Toothache known as dental pain, is pain in the teeth or their supporting structures, caused by dental diseases or pain referred to the teeth by non-dental diseases. When severe it may impact sleep and other daily activities. Common causes include inflammation of the pulp in response to tooth decay, dental trauma, or other factors, dentin hypersensitivity, apical periodontitis, dental abscesses (localized collections of pus, alveolar osteitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, temporomandibular disorder. Pulpitis is reversible when the pain is mild to moderate and lasts for a short time after a stimulus. Left untreated, pulpitis may become irreversible progress to pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis. Abscesses cause throbbing pain; the apical abscess occurs after pulp necrosis, the pericoronal abscess is associated with acute pericoronitis of a lower wisdom tooth, periodontal abscesses represent a complication of chronic periodontitis. Less non-dental conditions can cause toothache, such as maxillary sinusitis, which can cause pain in the upper back teeth, or angina pectoris, which can cause pain in the lower teeth.

Correct diagnosis can sometimes be challenging. Proper oral hygiene helps to prevent toothaches by preventing dental disease; the treatment of a toothache depends upon the exact cause, may involve a filling, root canal treatment, drainage of pus, or other remedial action. The relief of toothache is considered one of the main responsibilities of dentists. Toothache is the most common type of pain in the mouth or face It is one of the most common reasons for emergency dental appointments. In 2013, 223 million cases of tooth pain occurred as a result of dental caries in permanent teeth and 53 million cases occurred in baby teeth; the demand for treatment of toothache is thought to have led to the emergence of dental surgery as the first specialty of medicine. Toothache may be caused by non-dental conditions. There are many possible non-dental causes. Both the pulp and periodontal ligament have nociceptors, but the pulp lacks proprioceptors and mechanoreceptors. Pain originating from the dentin-pulp complex tends to be poorly localized, whereas pain from the periodontal ligament will be well localized, although not always.

For instance, the periodontal ligament can detect the pressure exerted when biting on something smaller than a grain of sand. When a tooth is intentionally stimulated, about 33% of people can identify the tooth, about 20% cannot narrow the stimulus location down to a group of three teeth. Another typical difference between pulpal and periodontal pain is that the latter is not made worse by thermal stimuli; the majority of pulpal toothache falls into one of the following types. Pulpitis can be triggered by various stimuli, including mechanical, thermal and bacterial irritants, or barometric changes and ionizing radiation. Common causes include dental trauma, or a filling with an imperfect seal; because the pulp is encased in a rigid outer shell, there is no space to accommodate swelling caused by inflammation. Inflammation therefore increases pressure in the pulp system compressing the blood vessels which supply the pulp; this may lead to ischemia and necrosis. Pulpitis is termed reversible when the inflamed pulp is capable of returning to a state of health, irreversible when pulp necrosis is inevitable.

Reversible pulpitis is characterized by short-lasting pain triggered by cold and sometimes heat. The symptoms of reversible pulpitis may disappear, either because the noxious stimulus is removed, such as when dental decay is removed and a filling placed, or because new layers of dentin have been produced inside the pulp chamber, insulating against the stimulus. Irreversible pulpitis causes spontaneous or lingering pain in response to cold. Dentin hypersensitivity is a sharp, short-lasting dental pain occurring in about 15% of the population, triggered by cold, sweet or spicy foods, beverages. Teeth will have some sensation to these triggers, but what separates hypersensitivity from regular tooth sensation is the intensity of the pain. Hypersensitivity is most caused by a lack of insulation from the triggers in the mouth due to gingival recession exposing the roots of the teeth, although it can occur after scaling and root planing or dental bleaching, or as a result of erosion; the pulp of the tooth remains healthy in dentin hypersensitivity.

Many topical treatments for dentin hypersensitivity are available, including desensitizing toothpastes and protective varnishes that coat the exposed dentin surface. Treatment of the root cause is critical, as topical measures are short lasting. Over time, the pulp adapts by producing new layers of dentin inside the pulp chamber called tertiary dentin, increasing the thickn

Gulf Coast Conference

The Gulf Coast Conference was a short-lived NCAA college athletic conference composed of universities in the U. S. state of Texas from 1949 until 1957. The charter members of the conference were University of Houston, Midwestern University, North Texas State College, Trinity University; the Gulf Coast Conference spawned from members of the Lone Star Conference, its president was D. L. Ligon. In 1956, when the NCAA created divisions, all members of the conference at the time were classified as part of the NCAA's College Division, subdivided into Division II and Division III in 1973. Charter member Houston had left for the Missouri Valley Conference by the end of 1950, was classified as a University Division school, which became known as Division I. Abilene Christian 1954–1957 Hardin-Simmons 1956–1957 Houston 1949–1950 Midwestern State 1949–1957 North Texas 1949–1957 Trinity 1949–1957 Abilene Christian - Southland Conference Hardin-Simmons - American Southwest Conference Houston - American Athletic Conference Midwestern State - Lone Star Conference North Texas - Conference USA Trinity - Southern Collegiate Athletic Conference

Simo Heikkilä

Simo Heikkilä is a Finnish designer and interior architect. He is known as a designer and collaborator with a concern for dying craft skills. Heikkilä established his own studio in 1971, he began his career designing shops and exhibitions for Marimekko and moved into designing furniture. Heikkilä has acted as the Director of Aalto University’s Wood Studio and is an honorary fellow of Aalto University. Born in Helsinki, Heikkilä has received numerous design awards including the Pro Finlandia medal in 2003 and the Kaj Franck Design Prize in 2011; the prize jury for the Kaj Franck Design Prize noted that "with his humorous touch, Heikkilä has guided young people towards an ecological and practical use of material."In 2009 Heikkilä invited a group of 21 international designer, including Ronan and Erwan Bouroullec, Konstantin Grcic and Jasper Morrison, to reinterpret the Sami knife or leuku. Each designer was sent an original knife made by a Sami craftsman and given the simple brief to make it better.

At the time Simo Heikkilä said of the project, "The leuku is a beautiful and functional object, pure in shape, well balanced and composed. Locally developed objects like this are vanishing all over the world." The results of the collaboration were exhibited in Finland and the Saint-Étienne Design Biennial in France, published as a book. Periferia Design Studio Simo Heikkilä Oy