Peculiar is a city in Cass County, United States. The population was 4,608 at the 2010 census; the town motto is "Where the'odds' are with you." Early settlers of the town came to Western Missouri by riverboat from Illinois, Michigan and Ohio. Peculiar had families coming from Tennessee and Virginia. On July 29, 1868, the county surveyor, Robert Cass, platted Peculiar and was filed as "The Town of Peculiar". There are at least two versions of the story on; the first involves Edgar Thomson. His first choice for a town name, "Excelsior," was rejected because it existed in Atchison County, Missouri. Several other choices were rejected; the story goes that the annoyed Thomson wrote to the Postmaster General himself to complain saying, among other things, "We don't care what name you give us so long as it is sort of'peculiar'." Thomson submitted the name was approved. The post office was established on June 22, 1868. In an alternate version, according to Missouri folklorist Margot Ford McMillen, early settlers were searching for a location to farm.
As they cleared a small rise and looked below, one remarked "Well that's peculiar! It's the place I saw in a vision back in Connecticut." The land was purchased and a village sprang up on it, named "Peculiar". Peculiar incorporated as a village in the 1890s and became a fourth class city of the state of Missouri in 1953; the city celebrated its centenary in July 1968. The celebrations continued for nine days and included an antique show and sale, a Lions Club championship rodeo, an open class Western horse show. Peculiar is governed by a Mayor / Board Of Aldermen type system; the mayor is elected to a two-year term. The Board of Aldermen is composed of six members. Two members are elected from each of the three wards in the city. One alderman is elected each year for each ward to serve a two-year term. Peculiar is located at 38°43′15″N 94°27′24″W at an elevation of 991 ft. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.45 square miles, of which 8.41 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 4,608 people, 1,704 households, 1,268 families residing in the city. The population density was 547.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,816 housing units at an average density of 215.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.9% White, 2.0% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.8% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.7% of the population. There were 1,704 households of which 41.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.6% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 25.6% were non-families. 21.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.12. The median age in the city was 32.8 years. 29.1% of residents were under the age of 18.
The gender makeup of the city was 49.1% male and 50.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,604 people, 953 households, 730 families residing in the city; the population density was 744.8 people per square mile. There were 983 housing units at an average density of 281.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.20% White, 0.27% African American, 0.42% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 0.19% from other races, 1.50% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.46% of the population. There were 953 households out of which 42.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.7% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.3% were non-families. 19.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.14. In the city the population was spread out with 31.8% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, 9.3% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $44,769, the median income for a family was $48,534. Males had a median income of $36,921 versus $27,885 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,104. About 5.7% of families and 7.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.4% of those under age 18 and 11.7% of those age 65 or over. Carson Coffman, American professional football player, former quarterback for the Arena Football League Chicago Rush Chase Coffman, American professional football player, former tight end for the National Football League Cincinnati Bengals, Tampa Bay Buccaneers, Indianapolis Colts, Tennessee Titans, Seattle Seahawks and Atlanta Falcons. Paul Coffman, Packers Hall of Famer who played for the Green Bay Packers from 1978–1985, for the Kansas City Chiefs from 1986-1987. Brutus Hamilton and track and field coach Austin Petersen, 2016 Libertarian presidential candidate, 2018 Missouri Senate candidate
Overland Park, Kansas
Overland Park is the second most populous city in the U. S. state of Kansas. Located in Johnson County, it is the second most populous city in the Kansas City metropolitan area; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 173,372. It is home to the Sprint World Headquarters Campus. Overland Park traces its roots to 1905, with the arrival of its founder, William B. Strang Jr. who began to plot subdivisions along an old military roadway, which became the city's principal thoroughfare. Strang developed large portions of what would become downtown Overland Park. On May 20, 1960 Overland Park was incorporated as a "city of first class", with a population of 28,085; as in the case of hundreds of other suburban cities across the United States the following decades were successful. Less than thirty years the population had nearly quadrupled to 111,790 in 1990. While slowing somewhat, this growth rate continues on nearly three decades increasing to 173,250 as of the 2010 census. Overland Park became the second largest city in the state, following Wichita, after passing Kansas City, Kansas in the early 2000s.
Overland Park's success has not come without controversy though. Population growth in the city can be attributed to the traditional greenfield suburban development; this pattern can be noted by viewing the city's annexation map. Overland Park's last annexation attempt in 2008, garnered widespread news coverage after massive outcry from affected residents. In total over 8 square miles, though half of the 15 square miles the city requested, was added to the city. Overland Park now has a combined land area of 75.37 square miles and spans nearly the full North-South length of Johnson County. Though the outcry Overland Park caused lead state legislators to amend state laws governing annexations to require a majority vote of affected residents in all future annexations over 40 acres. On April 13, 2014, a pair of shootings committed by a lone gunman occurred at the local Jewish Community Center of Greater Kansas City and Village Shalom, a local Jewish retirement community. A total of three people were killed in both shootings.
The suspected gunman, described as a man in his seventies identified as Neo-Nazi Frazier Glenn Miller, Jr. was taken into custody. Overland Park was awarded “Best city to raise a family” and “One of the most popular cities for millenials” in 2018. Overland Park is located in northeastern Kansas at the junction of Interstate 435 and U. S. Route 69 east of Olathe, the county seat; the city center is 13 miles south-southwest of downtown Kansas City, Missouri. The city lies on the northern edge of the Osage Plains a few miles south of the Kansas River. One of the river's tributaries, Turkey Creek, flows northeast through the extreme northern part of the city. South of Turkey Creek, the majority of the city lies in the watershed of the Blue River. Several of the river's tributaries run east-northeast across the city. In the far southern part of the city, two more tributaries, Coffee Creek and Wolf Creek, join to form the main stem of the Blue River itself. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 75.37 square miles of which 74.84 square miles is land and 0.53 square mile is water.
As a suburb of Kansas City, Overland Park is part of the Kansas City metropolitan area, it borders other communities on all sides. These include Kansas City, Kansas, to the north and Prairie Village to the northeast, Leawood to the east, Stilwell to the south and Lenexa to the west, Shawnee and Merriam to the northwest. Most of Overland Park the part of it lying north of 159th Street, lies within the area of Johnson County referred to as Shawnee Mission. Overland Park lies in the transition zone between North America's humid subtropical climate and humid continental climate zones experiencing hot, humid summers and cold, dry winters; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 173,372 people, 71,443 households, 45,516 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,316.5 people per square mile. There were 76,280 housing units at an average density of 1,019.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 84.4% White, 4.3% African American, 0.3% American Indian, 6.3% Asian, 2.1% from other races, 2.5% from two or more races.
Hispanics and Latinos of any race were 6.3% of the population. There were 71,443 households of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.0% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 36.3% were non-families. 29.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41, the average family size was 3.04. The median age in the city was 37.8 years. 24.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.3% male and 51.7% female. The median income for a household in the city was $71,513, the median income for a family was $93,293. Males had a median income of $65,210 versus $43,413 for females; the per capita income for the city was $39,319. 4.9% of the population and 3.3% of families were living below the poverty line, including 6.5% of those under the age of 18 and 4.9% of those 65 and older.
Overland Park is a principal city of both the Kansas City, MO-KS Metropolitan Sta
Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature for aesthetic purposes. An individual who engages in this activity is referred to as a bodybuilder. In competitive bodybuilding, bodybuilders appear in lineups and perform specified poses for a panel of judges who rank the competitors based on criteria such as symmetry and conditioning. Bodybuilders prepare for competitions through the elimination of nonessential body fat, enhanced at the last stage by a combination of extracellular dehydration and carbohydrate loading, to achieve maximum muscular definition and vascularity, as well as tanning to accentuate the contrast of the skin under the spotlights. Bodybuilders may use other performance-enhancing drugs to build muscles; the winner of the annual IFBB Mr. Olympia contest is recognized as the world's top male professional bodybuilder; the winner of the Women's Physique portion of the competition is regarded as the world's top female professional bodybuilder.
The title is held by Juliana Malacarne, who has won every year since 2014. Since 1950, the NABBA Universe Championships have been considered the top amateur bodybuilding contests, with notable winners such as Reg Park, Lee Priest, Steve Reeves, Arnold Schwarzenegger. Winners go on to become professional athletes. Stone-lifting traditions were practiced in ancient Egypt and Tamilakam. Western weightlifting developed in Europe from 1880 to 1953, with strongmen displaying feats of strength for the public and challenging each other; the focus was not on their physique, they had large bellies and fatty limbs. Bodybuilding developed in the late 19th century, promoted in England by German Eugen Sandow, now considered as the "Father of Bodybuilding", he allowed audiences to enjoy viewing his physique in "muscle display performances". Although audiences were thrilled to see a well-developed physique, the men displayed their bodies as part of strength demonstrations or wrestling matches. Sandow had a stage show built around these displays through Florenz Ziegfeld.
The Oscar-winning 1936 musical film The Great Ziegfeld depicts the beginning of modern bodybuilding, when Sandow began to display his body for carnivals. Sandow was so successful at flexing and posing his physique that he created several businesses around his fame, was among the first to market products branded with his name, he was credited with inventing and selling the first exercise equipment for the masses: machined dumbbells, spring pulleys, tension bands. His image was sold by the thousands in "cabinet cards" and other prints. Sandow was a perfect "Gracilian", a standard of ideal body proportions close to those of ancient Greek and Roman statues. Men's physiques were judged by how they matched these proportions. Sandow organized the first bodybuilding contest on September 14, 1901, called the "Great Competition", it was held at the Royal Albert Hall in London. Judged by Sandow, Sir Charles Lawes, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the contest was a great success and many bodybuilding enthusiasts were turned away due to the overwhelming amount of audience members.
The trophy presented to the winner was a gold statue of Sandow sculpted by Frederick Pomeroy. The winner was William L. Murray of Nottingham; the silver Sandow trophy was presented to second-place winner D. Cooper; the bronze Sandow trophy — now the most famous of all — was presented to third-place winner A. C. Smythe. In 1950, this same bronze trophy was presented to Steve Reeves for winning the inaugural NABBA Mr. Universe contest, it would not resurface again until 1977 when the winner of the IFBB Mr. Olympia contest, Frank Zane, was presented with a replica of the bronze trophy. Since Mr. Olympia winners have been awarded a replica of the bronze Sandow. On January 16, 1904, the first large-scale bodybuilding competition in America took place at Madison Square Garden in New York City; the competition was promoted by Bernarr Macfadden, the father of physical culture and publisher of original bodybuilding magazines such as Health & Strength. The winner was Al Treloar, declared "The Most Perfectly Developed Man in the World".
Treloar won a substantial sum at that time. Two weeks Thomas Edison made a film of Treloar's posing routine. Edison had made two films of Sandow a few years before; those were the first three motion pictures featuring a bodybuilder. In the early 20th century and Charles Atlas continued to promote bodybuilding across the world. Alois P. Swoboda was an early pioneer in America. Many other important bodybuilders in the early history of bodybuilding prior to 1930 include: Earle Liederman, Zishe Breitbart, Georg Hackenschmidt, Emy Nkemena, George F. Jowett, Finn Hateral, Frank Saldo, Monte Saldo, William Bankier, Launceston Elliot, Sig Klein, Sgt. Alfred Moss, Joe Nordquist, Lionel Strongfort, Gustav Frištenský, Ralph Parcaut, Alan P. Mead. Actor Francis X. Bushman, a disciple of Sandow, started his career as a bodybuilder and sculptor's model before beginning his famous silent movie career. Bodybuilding became more popular in the 1950s and 1960s with the emergence of strength and gymnastics champions, the simultaneous popularization of bodybuilding magazines, training principles, nutrition for bulking up and cutting down, the use of protein and other food supplements, the opportunity to enter physique contests.
Female bodybuilding is the female component of competitive bodybuilding. It began in the late 1970s. Female bodybuilding developed as an outgrowth of not only the late nineteenth-century European vaudeville and circus strongwomen acts, Bernarr Macfadden's turn of the century women's physique competitions, the weightlifting of Abbye "Pudgy" Stockton, but as an outgrowth of the men's bodybuilding; the contest formats of men's events during the 1950s to the mid-1970s had been supplemented with either a women's beauty contest or bikini show. These shows "had little to do with women's bodybuilding as we know it today, but they did serve as beginning or more properly, as a doormat for the development of future bodybuilding shows." Physique contests for women date back to at least the 1960s with contests like Miss Physique, Miss Body Beautiful U. S. A. W. B. B. G. and Miss Americana, I. F. B. B.. Maria Elena Alberici, as listed in the Almanac of Women's Bodybuilding, won two national titles in one year: Miss Body Beautiful U.
S. A. in 1972, promoted by Dan Lourie and Miss Americana in 1972, promoted by Joe Weider. Mr. Olympia, Arnold Schwarzenegger was a judge at the Brooklyn Academy of Music in New York when Maria Elena Alberici Maria Lauren won Miss Americana, it was not until the late 1970s, after the advent of the feminist movement and female powerlifting events that women were seen as capable of competing in their own bodybuilding competitions. Prior to 1977, bodybuilding had been considered a male-oriented sport. Henry McGhee, described as the "primary architect of competitive female bodybuilding", was an employee of the Downtown Canton YMCA, carried a strong belief that women should share the opportunity to display their physiques and the results of their weight training the way men had done for years; the first official female bodybuilding competition was held in Canton, Ohio, in November 1977 and was called the Ohio Regional Women's Physique Championship. It was judged as a bodybuilding contest and was the first event of its kind for women.
Gina LaSpina, the champion, is considered the first recognized winner of a woman's bodybuilding contest. The event organizer, McGhee, told the competitors that they would be judged "like the men," with emphasis on muscular development and physique presentation. In 1978, McGhee organized the first National Women's Physique Championship, along with the short-lived United States Women's Physique Association, which he formed to help organize women interested in competing in bodybuilding; the USWPA became defunct in 1980. On August 18, 1979, promoter George Snyder organized a "female bodybuilding" contest known as The Best in the World contest, the first IFBB-sanctioned event for women that awarded prize money to the top finishers, with the winner receiving $2,500, it was considered the forerunner for the Ms. Olympia competition. Although sanctioned as a bodybuilding contest, women were required to appear on stage in high heels. Doris Barrilleaux found the Superior Physique Association in 1978, the first women's bodybuilding organization run for women and by women.
She began publishing the SPA News, a newsletter dedicated to female bodybuilding. SPA disseminated information to women about contests and proper dieting. On April 29, 1979, SPA held Florida's first official women's contest in which thirteen women competed; the contest was promoted by Megas Gym and Doris Barrilleaux. The winner of the show was Laura Combes. In 1979, the IFBB formed the IFBB Women's Committee. One of the significant differences between the SPA and the IFBB was that while the IFBB was organized and run by men, the SPA was run by women and for women. More contests started to appear in 1979; some of these were the following: The second U. S. Women's National Physique Championship, won by Kay Baxter, with Marilyn Schriner second and Cammie Lusko third; the first IFBB Women's World Body Building Championship, held on June 16, won by Lisa Lyon, followed by Claudia Wilbourn, Stella Martinez, Stacey Bentley, Bette Brown. The Best In The World contest, held at Warminster, PA on August 18, featuring a $5,000 prize fund, with $2,500 awarded for first place.
Patsy Chapman was the winner, followed by April Nicotra, Bentley and Carla Dunlap. The Robby Robinson Classic, held at the Embassy Auditorium in Los Angeles on August 25. Bentley finished first winning best legs and best poser, followed by Brown and Georgia Miller. Although these early events were regarded as bodybuilding contests, the women wore high-heeled shoes, did not clench their fists while posing. Additionally, they were not allowed to use the three so-called "men's poses" — the double biceps and lat spread; the contests were held by promoters acting independently. That would change in 1980; the 1980s is. The early 1980s signified a transition from the fashionably thin "twiggy" body to one carrying more muscle mass; the National Physique Committee held the first women's Nationals in 1980. Since its inception, this has been the top amateur level competition for women in the US. Laura Combes won the inaugural contest; the first World Couples Championship was held in Atlantic City on April 8.
The winning couple was Stacey Bentley and Chris Dickerson, with April Nicotra and Robby Robinson in second. Bentley picked up her third consecutive victory in the Frank Zane Invitational on June 28, ahead of Rachel McLish, Lynn Conkwright, Suzy Green, Patsy Chapman, Ge
American Gladiators is an American competition television program that aired weekly in syndication from September 1989 to May 1996. The series matched a cast of amateur athletes against each other, as well as against the show's own gladiators, in contests of strength and agility; the concept was created in 1982 by Johnny C. Ferraro and Dan Carr. Carr gathered the Gladiators and hosted the show, Ferraro financed and produced the original competition at Erie Tech High School in Erie, Pennsylvania so Ferraro could have the event on film as to shop the new creation. In 1983 Ferraro financed and packaged the American Gladiators as a movie project. In 1984 Carr sold his interest in a literary purchase to Flor-Jon Films. Ferraro had been the main driving force behind the American Gladiators brand since 1982. In 1987, Flor-Jon Films licensed the unscripted rights to The Samuel Goldwyn Company. Ferraro is the sole creator of the 1994 kids' version of the series, Gladiators 2000. Flor-Jon Films and the Samuel Goldwyn Co in 1993 granted a license to Chariot Entertainment in an effort to launch a live American Gladiators show on the Las Vegas Strip, but the president of Chariot became mired in a securities fraud prosecution, through no fault of Flor-Jon Films or The Samuel Goldwyn Co, the live show went unrealized.
Episodes from the original series were played on ESPN Classic from 2007 to 2009. Several episodes are available for download on Apple's iTunes Service. MGM Television, the successor company to the Samuel Goldwyn Company, during the 2007-08 Writers Guild of America Strike, sold to NBC a prime-time revival, closer to the British version than the American, with hosts Hulk Hogan and Lalia Ali, Van Earl Wright the play-by-play voice; that version lasted two seasons. In August 2018, MGM Television, with Ferraro and actors Seth Rogen and Evan Goldberg, announced plans to bring American Gladiators back again for the 2019-20 season, the 30th anniversary of the franchise's television debut. American Gladiators featured two men and two women, in most episodes; the players went through a series of seven physical challenges with the goal to become the season's overall winner, referred to as the Grand Champion. This was determined by a season-long tournament, whose format went through various changes during its run.
The first tournament was conducted to find one male champion and one female champion for the season. The winners would return as Gladiators to compete in subsequent tournaments. Twenty contenders in each half-season tournament were chosen from a nationwide contestant pool based on tests of strength and agility, with several alternates chosen in case a contender could not continue due to injury. Five preliminary round matchups were played with the winners automatically advancing to the quarterfinal round, along with the three highest scoring losers. Any alternates from that point on came from the previous round's losers. Once the quarterfinals began, the tournament became a single elimination affair until the champions were crowned, with $10,000 cash awarded to them. Losing contenders were awarded $2,500 for advancing as far as the semifinals, while the losing finalists were given $5,000; the first season was intended to consist of only the tournament, which lasted a total of thirteen weeks. Due to the popularity of those episodes, the producers of American Gladiators began work on a second series of episodes to fill the rest of the season.
With a new format, four new Gladiators, the addition of a new event along with the revamping of the rest of the events, the second tournament launched with a total of twenty-two men and women competing. The two extra spots were given to the winners of the first tournament, who faced off against the winners of the second tournament for more cash and prizes in the first Grand Championship final; the show's second season used the same format as the previous half-season. In seasons three and four, the field competitors increased to 48 and the tournament format was adjusted. Six preliminary round matches were played and the winners of those matches automatically advanced to the quarterfinals; the winners of the three quarterfinal matches advanced to the semifinals, along with the highest scoring non-winner. The semifinals and finals went on as before with the winners of the half-season tournaments meeting in the Grand Championship. For season five, the tournament format was revamped again. Eight competitors on each side played four preliminary round matches, following that each of the eight was seeded based on their performance.
From there, the tournaments were conducted in single elimination format, thus eliminating the need for wild cards. In seasons six and seven, a single tournament was spread out over the season and a rule in place on the British Gladiators was adopted; this time contenders were not only competing to win, with $2,500 given to all preliminary winners regardless, but to have the highest overall winning score as well. Once all the preliminary rounds were completed the four highest scoring winners advanced to the semifinal round, with the winners playing for $25,000 in the Grand Championship. During the first half of the first season, the show's set resembled that of an ancient Roman gladiatorial arena, with the stands raised high above the ground. For the second half, the show's set was changed into a modern indoor sports arena style. An onscreen clock was added in the second half of the season, which allowed viewers to see how much time a contender had left to complete an event; the hooded figures that officiated the games were replaced by veteran NFL referee Bob McElwee.
Starting in Season 2, former Pacific-10 football refere