graham, Paul Kotapish, Sandy Silva; these three comprised the core of his band and together, as the group Open House, they recorded two other albums, Second Story and Hoof and Mouth. In the early 1990s, Burke started touring and recording with Scottish fiddler Johnny Cunningham and Breton fiddler Christian Lemaître as the Celtic Fiddle Festival. Together they released six albums: Celtic Fiddle Festival, Celtic Fiddle Festival: Encore, Play On, Live in Brittany. In 2002, Burke was awarded a National Heritage Fellowship from the National Endowment for the Arts, the highest honour given in the United States for folk and traditional arts.
In recent years, Burke partnered with Ged Foley to record In Tandem, collaborated with documentary film composer Cal Scott on the acclaimed album Across the Black River and follow-up album Suite. In 2007, Burke started Loftus Music, to release his own recordings. Burke continues to tour throughout the world, he lives in Portland, Oregon with his wife and two children. Burke's fiddle playing style was influenced by the Sligo style playing of Michael Coleman, Paddy Killoran, James Morrison. Burke described the style as being "the best of both worlds"—combining the driving rhythm of Donegal style and the smooth lyricism of Clare style. While acknowledging that his playing is "based on" the Sligo style, he acknowledges being influenced by many different musical styles outside of Irish traditional music. For example, one of the distinctive features of his playing is the "strong backbeat he applies to many reels, with emphasis on every third quaver", presenting the emphasised beat with an up bow, versus the traditional approach of playing that pattern with an emphasised downbow.
Burke emphasises the strong beat by playing "an adjacent open string as the bow digs in". Burke plays a fiddle made by Michiel De Hoog, a Dut