Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1817, it is the oldest continuously operating law school in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the world, it is ranked first in the world by the ARWU Shanghai Ranking. Each class in the three-year J. D. program has 560 students, among the largest of the top 150 ranked law schools in the United States. The first-year class is broken into seven sections of 80 students, who take most first-year classes together. Harvard's uniquely large class size and prestige have led the law school to graduate a great many distinguished alumni in the judiciary and the business world. According to Harvard Law's 2015 ABA-required disclosures, 95% of the Class of 2014 passed the Bar exam. Harvard Law School graduates have accounted for 568 judicial clerkships in the past three years, including one-quarter of all Supreme Court clerkships, more than any other law school in the United States.
Harvard Law School's founding is traditionally linked to the funding of Harvard's first professorship in law, paid for from a bequest from the estate of Isaac Royall, Jr. a colonial American landowner and a slaveholder. Today, it is home to the largest academic law library in the world; the current dean of Harvard Law School is John F. Manning, who assumed the role on July 1, 2017; the law school has 328 faculty members. Harvard Law School's founding is traced to the establishment of a "law department" at Harvard in 1817. Dating the founding to the year of the creation of the law department makes Harvard Law the oldest continuously-operating law school in the nation. William & Mary Law School opened first in 1779, but closed due to the American Civil War, reopening in 1920; the University of Maryland School of Law was chartered in 1816, but did not begin classes until 1824, closed during the Civil War. The founding of the law department came two years after the establishment of Harvard's first endowed professorship in law, funded by a bequest from the estate of wealthy slaveowner Isaac Royall, Jr. in 1817.
Royall left 1,000 acres of land in Massachusetts to Harvard when he died in exile in Nova Scotia, where he fled as a British loyalist during the American Revolution, in 1781, "to be appropriated towards the endowing a Professor of Laws... or a Professor of Physick and Anatomy, whichever the said overseers and Corporation shall judge to be best." The value of the land, when liquidated in 1809, was $2,938. The Royalls were so involved in the slave trade, that "the labor of slaves underwrote the teaching of law in Cambridge." The dean of the law school traditionally held the Royall chair, deans Elena Kagan and Martha Minow declined the Royall chair due to its origins in the proceeds of slavery. Royall’s legacy at Harvard is lasting, Harvard Law School adopted the Royall family crest as apart of its school crest; that crest features with three bushels of wheat. Until the connection of the seal to the slave owning Royalls was unknown to many. According to The Harvard Crimson "Most Law School alumni and faculty were unaware of the story behind the seal."
In response to its ties to slavery, Harvard Law School decided to stop using the Royalls seal. It has yet to design a replacement seal. Royall's Medford estate, the Isaac Royall House, is now a museum which features the only remaining slave quarters in the northeast United States; the Royall family coat-of-arms, which shows three stacked wheat sheaves, was adopted as the school crest in 1936, topped with the university motto. In March 2016, following requests by students, the school decided to remove the emblem because of its association with slavery. By 1827, the school, with one faculty member, was struggling. Nathan Dane, a prominent alumnus of the college endowed the Dane Professorship of Law, insisting that it be given to Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story. For a while, the school was called "Dane Law School." In 1829, John H. Ashmun, son of Eli Porter Ashmun and brother of George Ashmun, accepted a professorship and closed his Northampton Law School, with many of his students following him to Harvard.
Story's belief in the need for an elite law school based on merit and dedicated to public service helped build the school's reputation at the time, although the contours of these beliefs have not been consistent throughout its history. Enrollment remained low through the 19th century as university legal education was considered to be of little added benefit to apprenticeships in legal practice. After first trying lowered admissions standards, in 1848 HLS eliminated admissions requirements entirely. In 1869, HLS eliminated examination requirements. In the 1870s, under Dean Christopher Columbus Langdell, HLS introduced what has become the standard first-year curriculum for American law schools – including classes in contracts, torts, criminal law, civil procedure. At Harvard, Langdell developed the case method of teaching law, now the dominant pedagogical model at U. S. law schools. Langdell's notion that law could be studied as a "science" gave university legal education a reason for being distinct from vocational preparation.
Critics at first defended the old lecture method because it was faster and cheaper and made fewer demands on faculty and students. Advocates said the case method had a sounder theoretical basis in scientific research and the inductive method. Langdell's graduates became leading professors at other law schools where they introduced the case method; the metho
The MLB Network is an American television sports channel dedicated to baseball. It is owned by Major League Baseball, with AT&T's WarnerMedia News & Sports, Comcast's NBC Sports Group, Charter Communications and Cox Communications having minority ownership; the channel's headquarters and studios are located in the Secaucus, New Jersey facility, which housed MSNBC's studios. MLB Network's studios house NHL Network, with some studio sharing, which came under the management of MLB Advanced Media in mid-2015 and transferred most operations from the network's former Toronto home base. Tony Petitti, former executive producer of CBS Sports, was named the network's first president. Petitti served as MLB Network's president until December 2014, when he was appointed as Chief Operating Officer of Major League Baseball. Rob McGlarry, who worked as Senior and Executive Vice-president of Business Affairs at MLB Network since 2009, was named the network's second president; as of February 2015, MLB Network is available to 69,991,000 pay television households in the United States.
Major League Baseball became the fourth major North American professional sports league to launch its own 24-hour cable network. NBA TV dates back to 1999, the NHL Network to 2001, the NFL Network to 2003. However, MLB Network is carried in the most households of these four networks, as it is available on all of the top ten video operators in the United States. MLB Network soft-launched on December 16, 2008 with a rolling automated loop of archival programming and promotions for the network for cable systems that carried the network's transmissions leading up to the January 1 launch; the channel launched at 6 PM EST with the premiere of Hot Stove. In April 2012, MLB Network's standard definition feed shifted to a 16:9 letterbox format. Both of the network's SD and HD feeds now show the same format. On April 4, 2016, MLB Network debuted a new on-air graphics package optimized for the 16:9 format, replacing the previous on-air look used since the network's New Year's Day 2009 launch; the network has signed contracts with numerous cable and satellite carriers, including DirecTV, Dish Network, Verizon Fios, Charter, Cox Communications, Time Warner Cable, Bright House Networks, AT&T Uverse.
In a deal, pioneered by other sports league owned channels, MLB tied carriage of the MLB Network to the ability to carry the popular out of market MLB Extra Innings package. In return and satellite providers were offered a minority share of the new network. On March 26, 2010, it was announced that satellite radio station MLB Home Plate will be rebranded to MLB Network Radio which will simulcast some MLB Network programs such as MLB Tonight and Hot Stove; the switchover began on the first day of the 2010 MLB season. At launch, no announcement was made about MLB Network availability in Canada, home of the Toronto Blue Jays. Network officials had been in contact with Blue Jays owner Rogers Communications about making MLB Network available in Canada, but emphasized prior to the channel's launch that a deal was not imminent. In August 2008, Rogers secured Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission approval for a Canadian digital channel tentatively called "Baseball TV"; this license could have been used to launch a localized version of MLB Network with domestic advertising and additional Canadian content, along the lines of NBA TV Canada, owned by the parent company of the Toronto Raptors but uses much of the content of the league's U.
S. channel NBA TV. It was reported that Rogers intended to pursue this approach to bring MLB Network to Canada. However, the licence was issued on the condition the channel launch by August 2011, which did not occur. Rogers agreed to sponsor MLB Network's request to be added to the CRTC's list of approved foreign television services, which would permit Canadian cable and satellite providers to import the American feed, as has occurred with similar niche-sports services such as Big Ten Network, NFL Network and Golf Channel; the application was published for public comment on June 13, 2012 and was approved on November 21, 2012. In the interim, the Rogers-owned Sportsnet One aired selected programs from MLB Network, including Quick Pitch and Intentional Talk. MLB Network was added to Rogers Cable systems in Ontario on January 8, 2014, in both standard and high definition. On June 3, 2015, SaskTel announced; as of 2017, it is available on MTS and Vidéotron. On March 23, 2017, MLB Network launched on Bell Fibe TV and Bell TV.
Shaw Cable, the dominant carrier in Western Canada, does not offer MLB Network. Mediacom does not offer MLB Network; the 720p high definition simulcast of MLB Network launched to the regular channel. After much discussion, MLB Network decided to use the 720p format instead of 1080-line-interlace because it believes 720p shows the motion of baseball more and will degrade less when recompressed by cable operators to save bandwidth; as Mark Haden says: "That's our best shot of maintaining quality to viewers." All studio programs and original shows are shot in HD, as well as all self-produced games such as those of the 2009 World Baseball Classic and Thursday Night Baseball, as well as simulcasted locally produced games. The network remastered 30 World Series films in high definition. On April 14, 2016, it was announced that 25 MLB Network Showcase games will be broadcast in 4K ultra-high definition on Dir
Robert D. Manfred Jr. is an American lawyer and business executive, the tenth and current Commissioner of Baseball. He served as the Chief Operating Officer of Major League Baseball and succeeded Bud Selig as Commissioner on January 25, 2015. Manfred was born on September 1958 in Rome, New York, he attended Rome Free Academy and graduated in 1976. Manfred enrolled at Le Moyne College from 1976 through 1978 before transferring to Cornell University, he graduated from Cornell's School of Harvard Law School. After law school, he clerked for Judge Joseph L. Tauro of the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts, he became a partner at Lewis & Bockius, focusing on labor and employment law. In 1987, Manfred began working with Major League Baseball during collective bargaining. During the 1994–95 MLB strike, he served as outside counsel for the owners, he joined MLB on a full-time basis in 1998, serving as the Executive Vice President of Economics and League Affairs. Manfred negotiated MLB's first drug testing agreement with the Major League Baseball Players Association in 2002, represented MLB in negotiations with the MLBPA when forming new collective bargaining agreements in 2002, 2006 and 2011.
In 2013, Manfred led MLB's investigation of the Biogenesis scandal. At the end of the 2013 season, Commissioner of Baseball Bud Selig promoted Manfred to chief operating officer of MLB; the position had been vacant since Bob DuPuy resigned in 2010. Following the announcement of Selig's retirement, effective after the 2014 season, Manfred became a finalist to succeed him as Commissioner. On August 14, 2014, MLB owners elected Manfred to succeed Selig, beating Boston Red Sox chairman Tom Werner and MLB executive vice president of business Tim Brosnan. Manfred assumed office on January 25, 2015, he stated that his primary goals as commissioner were youth outreach, embracing technology, quickening the pace of play, strengthening player relations, creating a more unified business operation. As commissioner, Manfred instituted rules before the start of the 2015 season to address the pace of play, including having batters remain in the batter's box and the installation of time clocks to limit the time spent around commercial breaks.
Before the 2018 season, Manfred introduced more rule changes to affect the pace of play, including reducing the time in commercial breaks and limiting player visits to the pitcher's mound. He has advocated for expansion franchises, listing Portland, Las Vegas, Nashville and Vancouver as possible locations for new teams. On November 15, 2018, the owners extended Manfred’s contract through the 2024 season. Growing up in Upstate New York, Manfred was a fan of the New York Yankees, his father led the Rome, New York, division of Revere Copper and Brass, while his mother was a schoolteacher. He has a younger brother. Manfred has four children, he serves as a Board member at Catholic School of Holy Child in New York. His daughter Megan Manfred married Timothy Petrella of Minnetonka, son of the president of UnitedHealthcare Community and State, at Immaculate Conception Catholic Church in Sleepy Hollow, New York, his son Michael married Ashley Allen at Catholic Church of the Transfiguration in Tarrytown, New York.
"MLB Executives: Robert D. Manfred, Jr". MLB.com
ESPN on ABC
ESPN on ABC is the brand used for sports event and documentary programming televised on the American Broadcasting Company in the United States. The broadcast network retains its own sports division. ABC broadcasts use ESPN's production and announcing staff, incorporate elements such as ESPN-branded on-screen graphics, SportsCenter in-game updates, the BottomLine ticker; the ABC logo is used for identification purposes as a digital on-screen graphic during sports broadcasts on the network, in promotions to disambiguate events airing the broadcast network from those shown on the ESPN cable channel. The broadcast network's sports event coverage carried the ABC Sports brand prior to September 2, 2006; when ABC acquired a controlling interest in ESPN in 1984, it operated the cable network separately from its network sports division. The integration of ABC Sports with ESPN began after The Walt Disney Company bought ABC in 1996; the branding change to ESPN on ABC was made to better orient ESPN viewers with event telecasts on ABC and provide consistent branding for all sports broadcasts on Disney-owned channels.
Despite its name, ABC's sports coverage is supplemental to ESPN and not a simulcast of programs aired by the network, although ESPN and ESPN2 will carry ABC's regional broadcasts that otherwise would not air in certain markets. Like its longtime competitors CBS Sports and NBC Sports, ABC Sports was part of the news division of the ABC network, after 1961, was spun off into its own independent division; when Roone Arledge came to ABC Sports as a producer of NCAA football games in 1960, the network was in financial shambles. The International Olympic Committee wanted a bank to guarantee ABC's contract to broadcast the 1960 Olympics. At the time, Edgar Scherick served as the de facto head of ABC Sports. Scherick had joined the fledgling ABC television network when he persuaded it to purchase Sports Programs, Inc. in exchange for the network acquiring shares in the company. Scherick had formed the company after he left CBS, when the network would not make him the head of its sports programming unit.
Before ABC Sports became a formal division of the network, Scherick and ABC programming chief Tom Moore pulled off many programming deals involving the most popular American sporting events. While Scherick was not interested in "For Men Only," he recognized the talent. Arledge realized; the lack of a formal organization would offer him the opportunity to claim real power when the network matured. With this, he signed on with Scherick as an assistant producer, with Arledge ascending to a role as executive producer of its sports telecasts. Several months before ABC began broadcasting NCAA college football games, Arledge sent Scherick a remarkable memo, filled with youthful exuberance, television production concepts which sports broadcasts have adhered to since. Network broadcasts of sporting events had consisted of simple set-ups and focused on the game itself. In his memo, Arledge not only offered another way to broadcast the game to the sports fan, but recognized that television had to take fans to the game.
In addition, he had the forethought to realize that the broadcasts needed to attract, hold the attention of female viewers, as well as males. On September 17, 1960, the then-29-year-old Arledge put his vision into reality with ABC's first NCAA college football broadcast from Birmingham, between the Alabama Crimson Tide and the Georgia Bulldogs which Alabama won, 21–6. Despite the production values he brought to NCAA college football, Scherick wanted low-budget sports programming that could attract and retain an audience, he hit upon the idea of broadcasting field events sponsored by the Amateur Athletic Union. While Americans were not fans of track and field events, Scherick figured that Americans understood games. In January 1961, Scherick called Arledge into his office, asked him to attend the annual AAU board of governors meeting. While he was shaking hands, Scherick said, "if the mood seemed right, might he cut a deal to broadcast AAU events on ABC?" It seemed like a tall assignment, however as Scherick said years "Roone was a gentile and I was not."
Arledge came back with a deal for ABC to broadcast all AAU events for $50,000 per year. Next and Arledge divided up their NCAA college football sponsor list, they telephoned their sponsors and said in so many words, "Advertise on our new sports show coming up in April, or forget about buying commercials on NCAA college football this fall." The two persuaded enough sponsors to advertise on the broadcasts, though it took them to the last day of a deadline imposed by ABC's programming operations to do it. Wide World of Sports – an anthology series featuring a different sporting event each broadcast, which premiered on the network on April 29, 1961 – suited Scherick's plans exactly. By exploiting the speed of jet transportation and flexibility of videotape, Scherick was able to undercut NBC and CBS's advantages in broadcasting live sporting events. In that era, with communications nowhere near as universal as they are in the present day, ABC was able to safely record events on
Haverford College is a private liberal arts college in Haverford, Pennsylvania. All students of the college are undergraduates and nearly all reside on campus; the college was founded in 1833 by area members of the Orthodox Philadelphia Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends to ensure an education grounded in Quaker values for young Quaker men. Although the college no longer has a formal religious affiliation, Quaker philosophy still influences campus life. An all-male institution, Haverford began admitting female transfer students in the 1970s and became co-educational in 1980. More than half of Haverford's students are women. For most of the 20th century, Haverford's total enrollment was kept below 300, but the school went through two periods of expansion during and after the 1970s, its enrollment, as of 2018, is 1,353 students. Today Haverford offers its students a wide range of educational choices and considerable flexibility in choosing their areas of study or specialisation.
The college offers Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees in 31 majors across humanities, social sciences and natural sciences. Haverford College is a member of the Tri-College Consortium, which allows students to register for courses at both Bryn Mawr College and Swarthmore College, it is a member of the Quaker Consortium which allows students to cross-register at the University of Pennsylvania. The college has produced, among others, 5 Nobel Prize Recipients, 6 Pulitzer Prize Recipients, 20 Rhodes Scholars, 104 Fulbright Scholars. In 1897, the students and faculty of Haverford voted to adopt an Honor Code to govern academic affairs. Since 1963, every student has been allowed to schedule her own final exams. Take-home examinations are common at Haverford; these exams may include strict instructions such as time limits, prohibitions on using assigned texts or personal notes, calculator usage. All students are bound to follow these instructions by the Code. Conceived as a code of academic honesty, the Honor Code had expanded by the 1970s to govern social interactions.
The code does not list specific rules of behavior, but rather emphasizes a philosophy of mutual trust and respect, as well as genuine engagement, that students are expected to follow. A student who feels that another has broken the Code, is encouraged not to look the other way but rather to confront and engage in a dialogue with the potential offender, before taking matters to an Honor Council which can help mediate the dispute. Student government officers administer the Code, all academic matters are heard by student juries. More severe matters are addressed by administrators. Abstracts from cases heard by students and joint administrative-student panels are distributed to all students by several means, including as print-outs in mailboxes; the trial abstracts are made anonymous by the use of pseudonyms who are characters from entertainment or history. Every student is required to sign a pledge agreeing to the Honor Code prior to matriculation; the Haverford Honor Code is student-run. The Code originated with a body of students who felt it necessary, current Haverford students administer and amend it every year.
Haverford offers Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees in 31 majors across humanities, social sciences and natural sciences. All departments require a senior thesis, project or research for graduation, many departments have junior-level seminar or year-long project such as in biology and chemistry; the college maintains a distribution requirement, spreading course work in all three areas of humanities, social sciences and natural sciences, in addition to major course works. In addition to majors and minors, Haverford offers concentrations in Africana studies, biophysics, computer science, East Asian studies, education and gender studies and society, Latin American and Iberian studies, mathematical economics and behavioral sciences, peace and human rights. Students may pursue pre-law or pre-business intentions through any major. Music students enjoy close proximity to Philadelphia's music tradition: the Philadelphia Orchestra and The Curtis Institute of Music, where students can receive discounted concert tickets and take on extra instrument or voice lessons.
Haverford's consortium relationship with Bryn Mawr and the University of Pennsylvania expands its course offerings. Haverford and Bryn Mawr have a close relationship, with over 2,000 students cross-registering between the two schools; the campuses are only 1 mile apart and a shuttle called the Blue Bus runs back and forth. Some departments, such as Religion and Music, are housed at Haverford, while others like Theatre and Growth and Structure of Cities are at Bryn Mawr. Students can major in these departments from both colleges. U. S. News deemed Haverford's admissions "most selective," with the class of 2022 acceptance rate being 18.7%. Applying for admission to the class of 2022 were 4,682 applicants. Of those admitted submitting such data, 96% were in the top 10% of their high school class; the median SAT scores were 760 for math. The median ACT composite score was 34. Of those admitted to the class of 2022, 50.1% identified as persons of color, 16% of those admitted were international students.
Haverford is tied for 11th among liberal arts colleges in the 2019 ranking by U. S News & World Report. Washington Monthly's ranking of colleges "based on their contribution to the public go
Brian Bedol is an American television executive and founder of the sports television channels Classic Sports Network and College Sports Television. Bedol owned CSN from 1995 to 1997 and CSTV from 2003 to 2006. Bedol has since sold off both channels, to ESPN and CBS who have renamed the channels ESPN Classic and CBS Sports Network, he served as CEO of both companies. He left CSTV Networks in January, 2008. In 2009 he announced the formation of Bedrock Venture Partners to invest in early-stage media and technology businesses. In addition, in August 2010, Major League Soccer announced it had hired Bedol as a consultant to help the league determine what to do with its media rights. In 2012, he founded Bedrocket in partnership with Huffington Post co-founder Ken Lerer. Bedol serves as the company's President and CEO. Brian Bedol is a "maverick entrepreneur in an mature industry dominated by conglomerates.", according to Mediaweek Magazine. He began his career as an advertising writer in Chicago writing McDonald's commercials, but soon after moved to New York as an on-air promotion producer for the not-yet-launched MTV.
After returning to Harvard Business School he continued to work with MTV's parent company, Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment, during the summer of 1984 was part of a small team that developed the business concept for Nickelodeon's evening programming block, Nick-at-Nite. After receiving his MBA from Harvard University, Bedol joined MTV founder Bob Pittman, as a partner overseeing television and home video at Quantum Media Ventures, where he created and executive-produced the ground-breaking and controversial Morton Downey, Jr. show. He was the creator and executive producer of the Fox Network's first reality show, Totally Hidden Video, his other television credits include creator and co-executive producer of the television game show Pictionary, hosted by Brian Robbins and creator of the 1990 Fox comedy show Haywire. He executive produced the home video of Hagler vs. Leonard: The Superfight, the top-selling sports home video of the year. While an executive at Quantum, Bedol and another partner, Mayo Stuntz and launched Court TV with Steven Brill's American Lawyer Media.
He served on the board of directors of Quincy Jones Entertainment, the creator and producer of the hit television show, The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air. In 1986, along with his partners led a secret effort to buy the J. Walter Thompson advertising agency. Although outbid by Martin Sorrell, Quantum had accumulated enough stock to earn over $10 million for two weeks of effort. In 1990, Quantum was sold to Time Warner, Bedol and Stuntz became the executive team for Time Warner Enterprises, the company's entrepreneurial ventures unit; the division's highest profile activity was its purchase of Six Flags Theme Parks from Wesray Capital Corporation, the pioneering leveraged buyout firm started by William E. Simon and Ray Chambers. Bedol joined the board of Six Flags, oversaw the company's marketing, advertising and creative operations, he developed the company's controversial national advertising strategy that compared Six Flags to Disneyland. During this period, Six Flags broke its all-time revenue records.
He left Time Warner at the end of 1992 to strike out on his own. While working on the launch of Nick-at-Nite, Bedol wanted to show classic sporting events alongside the classic sitcoms. Convinced by his associates that this was a bad idea for Nick-at-Nite, he decided to resurrect it as a stand-alone channel over a decade later. In 1995, Bedol launched his "Nick-at-Nite of sports" Classic Sports Network. Partnered with Stephen Greenberg, former Deputy Commissioner of Major League Baseball and son of baseball hall of famer Hank Greenberg, the pair raised venture capital funding from Allen & Company and business tycoon Wayne Huizenga, Paul Tudor Jones's Tudor Capital, others; the network launched May 6, 1995 with a critically acclaimed programming stunt, "Float like a butterfly, sting like a bee, 24 hours of Muhammad Ali." Bedol and Greenberg negotiated programming agreements with all of the major leagues, including the NFL, the NBA and Major League Baseball. They licensed the boxing library of Bill Cayton that included many of the most important fights in boxing history, including those of Ali, Sonny Liston, Sugar Ray Robinson, Jack Dempsey, Rocky Marciano.
Additionally, they broadcast cult classics like Home Run Derby and the Joe Namath Show, a short-lived weekly variety show co-hosted by sportscaster Dick Schaap. For the company few people could see the network; because it was independently owned and not part of a media conglomerate, the roll-out of the network was slow. But Bedol persevered, raised an additional $20 million from Warburg Pincus to keep the company afloat. An innovative marketer, Bedol recognized the value of using some of the greatest names in sports history to help grow the network. Since he couldn't afford to pay them in cash at the time, he formed the Classic Sports Network "Board of Champions," and gave each of its members a slice of equity in exchange for helping to promote the channel; the board's members included Joe Namath, Magic Johnson, Mary Lou Retton, Wilt Chamberlain, Gale Sayers, Ernie Banks, Ted Williams. The strategy was successful, Classic Sports Network attracted a lot of attention and favorable publicity, it attracted some unfavorable attention.
After the company rejected Cablevision's approach to acquire the network in 1997, Cablevision decided to launch a competitive service called "American Sports Classics." In March, 1997, Bedol and Greenberg filed the first complaint with the Federal Commun
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play with 15 teams in each league; the NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000; the organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseball's first all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869; the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier; the 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world.
MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution; this document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, negotiates marketing and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball; this is due in large part to the 1922 U. S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law; this ruling has been weakened only in subsequent years. The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916.
The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president, chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, chief baseball officer; the multimedia branch of MLB, based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees each of the 30 teams' websites, its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV, it operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, has editorial independence from the league. In 1920, the weak National Commission, created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.
From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece. In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U. S. Team. Two teams were added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994; until 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997. In March 1995 two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays, were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998; this addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL; the original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league, but in order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it