Catherine Bush is an English singer and record producer. Bush came to notice in 1978 when, aged 19, she topped the UK Singles Chart for four weeks with her debut single "Wuthering Heights", becoming the first female artist to achieve a UK number one with a self-written song, she has since released 25 UK Top 40 singles, including the top-10 hits "The Man with the Child in His Eyes", "Babooshka", "Running Up That Hill", "Don't Give Up" and "King of the Mountain". She has released ten studio albums, all of which reached the UK Top 10, including the UK number-one albums Never for Ever, Hounds of Love, the compilation The Whole Story, she is the first British solo female artist to top the UK album charts and the first female artist to enter the album chart at number one. Bush began writing songs at 11, she was signed to EMI Records. Her debut album, The Kick Inside, was released in 1978. Bush gained artistic independence in album production, has produced all her studio albums since The Dreaming, she took a hiatus between her seventh and eighth albums Aerial.
She drew attention again in 2014 with her concert residency Before the Dawn, her first shows since 1979's The Tour of Life. Bush's eclectic and experimental musical style with literary and unconventional lyrical themes has influenced a diverse range of artists, she has been nominated 13 times for British Phonographic Industry accolades, winning for Best British Female Artist in 1987. She has been nominated for three Grammy Awards. In 2002, she was recognised with an Ivor Novello Award for Outstanding Contribution to British Music. In October 2017 she was nominated for induction in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2018. Bush was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2013 New Year Honours for services to music. Bush was born in Bexleyheath, Kent, to an English medical doctor, Robert Bush, an Irish mother, Hannah Daly, she was raised as a Roman Catholic in their farmhouse in East Wickham, an urban village in the neighbouring town of Welling, with her older brothers and Paddy.
Bush came from an artistic background: her mother was an amateur traditional Irish dancer, her father was an amateur pianist, Paddy worked as a musical instrument maker, John was a poet and photographer. Both brothers were involved in the local folk music scene. John was a karateka at Goldsmiths College karate club and Kate trained there, becoming known as "Ee-ee" because of her squeaky kiai – the loud verbalisation accompanying some martial arts attacking manoeuvres. One of the instructors, Dave Hazard noted in his autobiography that her dance moves seemed to owe something to karate, her family's musical influence inspired Bush to teach herself the piano at the age of 11. She played the organ in a barn behind her parents' house and studied the violin, she soon began composing songs adding her own lyrics. Bush attended St Joseph's Convent Grammar School, a Catholic girls' school in nearby Abbey Wood which, in 1975, after she had left, became part of St Mary's and St Joseph's School in Sidcup.
During this time her family produced a demo tape with over 50 of her compositions, turned down by record labels. Pink Floyd guitarist David Gilmour received the demo from Ricky Hopper, a mutual friend of Gilmour and the Bush family. Impressed, Gilmour helped the sixteen-year-old Bush record a more professional demo tape. Three tracks in total were paid for by Gilmour; the tape was produced by Gilmour's friend Andrew Powell, who went on to produce Bush's first two albums, sound engineer Geoff Emerick, who had worked with the Beatles. The tape was sent to EMI executive Terry Slater; the British record industry was reaching a point of stagnation. Progressive rock was popular and visually oriented rock performers were growing in popularity, thus record labels looking for the next big thing were considering experimental acts. Bush was put on retainer for two years by Bob Mercer, managing director of EMI group-repertoire division. According to Mercer, he felt Bush's material was good enough to release, but felt that if the album failed it would be demoralising and if it was successful Bush was too young to handle it.
However, in a 1987 interview, Gilmour disputed this version of events, blaming EMI for using "wrong" producers. After the contract signing, EMI gave her a large advance, which she used to enroll in interpretive dance classes taught by Lindsay Kemp, a former teacher of David Bowie, mime training with Adam Darius. For the first two years of her contract, Bush spent more time on school work than recording, she left school after having gained ten GCE O-Level qualifications. Bush wrote and made demos of 200 songs, some of which circulated as bootlegs known as the Phoenix Recordings. From March to August 1977, she fronted the KT Bush Band at public houses in London; the band included Del Palmer, Brian Bath, Vic King. She began recording her first album in August 1977, although the tracks "The Saxophone Song" and "The Man with the Child in His Eyes" had been recorded in mid-1975. For her début album, The Kick Inside, Bush was persuaded to use established session musicians instead of the KT Bush Band.
She retained some of these after she had brought her bandmates back on board. Her brother Paddy played the mandolin. Stuart Elliott became her main drummer on subsequent albums; the Kick Inside was released when Bush was 19, with some songs written when she was as young as 13. EMI wanted the more rock-
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
James Newell Osterberg Jr. better known as Iggy Pop, is an American singer, musician, record producer, actor. Designated the "Godfather of Punk", he was the vocalist of influential proto-punk band The Stooges, who were formed in 1967 and have disbanded and reunited multiple times since, he began a solo career with the 1977 album The Idiot, recorded in collaboration with David Bowie. He is well known for his unpredictable stage antics. Pop's music has encompassed a number of styles over the course of his career, including garage rock, punk rock, hard rock, art rock, new wave, jazz and electronic. Though his popularity has fluctuated through the years, many of Pop's songs have become well-known, including "Search and Destroy" and "I Wanna Be Your Dog" by the Stooges, his solo hits "Lust for Life", "The Passenger", "Real Wild Child". In 1990, he recorded his first and only Top 40 U. S. hit, "Candy", a duet with B-52's singer Kate Pierson. Iggy and The Stooges were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2010.
Iggy Pop was born James Newell Osterberg Jr. in Muskegon, Michigan, on April 21, 1947, the son of Louella and James Newell Osterberg Sr. a former high school English teacher and baseball coach at Fordson High School in Dearborn, Michigan. He is of English and Irish descent on his father's side, Danish and Norwegian ancestry on his mother's side, his father was adopted by Swedish Jews who fled the Holocaust, took on their surname. Pop was raised in a trailer park in Michigan. In a 2007 Rolling Stone interview, Pop explained his relationship with his parents and their contribution to his music: Osterberg began his music career as a drummer in various high school bands in Ann Arbor, including the Iguanas, who cut several records such as Bo Diddley's "Mona" in 1965, his stage name, Iggy, is derived from the Iguanas. After exploring local blues-style bands such as the Prime Movers, he dropped out of the University of Michigan and moved to Chicago to learn more about blues. While in Chicago, he played drums in blues clubs, helped by Sam Lay who shared his connections with Iggy.
Inspired by Chicago blues as well as bands like The Sonics, MC5 and The Doors, he formed the Psychedelic Stooges and began calling himself Iggy. The band was composed of Iggy on vocals, Ron Asheton on guitar, Asheton's brother Scott on drums, Dave Alexander on bass, their first show was played at a Halloween party at a house in Michigan. Members of the MC5 were in attendance; the seeds of Iggy Pop's stage persona were sown when he saw The Doors perform in 1967 at the University of Michigan and was amazed by the stage antics and antagonism displayed by singer Jim Morrison. Morrison's extreme behavior, while performing in a popular band, inspired the young Iggy Pop to push the boundaries of stage performance. Other influences on Iggy Pop's vocals and persona were James Brown. Iggy Pop popularized the activity. Iggy Pop, who traditionally performs bare-chested performed such stage theatrics as rolling around in broken glass and exposing himself to the crowd. I attended two concerts by the Doors; the first one I attended was early on and they had not gotten their shit together yet.
That show was a big, big influence on me. They had just had their big hit, "Light My Fire" and the album had taken off.... So, here's this guy, out of his head on acid, dressed in leather with his hair all oiled and curled; the stage was tiny and it was low. It got confrontational. I found it interesting. I loved the performance... Part of me was like. He's pissing people off and he's lurching around making these guys angry." People were rushing Morrison's going "Fuck you. You blank, blank." You can fill in your sexual comments yourself. The other half of it was that I thought, "If they've got a hit record out and they can get away with this I have no fucking excuse not to get out on stage with my band." It was sort of the case of, "Hey, I can do that." There was some of that in there. In addition to Jim Morrison and The Doors' influence on the band, Iggy Pop attributes the Stooges getting jump started after seeing an all-girls rock band from Princeton, New Jersey called The Untouchable play. In a 1995 interview with Bust Magazine, he relates: And the other thing was we went to New York.
We had gone to New York a couple of months before that just to check out the scene, we had never been to a place like New York... we went down around Eighth Street there where all the young tourists hang out, we met these girls from New Jersey, from Princeton, they had a band called The Untouchable, we're like, "Oh, you've got a band, sure, ha ha ha," and they said "Well, come to our house and see us play." And we didn't have anywhere to crash, they played for us, they rocked, we were ashamed. In 1968, one year after their live debut and now dubbed the Psychedelic Stooges, the band signed with Elektra Records, again following in the footsteps of The Doors, who were Elektra's biggest act at the time. Iggy himself told the story in the 2016 Jim Jarmusch documentary film about The Stooges, Gimme Danger; the Stooges' first album The Stooges, (on which Iggy Pop was credited as "Igg
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Black Sabbath were an English rock band, formed in Birmingham in 1968, by guitarist and main songwriter Tony Iommi and main lyricist Geezer Butler, drummer Bill Ward, singer Ozzy Osbourne. Black Sabbath are cited as pioneers of heavy metal music; the band helped define the genre with releases such as Black Sabbath and Master of Reality. The band had multiple line-up changes, with Iommi being the only constant member throughout its history. Formed in 1968 as the Polka Tulk Blues Band, a blues rock band, the group went through line up changes, renamed themselves as Earth, broke up and reformed. By 1969, they had named themselves Black Sabbath after the film Black Sabbath starring Boris Karloff, began incorporating occult themes with horror-inspired lyrics and tuned-down guitars; the band's first show as Black Sabbath took place on 30 August 1969, in Workington. Signing to Philips Records in November 1969, they released their first single, "Evil Woman" in January 1970, their debut album, Black Sabbath, was released on Friday the 13th, February 1970, on Philips' newly formed progressive rock label, Vertigo Records.
Though receiving a negative critical response, the album was a commercial success and reached number 8 in the UK Albums Chart, so the band returned to the studios to record the follow up, released in 1970. The band's popularity grew, by 1973's Sabbath Bloody Sabbath, critics were starting to respond favourably. Osbourne's regular use of alcohol and other drugs led to his dismissal from the band in 1979, he was replaced by former Rainbow vocalist Ronnie James Dio. Following two albums with Dio, Black Sabbath endured many personnel changes in the 1980s and 1990s that included vocalists Ian Gillan, Glenn Hughes, Ray Gillen and Tony Martin, as well as several drummers and bassists. In 1991, Iommi and Butler rejoined drummer Vinny Appice to record Dehumanizer; the original line-up released a live album Reunion. Black Sabbath's final studio album and nineteenth overall, 13, features all of the original members but Ward, who left the band prior to the recording sessions due to a contract dispute. A year after embarking on a farewell tour, the band played their final concert in their home city of Birmingham on 4 February 2017, after which they broke up.
Iommi has stated that he has not ruled out the possibility of new material or one-off shows under the Black Sabbath name. They were ranked by MTV as the "Greatest Metal Band" of all time, placed second in VH1's "100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock" list. Rolling Stone magazine ranked them number 85 in their "100 Greatest Artists of All Time", they have sold over 70 million records worldwide. Black Sabbath were inducted into the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005 and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2006, they have won two Grammy Awards for Best Metal Performance, in 2019 the band were presented a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. Following the break-up of their previous band Mythology in 1968, guitarist Tony Iommi and drummer Bill Ward sought to form a heavy blues rock band in Aston, Birmingham, they enlisted bassist Geezer Butler and vocalist Ozzy Osbourne, who had played together in a band called Rare Breed, Osbourne having placed an advertisement in a local music shop: "Ozzy Zig Needs Gig – has own PA".
The new group was named the Polka Tulk Blues Band, the name taken either from a brand of talcum powder or an Indian/Pakistani clothing shop. The Polka Tulk Blues Band included slide guitarist Jimmy Phillips, a childhood friend of Osbourne's, saxophonist Alan "Aker" Clarke. After shortening the name to Polka Tulk, the band again changed their name to Earth and continued as a four-piece without Phillips and Clarke. Iommi became concerned that Phillips and Clarke lacked the necessary dedication and were not taking the band seriously. Rather than asking them to leave, they instead decided to break up and quietly reformed the band as a four-piece. While the band was performing under the Earth title, they recorded several demos written by Norman Haines such as "The Rebel", "Song for Jim", "When I Came Down"; the demo titled. Jim Simpson was a manager for the bands Bakerloo Blues Line and Tea & Symphony, as well as being trumpet player for the group Locomotive. Simpson had started a new club named Henry's Blueshouse at The Crown Hotel in Birmingham and offered to let Earth play there after they agreed to waive the usual support band fee in return for free t-shirts.
The audience response was positive and Simpson agreed to manage Earth. In December 1968, Iommi abruptly left Earth to join Jethro Tull. Although his stint with the band would be short-lived, Iommi made an appearance with Jethro Tull on The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus TV show. Unsatisfied with the direction of Jethro Tull, Iommi returned to Earth in January 1969. "It just wasn't right, so I left", Iommi said. "At first I thought Tull were great, but I didn't much go for having a leader in the band, Ian Anderson's way. When I came back from Tull, I came back with a new attitude altogether, they taught me that to get on, you got to work for it."While playing shows in England in 1969, the band discovered they were being mistaken for another English group named Earth. They decided to change their name again. A cinema across the street from the band's rehearsal room was showing the 1963 horror film Black Sabbath starring Boris Karloff and directed by Mario Bava. While watching people line up to see the film, Butler noted that it was "strange that people spend so much money to see scary movies".
Following that and Butler wrote the lyrics for a song called "Black Sabbath", which was
David Robert Jones, known professionally as David Bowie, was an English singer and actor. He was a leading figure in the music industry and is considered one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century, acclaimed by critics and musicians for his innovative work during the 1970s, his career was marked by reinvention and visual presentation, with his music and stagecraft having a significant impact on popular music. During his lifetime, his record sales, estimated at 140 million albums worldwide, made him one of the world's best-selling music artists. In the UK, he was awarded ten platinum album certifications, eleven gold and eight silver, released eleven number-one albums. In the US, he received nine gold certifications, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996. Born in Brixton, South London, Bowie developed an interest in music as a child studying art and design before embarking on a professional career as a musician in 1963. "Space Oddity" became his first top-five entry on the UK Singles Chart after its release in July 1969.
After a period of experimentation, he re-emerged in 1972 during the glam rock era with his flamboyant and androgynous alter ego Ziggy Stardust. The character was spearheaded by the success of his single "Starman" and album The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars, which won him widespread popularity. In 1975, Bowie's style shifted radically towards a sound he characterised as "plastic soul" alienating many of his UK devotees but garnering him his first major US crossover success with the number-one single "Fame" and the album Young Americans. In 1976, Bowie starred in the cult film The Man Who Fell to Earth, directed by Nicolas Roeg, released Station to Station; the following year, he further confounded musical expectations with the electronic-inflected album Low, the first of three collaborations with Brian Eno that came to be known as the "Berlin Trilogy". "Heroes" and Lodger followed. After uneven commercial success in the late 1970s, Bowie had UK number ones with the 1980 single "Ashes to Ashes", its parent album Scary Monsters, "Under Pressure", a 1981 collaboration with Queen.
He reached his commercial peak in 1983 with Let's Dance. Throughout the 1990s and 2000s, Bowie continued to experiment with musical styles, including industrial and jungle, he continued acting. He stopped touring after 2004 and his last live performance was at a charity event in 2006. In 2013, Bowie returned from a decade-long recording hiatus with The Next Day, he remained musically active until he died of liver cancer two days after the release of his final album, Blackstar. Bowie was born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947 in London, his mother, Margaret Mary "Peggy", was born at Shorncliffe Army Camp near Kent. Her paternal grandparents were Irish immigrants, she worked as a waitress at a cinema in Royal Tunbridge Wells. His father, Haywood Stenton "John" Jones, was from Doncaster, worked as a promotions officer for the children's charity Barnardo's; the family lived at 40 Stansfield Road, on the boundary between Brixton and Stockwell in the south London borough of Lambeth. Bowie attended Stockwell Infants School until he was six years old, acquiring a reputation as a gifted and single-minded child—and a defiant brawler.
In 1953, Bowie moved with his family to Bromley. Two years he started attending Burnt Ash Junior School, his voice was considered "adequate" by the school choir, he demonstrated above-average abilities in playing the recorder. At the age of nine, his dancing during the newly-introduced music and movement classes was strikingly imaginative: teachers called his interpretations "vividly artistic" and his poise "astonishing" for a child; the same year, his interest in music was further stimulated when his father brought home a collection of American 45s by artists including the Teenagers, the Platters, Fats Domino, Elvis Presley, Little Richard. Upon listening to Little Richard's song "Tutti Frutti", Bowie would say that he had "heard God". Bowie was first impressed with Presley when he saw his cousin dance to "Hound Dog". By the end of the following year, he had taken up the ukulele and tea-chest bass, begun to participate in skiffle sessions with friends, had started to play the piano. Like someone from another planet".
After taking his eleven-plus exam at the conclusion of his Burnt Ash Junior education, Bowie went to Bromley Technical High School. It was an unusual technical school, as biographer Christopher Sandford wrote: Despite its status it was, by the time David arrived in 1958, as rich in arcane ritual as any public school. There were houses named after eighteenth-century statesmen like Wilberforce. There was a uniform, an elaborate system of rewards and punishments. There was an accent on languages and design, where a collegiate atmosphere flourished under the tutorship of Owen Frampton. In David's account, Frampton led through force of persona
Charles Aznavour was a French-Armenian singer and diplomat. Aznavour was known for his distinctive tenor voice: clear and ringing in its upper reaches, with gravelly and profound low notes. In a composer/singer/songwriter career spanning over 70 years, he recorded more than 1,200 songs interpreted in nine languages. Moreover, he co-wrote more than 1,000 songs for himself and others. Aznavour was one of France's most enduring singers, he sold 180 million records during his lifetime and was dubbed France's Frank Sinatra, while music critic Stephen Holden described Aznavour as a "French pop deity". He was arguably the most famous Armenian of his time. In 1998, Aznavour was named Entertainer of the Century by CNN and users of Time Online from around the globe, he was recognized as the century's outstanding performer, with nearly 18% of the total vote, edging out Elvis Presley and Bob Dylan. Jean Cocteau said: "Before Aznavour, despair was unpopular". Aznavour sang for presidents and royalty, as well as at humanitarian events.
In response to the 1988 Armenian earthquake, he founded the charitable organization Aznavour for Armenia along with his long-time friend impresario Levon Sayan. In 2009, he was appointed ambassador of Armenia to Switzerland, as well as Armenia's permanent delegate to the United Nations at Geneva, he started his last world tour in 2014. On 24 August 2017, Aznavour was awarded the 2,618th star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame; that year, he and his sister were awarded the Raoul Wallenberg Award for sheltering Jews during World War II. His last concert took place in NHK Hall in Osaka on 19 September 2018. Aznavour was born at the clinic Tarnier at 89, rue d'Assas in Saint-Germain-des-Prés, 6th arrondissement of Paris, into a family of artists living on rue Monsieur-le-Prince, he was named Shahnour Vaghinag Aznavourian, by his parents, Armenian immigrants Michael Aznavourian and Knar Baghdasarian, an Armenian from Smyrna. His father sang in restaurants in France before establishing a Caucasian restaurant called Le Caucase.
Charles's parents introduced him to performing at an early age, he dropped out of school at age nine, took the stage name "Aznavour". During the German occupation of France during World War II, Aznavour and his family hid “a number of people who were persecuted by the Nazis, while Charles and his sister Aida were involved in rescue activities.” Their work was recognized in a statement issued in 2017 by President of Israel. That year and Aida received the Raoul Wallenberg Award for their wartime activities. "The Aznavours were linked to the Missak Manouchian Resistance Group and in this context they have offered shelter to Armenians and others at their own Paris flat, risking their own lives." Aznavour was familiar with performing on stage by the time he began his career as a musician. At the age of nine, he had roles in a play called Un Petit Diable à Paris and a film entitled La Guerre des Gosses. Aznavour turned to professional dancing and performed in several nightclubs. In 1944, he and actor Pierre Roche began a partnership and in collaborative efforts performed in numerous nightclubs.
It was through this partnership that Aznavour began to sing. The partnership's first successes were in Canada in 1948-1950. Meanwhile, Aznavour wrote his first song entitled J'ai Bu in 1950. During the early stages of his career, Aznavour opened for Edith Piaf at the Moulin Rouge. Piaf advised him to pursue a career in singing. Piaf helped Aznavour develop a distinctive voice. Sometimes described as "France's Frank Sinatra", Aznavour sang about love, he wrote or co-wrote musicals, more than one thousand songs, recorded ninety-one studio albums. Aznavour's voice was shaded towards the tenor range, but possessed the low range and coloration more typical of a baritone, contributing to his unique sound. Aznavour spoke and sang in many languages, which helped him perform at Carnegie Hall, in the US, other major venues around the world, he recorded at least one song from the 18th-century Armenian poet Sayat-Nova, a popular song, Im Yare in Armenian. "Que C'est Triste Venise", sung in French, Spanish and German, was successful the mid 1960s.1972 saw the release of his 23rd studio album, "Idiote je t'aime...", which contained among others, two of his classics - Les plaisirs démodés et Comme ils disent, the latter dealing with homosexuality, which at the time, was revolutionary.
In 1974, Aznavour became a major success in the United Kingdom when his song "She" was number 1 on the UK Singles Chart for four weeks during a fourteen-week run. His other well-known song in the UK was the 1973 "The Old Fashioned Way", on UK charts for 15 weeks. Artists who have recorded his songs and collaborated with Aznavour include Édith Piaf, Fred Astaire, Frank Sinatra, Andrea Bocelli, Bing Crosby, Ray Charles, Bob Dylan, Dusty Springfield, Liza Minnelli, Mia Martini, Elton John, Serge Gainsbourg, Josh Groban, Petula Clark, Tom Jones, Shirley Bassey, José Carreras, Laura Pausini, Nana Mouskouri and Julio Iglesias. Fellow French pop singer Mireille Mathieu sang an