1936 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1936 was the thirty-eighth quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1936. In the midst of the Great Depression, incumbent Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt defeated Republican Governor Alf Landon of Kansas. Roosevelt won the highest share of the popular and electoral vote since the uncontested 1820 election; the sweeping victory consolidated the New Deal Coalition in control of the Fifth Party System. Roosevelt and Vice President John Nance Garner were re-nominated without opposition. With the backing of party leaders, Landon defeated progressive Senator William Borah at the 1936 Republican National Convention to win his party's presidential nomination; the populist Union Party nominated Congressman William Lemke for president. The election took place. Roosevelt was still working to push the provisions of his New Deal economic policy through Congress and the courts. However, the New Deal policies he had enacted, such as Social Security and unemployment benefits, had proven to be popular with most Americans.
Landon, a political moderate, accepted much of the New Deal but criticized it for waste and inefficiency. Although some political pundits predicted a close race, Roosevelt went on to win the greatest electoral landslide since the beginning of the current two-party system in the 1850s. Roosevelt took 60.8% of the popular vote, while Landon won 36.5% and Lemke won just under 2%. Roosevelt carried every state except Vermont, which together cast eight electoral votes. By winning 523 electoral votes, Roosevelt received 98.49% of the electoral vote total, which remains the highest percentage of the electoral vote won by any candidate since 1820. Roosevelt won the highest share of the popular vote since 1820, though Lyndon B. Johnson would win a higher share of the popular vote in the 1964 election. Before his assassination, there was a challenge from Louisiana Senator Huey Long. But, due to his untimely death, President Roosevelt faced only one primary opponent other than various favorite sons. Henry Skillman Breckinridge, an anti-New Deal lawyer from New York, filed to run against Roosevelt in four primaries.
Breckinridge's challenge of the popularity of the New Deal among Democrats failed miserably. In New Jersey, President Roosevelt did not file for the preference vote and lost that primary to Breckinridge though he did receive 19% of the vote on write-ins. Roosevelt's candidates for delegates swept the race in elsewhere. In other primaries, Breckinridge's best showing was 15% in Maryland. Overall, Roosevelt received 93% of the primary vote, compared to 2% for Breckinridge; the Democratic Party Convention was held in Philadelphia between July 23 and 27. The delegates unanimously re-nominated incumbents President Roosevelt and Vice-President John Nance Garner. At Roosevelt's request, the two-thirds rule, which had given the South a de facto veto power, was repealed; the 1936 Republican National Convention was held in Cleveland, between June 9 and 12. Although many candidates sought the Republican nomination, only two, Governor Landon and Senator William Borah from Idaho, were considered to be serious candidates.
While favorite sons County Attorney Earl Warren from California, Governor Warren Green of South Dakota, Stephen A. Day from Ohio won their respective primaries, the seventy-year-old Borah, a well-known progressive and "insurgent," won the Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Oregon primaries, while performing quite in Knox's Illinois and Green's South Dakota; the party machinery, however uniformly backed Landon, a wealthy businessman and centrist, who won primaries in Massachusetts and New Jersey and dominated in the caucuses and at state party conventions. With Knox withdrawing to become Landon's selection for vice-president and Day and Warren releasing their delegates, the tally at the convention was as follows: Alf Landon 984 William Borah 19 Many people, most Democratic National Committee Chairman James Farley, expected Huey Long, the colorful Democratic senator from Louisiana, to run as a third-party candidate with his "Share Our Wealth" program as his platform. Polls made during 1934 and 1935 suggested Long could have won between six and seven million votes, or fifteen percent of the actual number cast in the 1936 election.
However, Long was assassinated in September 1935. Some historians, including Long biographer T. Harry Williams, contend that Long had never, in fact, intended to run for the presidency in 1936. Instead, he had been plotting with Father Charles Coughlin, a Catholic priest and populist talk radio personality, to run someone else on the soon-to-be-formed "Share Our Wealth" Party ticket. According to Williams, the idea was that this candidate would split the left-wing vote with President Roosevelt, thereby electing a Republican president and proving the electoral appeal of Share Our Wealth. Long would wait four years and run for president as a Democrat in 1940. Prior to Long's death, leading contenders for the role of the sacrificial 1936 candidate included Idaho Senator William Borah, Montana Senator and running mate of Robert La Follette in 1924 Burton K. Wheeler, Governor Floyd B. Olson of the Minnesota Farmer–Labor Party. After Long's assassination, the two senators lost interest in the idea, while Olson was diagnosed with terminal stomach cancer.
Father Coughlin, who had allied himself with Dr. Francis Townsend, a left-wing political activist, pushing for the creation of an old-age pension system, Rev. Gerald L. K. Smith, was forced to run Representative William Lemke (R-North D
1976 United States presidential election
The 1976 United States presidential election was the 48th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 2, 1976. Democrat Jimmy Carter of Georgia defeated incumbent Republican President Gerald Ford from Michigan. Carter's win represented the lone Democratic victory in a presidential election held between 1968 and 1988. President Richard Nixon had won the 1972 election with Spiro Agnew as his running mate, but in 1973 Agnew resigned and Ford was appointed as vice president via the 25th Amendment; when Nixon resigned in 1974 in the wake of the Watergate scandal, Ford ascended to the presidency, becoming the only president to have never been elected to national office. He faced a strong challenge from conservative former governor Ronald Reagan of California in the Republican primaries, but Ford narrowly prevailed at the convention. Carter was little-known at the start of the Democratic primaries, but the former governor of Georgia emerged as the front-runner after his victories in the first set of primaries.
Campaigning as a political moderate and Washington outsider, Carter defeated opponents such as Jerry Brown and Mo Udall to clinch the Democratic nomination. Ford pursued a "Rose Garden strategy" in which he sought to portray himself as an experienced leader focused on fulfilling his role as chief executive. Carter emphasized his status as a reformer, "untainted" by Washington. Saddled with a poor economy, the fall of South Vietnam and his unpopular pardon of Nixon, Ford trailed by a wide margin in polls taken after Carter's formal nomination in July 1976. Ford's polling rebounded after a strong performance in the first presidential debate, the race was close on election day. Carter won a majority of the electoral vote, he carried most states in the Northeast while Ford dominated the Western states. Carter remains the only Democratic candidate since 1964 to win a majority of the Southern states. Ford won 27 states, the most states carried by a losing candidate. Both of the major party vice presidential nominees, Walter Mondale in 1984 and Bob Dole in 1996, would win their respective party's presidential nominations, but lose in the general election.
Democratic candidates Jimmy Carter, former governor of Georgia Morris Udall, U. S. Representative from Arizona Jerry Brown, Governor of California George Wallace, Governor of Alabama Ellen McCormack, housewife from New York Frank Church, U. S. Senator from Idaho Henry M. Jackson, U. S. Senator from Washington Fred R. Harris, former U. S. Senator from Oklahoma Robert Byrd, U. S. Senator from West Virginia Milton Shapp, Governor of Pennsylvania Sargent Shriver, former U. S. Ambassador to France, from Maryland Birch Bayh, U. S. Senator from Indiana Lloyd Bentsen, U. S. Senator from Texas Terry Sanford, former governor of North Carolina Walter Fauntroy, U. S. Delegate from Washington, D. C; the surprise winner of the 1976 Democratic presidential nomination was Jimmy Carter, a former state senator and governor of Georgia. When the primaries began, Carter was little-known at the national level, many political pundits regarded a number of better-known candidates, such as Senator Henry M. Jackson from Washington, Representative Morris Udall from Arizona, Governor George Wallace of Alabama, California Governor Jerry Brown, as the favorites for the nomination.
However, in the wake of the Watergate scandal, Carter realized that his status as a Washington outsider, political centrist, moderate reformer could give him an advantage over his better-known establishment rivals. Carter took advantage of the record number of state primaries and caucuses in 1976 to eliminate his better-known rivals one-by-one. Senator Jackson made a fateful decision not to compete in the early Iowa caucus and New Hampshire primary, which Jimmy Carter won after liberals split their votes among four other candidates. Though Jackson went on to win the Massachusetts and New York primaries, he was forced to quit the race on May 1 after losing the critical Pennsylvania primary to Carter by twelve percentage points. Carter defeated Governor Wallace, his main conservative challenger, by a wide margin in the North Carolina primary, thus forcing Wallace to end his campaign. Representative Udall, a liberal became Carter's main challenger, he finished second to Carter in the New Hampshire, Wisconsin, New York, South Dakota, Ohio primaries, won the caucuses in his home state of Arizona, while running with Carter in the New Mexico caucuses.
However, the fact that Udall finished second to Carter in most of these races meant that Carter accumulated more delegates for the nomination than he did. As Carter closed in on the nomination, an "ABC" movement started among Northern and Western liberal Democrats who worried that Carter's Southern upbringing would make him too conservative for the Democratic Party; the leaders of the "ABC" movement – Idaho Senator Frank Church and California Governor Jerry Brown – both announced their candidacies for the Democratic nomination and defeated Carter in several late primaries. However, their campaigns started too late to prevent Carter from gathering the remaining delegates he needed to capture the nomination. By June 1976, Carter had captured more than enough delegates to win the Democratic nomination. At the 1976 Democratic National Convention, Carter won the nomination on the first ballot. Carter chose Minnesota Senator Walter Mondale, a liberal and political protégé of Hubert Humphrey, as his running mate.
Republican candidates Gerald Ford, President of the United States Ronald Reagan, former governor of California The contest for the Republican Party's presidential nomination in 1976 was between two serious candidates: incumbent president Gerald Ford from Mich
1960 United States presidential election
The 1960 United States presidential election was the 44th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 8, 1960. In a contested election, Democrat John F. Kennedy defeated incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon, the Republican Party nominee; this was the first election in which all fifty states participated, the last in which the District of Columbia did not. It was the first election in which an incumbent president was ineligible to run for a third term due to the term limits established by the 22nd Amendment. Nixon faced little opposition in the Republican race to succeed popular incumbent Dwight D. Eisenhower. Kennedy, a U. S. Senator from Massachusetts, established himself as the Democratic front-runner with his strong performance in the 1960 Democratic primaries, including a key victory in West Virginia over Senator Hubert Humphrey, he defeated Senate Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson on the first presidential ballot of the 1960 Democratic National Convention, asked Johnson to serve as his running mate.
The issue of the Cold War dominated the election, as tensions were high between the United States and the Soviet Union. Kennedy won a 303 to 219 Electoral College victory, is considered to have won the national popular vote by 112,827, a margin of 0.17 percent. The issue of the popular vote was complicated by the presence of several unpledged electors in the Deep South. Fourteen unpledged electors from Mississippi and Alabama cast their vote for Senator Harry F. Byrd, as did a faithless elector from Oklahoma; the 1960 presidential election was the closest election since 1916, this closeness can be explained by a number of factors. Kennedy benefited from the economic recession of 1957–58, which hurt the standing of the incumbent Republican Party, he had the advantage of 17 million more registered Democrats than Republicans. Furthermore, the new votes that Kennedy, the first Roman Catholic president, gained among Catholics neutralized the new votes Nixon gained among Protestants. Kennedy's campaigning skills decisively outmatched Nixon's, who wasted time and resources campaigning in all fifty states while Kennedy focused on campaigning in populous swing states.
Nixon's emphasis on his experience carried little weight for most voters. Kennedy used his large, well-funded campaign organization to win the nomination, secure endorsements, with the aid of the big-city bosses, get out the vote in the big cities. Kennedy relied on Johnson to hold the South, used television effectively. In 1963, Kennedy was succeeded by Johnson. Nixon would successfully seek the presidency in 1968; the major candidates for the 1960 Democratic presidential nomination were John F. Kennedy, Governor Pat Brown of California, Senator Stuart Symington from Missouri, Senator Lyndon B. Johnson from Texas, former Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson, Senator Wayne Morse from Oregon, Senator Hubert Humphrey from Minnesota. Several other candidates sought support in their home state or region as "favorite son" candidates without any realistic chance of winning the nomination. Symington and Johnson all declined to campaign in the presidential primaries. While this reduced their potential delegate count going into the Democratic National Convention, each of these three candidates hoped that the other leading contenders would stumble in the primaries, thus causing the convention's delegates to choose him as a "compromise" candidate acceptable to all factions of the party.
Kennedy was dogged by suggestions from some Democratic Party elders that he was too youthful and inexperienced to be president. Realizing that this was a strategy touted by his opponents to keep the public from taking him Kennedy stated frankly, "I'm not running for vice president, I'm running for president." The next step was the primaries. Kennedy's Roman Catholic religion was an issue. Kennedy first challenged Minnesota Senator Hubert Humphrey in the Wisconsin primary and defeated him. Kennedy's attractive sisters and wife Jacqueline combed the state looking for votes, leading Humphrey to complain that he "felt like an independent merchant competing against a chain store." However, some political experts argued that Kennedy's margin of victory had come entirely from Catholic areas, thus Humphrey decided to continue the contest in the Protestant state of West Virginia. The first televised debate of 1960 was held in West Virginia, Kennedy outperformed Humphrey. Humphrey's campaign was low on funds and could not compete for advertising and other "get-out-the-vote" drives with Kennedy's well-financed and well-organized campaign.
In the end, Kennedy defeated Humphrey with over 60% of the vote, Humphrey ended his presidential campaign. West Virginia showed that Kennedy, a Catholic, could win in a Protestant state. Although Kennedy had only competed in nine presidential primaries, Kennedy's rivals and Symington, failed to campaign in any primaries. Though Stevenson had twice been the Democratic Party's presidential candidate and retained a loyal following of liberals, his two landslide defeats to Republican Dwight Eisenhower led most party leaders and delegates to search for a "fresh face" who could win a national election. Following the primaries, Kennedy traveled around the nation speaking to state delegations and their leaders; as the Democratic Convention opened, Kennedy was far in the lead, but was still seen as being just short of the delegate total he needed to win. The 1960 Democratic National Convention was held in California. In the week before the convention opened, Kennedy receiv
Robert Augustus Toombs was an American lawyer and politician from Georgia who became one of the organizers of the Confederacy and served as its first Secretary of State. He served in Jefferson Davis' cabinet as well as in the Confederate States Army, but became one of Davis' critics, he fled the United States after the Confederate defeat, returning in 1867 after his daughter's death. He regained political power in Georgia. A lawyer by training, Toombs gained renown in the antebellum years as an orator in the U. S. House of Representatives, in the U. S. Senate. A slaveholder, he found common ground with fellow-Georgian Alexander H. Stephens and advocated states' rights and the extension of slavery to western territories. Toombs supported the Compromise of 1850, but advocated secession. Toombs had emotive oratory and a strong physical presence, but his intemperate habits and volatile personality limited his career. In the newly formed Confederate Government, Toombs was appointed Secretary of State.
He criticised the attack on Fort Sumter, which put him at odds with President Jefferson Davis, he quit the administration to join the Confederate States Army. He became a Brigadier-General, was wounded at the Battle of Antietam. In 1863, Toombs resigned his commission in the Confederate Army to join the Georgia militia, he resigned as he continued to feud with Davis. When the war ended, he fled to Cuba, he returned to Georgia in 1867, but refused to request a presidential pardon and was prohibited from holding political office until after the Reconstruction era ended. Born near Washington, Georgia in 1810, Robert Augustus Toombs was the fifth child of Catherine Huling and planter Robert Toombs, he was of English descent. His father died, he entered Franklin College at the University of Georgia in Athens. During his time at Franklin College, Toombs was a member of the Demosthenian Literary Society. After the university chastised Toombs for unbecoming conduct in a card-playing incident, he continued his education at Union College, in Schenectady, New York.
He graduated there in 1828. He returned to the South to study law at the University of Virginia Law School in Charlottesville, Virginia. Shortly after his admission to the Georgia bar, on November 18, 1830, Toombs married his childhood sweetheart, Martha Juliann DuBose, daughter of Ezekiel DuBose of Lincoln County, Georgia, they had three daughters: Sarah and. Sallie Toombs, the last surviving daughter, married a distant cousin, they had several children together before her death in 1866, shortly after the American Civil War. Toombs was admitted to the Georgia bar and began his legal practice in 1830, he entered politics and was elected to the Georgia House of Representatives, where he served in 1838. He failed to win re-election, but was elected again in the next term, serving 1840–41, he failed again to win re-election, but was elected in 1842, serving a third, non-successive term, 1843-1844. His genial character, proclivity for entertainment, unqualified success on the legal circuit earned Toombs the growing attention and admiration of his fellow Georgians.
Toombs won a seat in the United States House of Representatives in 1844, would win re-election several times. He served several terms in the lower chamber until 1853. In 1852 the state legislature elected him to the US Senate. There Toombs joined his close friend and fellow representative Alexander H. Stephens from Crawfordville, Georgia, their friendship became a powerful personal and political bond that defined and articulated Georgia's position on national issues in the middle decades of the nineteenth century. Toombs, like Stephens, emerged as a states' rights became a national Whig. After that party dissolved, Toombs aided in the creation of the short-lived Constitutional Union Party in the early 1850s; as did most Whigs, Toombs considered Texas to be the 28th state, but he opposed the Mexican–American War. Historian William Y. Thompson writes that Toombs was "prepared to vote all necessary supplies to repel invasion, but he did not agree that the territory between the Nueces River and the Rio Grande was a part of Texas.
He declared the movement of American forces to the Rio Grande at President Polk's command "was contrary to the laws of this country, a usurpation on the rights of this House, an aggression on the rights of Mexico." Toombs and his brother Gabriel owned large plantations and operated them using enslaved African Americans. Toombs increased his personal slave holdings as his wealth increased. Toombs owned 6 slaves in 1840. By 1850, he owned 17 slaves. In 1860, he owned 16 slaves at his Wilkes County plantation, an additional 32 slaves at his 3,800-acre plantation in Stewart County, Georgia on the Chattahoochee River. By 1860, Toombs and his wife lived without any other family members in Wilkes County. One of his slaves, Garland H. White, escaped just before the civil war, he became a soldier and chaplain in the Union Army in 1862. Other slaves were freed by the Union Army. William Gaines and Wesley John Gaines both became church leaders. Throughout the 1840s and 1850s, Toombs fought to reconcile national policies with his personal and sectional interests.
He had opposed the Annexation of Texas but vowed to defend the new state once it was annexed late in 1845. He opposed the Mexican–American War, President Polk's Oregon policy, the Walker
1992 United States presidential election
The 1992 United States presidential election was the 52nd quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 3, 1992. Democratic Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas defeated incumbent Republican President George H. W. Bush, independent businessman Ross Perot of Texas, a number of minor candidates. Bush had alienated many of the conservatives in his party by breaking his 1988 campaign pledge against raising taxes, but he fended off a primary challenge from conservative commentator Pat Buchanan. Bush's popularity after his success in the Gulf War dissuaded high-profile Democratic candidates like Mario Cuomo from entering the 1992 Democratic primaries. Clinton, a leader of the centrist Democratic Leadership Council, established himself as the front-runner for the Democratic nomination by sweeping the Super Tuesday primaries, he defeated former & future Governor of California Jerry Brown, former Massachusetts Senator Paul Tsongas, other candidates to win his party's nomination, chose Senator Al Gore as his running mate.
Billionaire Ross Perot launched an independent campaign, emphasizing his opposition to the North American Free Trade Agreement and his plan to reduce the national debt. The economy was in recession and Bush's greatest strength, foreign policy, was regarded as much less important following the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War and the peaceful climate in the Middle East after the Gulf War. Perot led in several polls taken in June 1992, but damaged his candidacy by temporarily dropping out of the race in July; the Bush campaign criticized Clinton's character and emphasized Bush's foreign policy successes, while Clinton focused on the economy. Clinton won a plurality in the popular vote and a majority of the electoral vote, breaking a streak of three straight Republican victories. Clinton swept the Northeastern United States, marking the start of Democratic dominance in the region in presidential elections, while performing well in the Midwest and the West. Along with Jimmy Carter and Gerald Ford, Bush is one of three incumbent presidents since World War II to be defeated in the general election.
Perot won 18.9% of the popular vote, the highest share of the vote won by a candidate outside of the two major parties since 1912. Although he failed to win any electoral votes, Perot found support in every state, Clinton's home state of Arkansas was the lone state to give a majority of its vote to any candidate. Conservative journalist Pat Buchanan was the primary opponent of President Bush. Buchanan's best showing was in the New Hampshire primary on February 18, 1992—where Bush won by a 53–38% margin. President Bush won 73% of all primary votes, with 9,199,463 votes. Buchanan won 2,899,488 votes. Just over 100,000 votes were cast for all other candidates, half of which were write-in votes for H. Ross Perot. Former Minnesota Governor Harold Stassen who had run for President 9 times since 1944 mounted his final campaign. President George H. W. Bush and Vice President Dan Quayle won renomination by the Republican Party. However, the success of the conservative opposition forced the moderate Bush to move further to the right than in the previous election, to incorporate many conservative planks in the party platform.
Bush allowed Buchanan to give the keynote address at the Republican National Convention in Houston and his culture war speech alienated many moderates. With intense pressure on the Buchanan delegates to relent, the tally for president went as follows: George H. W. Bush 2166 Pat Buchanan 18 former ambassador Alan Keyes 1Vice President Dan Quayle was renominated by voice vote. After the successful performance by U. S. and coalition forces in the Persian Gulf War, President George H. W. Bush's approval ratings were 89%, his re-election was considered likely. As a result, several high-profile candidates, such as Mario Cuomo and Jesse Jackson, refused to seek the Democratic nomination. In addition, Senator Al Gore refused to seek the nomination due to the fact his son was struck by a car and was undergoing extensive surgery as well as physical therapy. However, Tom Harkin, Paul Tsongas, Jerry Brown, Larry Agran, Bob Kerrey, Douglas Wilder and Bill Clinton chose to run as candidates. U. S. Senator Tom Harkin ran as a populist liberal with labor union support.
Former U. S. Senator Paul Tsongas highlighted his political independence and fiscal conservatism. Former California Governor Jerry Brown, who had run for the Democratic nomination in 1976 and 1980 while he was still Governor, declared a significant reform agenda, including Congressional term limits, campaign finance reform, the adoption of a flat income tax. Nebraska Senator Bob Kerrey was an attractive candidate based on his business and military background, but made several gaffes on the campaign trail. Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton positioned himself as New Democrat, he was still unknown nationally before the primary season. That changed however, when a woman named Gennifer Flowers appeared in the press to reveal allegations of an affair. Clinton rebutted the story by appearing on 60 Minutes with Hillary Clinton; the primary season began with U. S. Senator Tom Harkin winning his native Iowa as expected. Paul Tsongas of Massachusetts won the New Hampshire primary on February 18, but Clinton's second-place finish, helped by his speech labeling himself "The Comeback Kid," energized his campaign.
Jerry Brown won the Maine
1984 United States presidential election
The 1984 United States presidential election was the 50th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 6, 1984. Incumbent Republican President Ronald Reagan defeated former Vice President Walter Mondale, the Democratic candidate. Reagan faced only token opposition in his bid for re-nomination by the Republicans, he and Vice President George H. W. Bush were re-nominated. Mondale defeated several other candidates in the 1984 Democratic primaries. Mondale chose Congresswoman Geraldine Ferraro of New York as his running mate, making Ferraro the first woman to serve on either major party's national ticket. Reagan touted a strong economic recovery from the 1970s stagflation and the 1981–82 recession, as well as the widespread perception that his presidency had overseen a revival of national confidence and prestige; the Reagan campaign produced effective television advertising and deftly neutralized concerns regarding Reagan's age. Mondale criticized Reagan's supply-side economic policies and budget deficits, he called for a nuclear freeze and ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment.
Reagan won 58.8% of the popular vote and carried 49 of the 50 states, becoming the oldest person, at the time, to win a presidential election. Reagan's showing ranks fifth in the share of electoral votes received and fifth in the share of the popular vote won. No candidate since 1984 has equaled Reagan's share of the popular vote. Mondale received 40.6% of the popular vote, but carried only the District of Columbia and his home state of Minnesota. Reagan won the highest number of electoral votes of any president thus far. Ben Fernandez, former Special Ambassador to Paraguay, from California Ronald Reagan, President of the United States Harold Stassen, former Governor of Minnesota Ronald Reagan—the incumbent president—was the assured nominee for the Republican Party, with only token opposition; the popular vote from the Republican primaries was as follows: Ronald Reagan: 6,484,987 Unpledged delegates: 55,458 Harold Stassen: 12,749 Benjamin Fernandez: 202 Reagan was renominated by a vote of 2,233 delegates.
For the only time in American history, the vice presidential roll call was taken concurrently with the presidential roll call. Vice President George H. W. Bush was overwhelmingly renominated; this was the last time in the 20th century that the vice presidential candidate of either major party was nominated by roll call vote. Reubin Askew, former Governor of Florida Alan Cranston, U. S. senator from California John Glenn, U. S. senator from Ohio Gary Hart, U. S. senator from Colorado Ernest Hollings, U. S. senator from South Carolina Jesse Jackson and civil rights activist from Illinois George McGovern, former U. S. senator and 1972 Democratic nominee from South Dakota Walter Mondale, former Vice President and former U. S. senator from Minnesota Only three Democratic candidates won any state primaries: Mondale and Jackson. Massachusetts Senator Ted Kennedy, after a failed bid to win the 1980 Democratic nomination for president, was considered the de facto front-runner of the 1984 primary. However, Kennedy announced in December 1982.
Former Vice-President Mondale was viewed as the favorite to win the Democratic nomination. Mondale had the largest number of party leaders supporting him, he had raised more money than any other candidate. However, both Jackson and Hart emerged as surprising, troublesome, opponents. South Carolina Senator Ernest Hollings's wit and experience, as well as his call for a budget freeze, won him some positive attention, but his conservative record alienated liberal Democrats, he was never noticed in a field dominated by Walter Mondale, John Glenn, Gary Hart. Hollings dropped out two days after losing badly in New Hampshire, endorsed Hart a week later, his disdain for his competitors was at times showcased in his comments. He notably referred to Mondale as a "lapdog," and to former astronaut Glenn as "Sky King", "confused in his capsule."California Senator Alan Cranston hoped to galvanize supporters of the nuclear freeze movement that had called on the United States to halt the deployment of existing nuclear weapons and the development of new ones.
Glenn and Askew hoped to capture the support of conservative Democrats. None of them possessed the fundraising ability of Mondale nor the grassroots support of Hart and Jackson, none won any contests. Jackson was the second African-American to mount a nationwide campaign for the presidency, he was the first African-American candidate to be a serious contender, he got 3.5 million votes during the primaries, third behind Mondale. He won the primaries in Virginia, South Carolina, Louisiana, split Mississippi, where there were two separate contests for Democratic delegates. Through the primaries, Jackson helped confirm the black electorate's importance to the Democratic Party in the South at the time. During the campaign, Jackson made an off-the-cuff reference to Jews as "Hymies" and New York City as "Hymietown," for which he apologized. Nonetheless, the remark was publicized, derailed his campaign for the nomination. Jackson ended up winning 21% of the national primary vote but received only 8% of the delegates to the national convention, he charged that his campaign was hurt by the same party rules that allowed Mondale to win.
He poured scorn on Mondale, saying that Hubert Humphrey was the "last significant politician out of the St. Paul-Minneapolis" area. Hart, from Colorado, was a more serious threat to Mondale, after winning several early primaries it looked as if he might take the
1952 United States presidential election
The 1952 United States presidential election was the 42nd quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 4, 1952. Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower won a landslide victory over Democrat Adlai Stevenson, ending a string of Democratic Party wins that stretched back to 1932. Incumbent Democratic President Harry S. Truman had remained silent about whether he would seek another full term, but the unpopular incumbent announced his withdrawal from the race following his defeat in the New Hampshire primary by Tennessee Senator Estes Kefauver. After Truman's withdrawal, the president and other party leaders threw their support behind Stevenson, the moderate Governor of Illinois. Stevenson emerged victorious on the third presidential ballot of the 1952 Democratic National Convention, defeating Kefauver, Senator Richard Russell Jr. of Georgia, other candidates. The Republican nomination was contested by conservative Senator Robert A. Taft of Ohio and Eisenhower, a general, popular for his leadership in World War II.
With the support of Thomas E. Dewey and other party leaders, Eisenhower narrowly prevailed over Taft at the 1952 Republican National Convention; the Republicans chose Richard Nixon, a young anti-Communist Senator from California, as Eisenhower's running mate. Republicans attacked Truman's handling of the Korean War and the broader Cold War, alleged that Soviet spies had infiltrated the U. S. government. Democrats faulted Eisenhower for failing to condemn Republican Senator Joe McCarthy and other anti-Communist Republicans who they alleged had engaged in reckless and unwarranted attacks. Stevenson tried to separate himself from the unpopular Truman administration, instead campaigning on the popularity of the New Deal and lingering fears of another Great Depression under a Republican administration. Eisenhower retained his enormous popularity from the war, as seen in his campaign slogan, "I Like Ike." Eisenhower's popularity and Truman's unpopularity led to a Republican victory, Eisenhower won 55% of the popular vote.
He carried every state outside of the South and won several Southern states that had always voted for Democrats since the end of Reconstruction. Republicans won control of both houses of Congress; the fight for the Republican nomination was between General Dwight D. Eisenhower, who became the candidate of the party's moderate eastern establishment; the moderate Eastern Republicans were led by New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey, the party's presidential nominee in 1944 and 1948; the moderates tended to be interventionists, who felt that America needed to fight the Cold War overseas and confront the Soviet Union in Eurasia. The moderates were concerned with ending the Republicans' losing streak in presidential elections. For this reason, Dewey himself declined the notion of a third run for president though he still had a large amount of support within the party; the GOP had been out of power for 20 years, the sentiment that a proper two-party system needed to be reestablished was strong a Republican Party in control of the White House would have more incentive to reign in unpopular demagogues such as Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy.
The conservative Republicans, led by Taft, were based in the Midwest and parts of the South. The Midwest was a bastion of conservatism and isolationist sentiment, dislike of Europeans, in particular Great Britain, was common, there was a widespread feeling that the British manipulated US foreign policy and were eager to kowtow to the Soviet Union, although attitudes were beginning to change among the younger generation who had fought in World War II. Taft had unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination in the 1940 and 1948 presidential elections, losing both times to moderate candidates from New York. Taft, 63, felt that this was his last chance to run for president and so his friends and supporters worked extra hard to ensure that he win the nomination. Warren, although popular in California, refused to campaign in the presidential primaries and thus limited his chances of winning the nomination, he did retain the support of the California delegation, his supporters hoped that, in the event of an Eisenhower-Taft deadlock, Warren might emerge as a compromise candidate.
After being persuaded to run, Eisenhower scored a major victory in the New Hampshire primary, when his supporters wrote his name onto the ballot, giving him an upset victory over Taft. However, from there until the Republican Convention the primaries were divided evenly between the two, by the time the convention opened, the race for the nomination was still too close to call. Taft won the Nebraska, Wisconsin and South Dakota primaries, while Eisenhower won the New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Oregon primaries. Stassen and Warren only won their home states of Minnesota and California which ended their chances of earning the nomination. General Douglas MacArthur got ten delegates from various states, but had made it clear from early in the race that he had no interest in being nominated; when the 1952 Republican National Convention opened in Chicago, most political experts rated Taft and Eisenhower as neck-and-neck in the delegate vote totals. Eisenhower's managers, led by Dewey an