Pre-Columbian rafts plied the Pacific Coast of South America for trade from about 100 BCE, much earlier. The 16th century descriptions by the Spanish of the rafts used by Native Americans along the seacoasts of Peru and Ecuador has incited speculation about the seamanship of the Indians, the seaworthiness of their rafts, the possibility that they undertook long ocean-going voyages. None of the prehistoric rafts have survived and the exact characteristics of their construction and the geographical extent of their voyages are uncertain, it is that traders using rafts, constructed of balsa wood logs, voyaged as far as Mexico and introduced metallurgy to the civilizations of that country. Some scholars and adventurers of the 20th and 21st century have asserted that the rafts and their crews journeyed thousands of miles across the Pacific to Polynesia, most notably Thor Heyerdahl who reached Polynesia on the Kon-Tiki raft. Several other people and groups have built rafts based on prehistoric models and undertaken trans-Pacific voyages.
Balsa is the Spanish word for raft. The use of rafts for commerce on the coasts of Peru and Ecuador, from northern Chile to southern Colombia, continued until the late 19th century, long after the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, although the fidelity of these rafts to their prehistoric ancestors is uncertain. In 1526, a Spanish ship captained by Bartolomé Ruiz ventured southward down the west coast of South America, the first Old World ship known to have explored this coastline. Off the coast of Ecuador, Ruiz encountered a Native American raft, being the first encounter between Spanish and Inca's vassals. A contemporary account of the encounter is: captured a ship with as many as 20 men aboard of whom 11 threw themselves into the water. Put the remainder of the crew onshore except for three whom he kept as interpreters, he treated them well. The ship he took had a capacity of up to 30 toneles; the keel was made of canes as thick as posts bound together with ropes of what they call henequen, like hemp. it had an upper deck made of lighter canes, tied with the same kind of ropes.
The people and their cargo remained dry on the upper deck, as the lower logs were awash in the sea water. The ship had masts of good wood and lateen-rigged sails of cotton, the same as our ships, good rigging with henequen ropes, it carried stone weights like barber's grinding stones as anchors. The chronicler, Francisco de Xerez, said that the raft carried a cargo of "silver objects, crowns, bands and bells, all of this they brought to exchange for some shells." Other contemporary chroniclers gave additional details about the rafts. "They set a mast in the largest log in the middle and sail, navigate all along this coast. They are safe vessels because they cannot sink or capsize, since the water washes through them." Balsa logs. Logs from the balsa tree are distinguished by their light large size. A tree of the tropical forest, the balsa tree did not occur on the arid coasts of Peru and southern Ecuador; the source of balsa logs for rafts was the valley of the Guayas River, north of the city of Guayaquil, Ecuador.
This area is still the principal source of balsa wood for international trade. The long term buoyancy of balsa logs has been called into question. Prior to the voyage across the Pacific Ocean of the Kon-Tiki in 1947, scholars argued that balsa logs absorb water so that long voyages were infeasible. Heyerdahl, used green balsa wood logs for a voyage of 101 days on the Kon-Tiki. Other studies have indicated that dry balsa logs can remain afloat for extended periods of time. Rafts were always constructed of an odd number of balsa logs numbering 3 to 11, with the center log being the longest and the others tapering down in length; the Spanish said. The large balsa lashed together with henequen fiber, formed the main deck of a raft. Seawater passed between and over the logs making it difficult for rafts to be swamped by heavy seas. Atop the large balsa logs was a platform or multiple platforms, constructed of cane or bamboo which kept the cargo and passengers dry. During historic times the platform might include a hut to shelter the passengers and crew and a fire pit for cooking.
Sails and masts The use of sails on pre-Columbian rafts has been disputed by a few scholars who have speculated that the Spaniards introduced the use of sails or that the technology for using sails derived from the Spanish but was adopted by the Indians before the physical arrival of the Spanish on the Ecuadorian coast. However, the chronicler of Ruiz's voyage in 1526 is clear that the raft he saw used sails and this voyage was only 13 years after the first known Spanish sighting of the Pacific Ocean in Panama, more than 1,200 kilometres north. Another contemporary author said that sails had been used on rafts "since time immemorial."There is controversy whether the sails used were square or lateen. Although square sails were used, the earliest accounts describe triangular sails two in number and aft rigged with two masts. Engineering and stress studies indicate that the masts were curved and no longer than 7.5 metres and about 16 centimetres in diameter. They may have been composed of two pieces of wood joined together.
The wood used is unknown although modern reproductions have used mangrove wood, the mangrove being common along the Ecuadorian coast and the northern Peruvian coast of Piura and Tumbes. Navigation. Pre-Columbian rafts were steered by
Quito is the capital and the largest city of Ecuador, at an elevation of 2,850 metres above sea level, it is the second-highest official capital city in the world, after La Paz, the one, closest to the equator. It is located in the Guayllabamba river basin, on the eastern slopes of Pichincha, an active stratovolcano in the Andes Mountains. In 2008, the city was designated as the headquarters of the Union of South American Nations; the historic center of Quito has one of the largest, least-altered and best-preserved historic centers in the Americas. Quito and Kraków, were among the first World Cultural Heritage Sites declared by UNESCO, in 1978; the central square of Quito is located about 25 kilometres south of the equator. A monument and museum marking the general location of the equator is known locally as la mitad del mundo, to avoid confusion, as the word ecuador is Spanish for equator; the oldest traces of human presence in Quito were excavated by the American archaeologist Robert E. Bell in 1960 on the slopes of the Ilaló volcano, located between the eastern valleys of Los Chillos and Tumbaco.
Hunter-gatherers left tools made of obsidian glass dated back to 8000 BC. The archaeological site herein designated by the name of EI Inga was brought to the attention of Bell by Allen Graffham. While employed as a geologist in Ecuador, Mr. Graffham followed his amateur archaeological interest, he made surface collections at the site during 1956; the discovery of projectile points specimens exhibiting basal fluting, stimulated his interest, several visits were made to the site for collecting surface materials. Graffham's previous interest in Paleo-Indian remains and his experience with early man materials found in Kansas and Nebraska in the Central Plains led him to believe that the site was an important discovery; the second important vestige of human presence was found in the current neighborhood of Cotocollao, located in the NW of Quito. The prehistoric village covered over 26 hectares in an area irrigated by many creeks. Near the rectangular there are burials with pottery and stone offerings.
The Cotocollao people exported obsidian to the coastal region. Indigenous resistance to the Spanish invasion continued during 1534, with the conquistador Diego de Almagro founding Santiago de Quito on August 15, 1534 to be renamed San Francisco de Quito on August 28, 1534; the city was moved to its present location and was refounded on 6 December 1534 by 204 settlers led by Sebastián de Benalcázar, who captured Rumiñahui and ended any organized resistance. Rumiñahui was executed on January 10, 1535. On March 28, 1541, Quito was declared a city and on February 23, 1556, was given the title Muy Noble y Muy Leal Ciudad de San Francisco de Quito, starting at this point its urban evolution. In 1563, Quito became the seat of a Real Audiencia of Spain and became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, until 1717 after the Audiencia was part of a newly created Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada, its administration on both Viceroyalties remained to Quito. The Spanish established Roman Catholicism in Quito; the first church was in fact built before the city had been founded.
In January 1535, the San Francisco Convent was constructed, the first of about 20 churches and convents built during the colonial period. The Spanish converted the indigenous population to Christianity and used them as labor for construction. In 1743, after nearly 300 years of Spanish colonization, Quito was a city of about 10,000 inhabitants. On August 10, 1809, an independence movement from Spanish domination started in Quito. On that date, a plan for government was established that placed Juan Pío Montúfar as president with various other prominent figures in other positions of government. However, this initial movement was defeated on August 2, 1810, when colonial troops came from Lima, killing the leaders of the uprising along with about 200 settlers. A chain of conflicts concluded on May 24, 1822, when Antonio José de Sucre, under the command of Simón Bolívar, led troops into the Battle of Pichincha, their victory marked the independence of the surrounding areas. In 1833, members of the Society of Free Inhabitants of Quito were assassinated by the government after they conspired against it, on March 6, 1845, the Marcist Revolution began.
In 1875, the country's president, Gabriel García Moreno, was assassinated in Quito. Two years in 1877, Archbishop José Ignacio Checa y Barba was killed by poisoning while he was celebrating Mass. In 1882, insurgents arose against the regime of dictator Ignacio de Veintimilla. However, this did not end the violence, occurring throughout the country. On July 9, 1883, the liberal commander Eloy Alfaro participated in the Battle of Guayaquil, after more conflict, became the president of Ecuador on September 4, 1895. Upon completing his second term in 1911, he moved to Europe; when he returned to Ecuador in 1912 and attempted a return to power, he was arrested on January 28, 1912. His body was dragged through the streets of Quito to a city park. In 1932, the Four Days' War broke out; this was a civil war that followed the election of Neptalí Bonifaz and the subsequent realization that he carried a Peruvian passport. On February 12, 1949, a realistic broadcast of H. G. Wells' nove
Cusco spelled Cuzco, is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range. It is the capital of the Cusco Region and of the Cusco Province. In 2017, the city had a population of 428,450. Located on the eastern end of the Knot of Cuzco, its elevation is around 3,400 m; the site was the historic capital of the Inca Empire from the 13th until the 16th-century Spanish conquest. In 1983 Cusco was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO with the title "City of Cuzco", it has become a major tourist destination. The Constitution of Peru designates it as the Historical Capital of Peru; the indigenous name of this city is Qusqu. Although the name was used in Quechua, its origin is found in the Aymara language; the word is derived from the phrase qusqu wanka, related to the city's foundation myth of the Ayar Siblings. According to this legend, Ayar Awqa flew to the site of the future city, they went up on top of the hill. Now at the site where he was to remain as an idol, Ayar Oche raised up in flight toward the heavens so high that they could not see him.
He returned and told Ayar Manco that from on he was to be named Manco Capac. Ayar Oche came from where the Sun was and the Sun had ordered that Ayar Manco take that name and go to the town that they had seen. After this had been stated by the idol, Ayar Oche turned into a stone, just as he was, with his wings. Manco Capac went down with Ayar Auca to their settlement...he liked the place now occupied in this city Cuzco. Manco Capac and his companion, with the help of the four women, made a house. Having done this, Manco Capac and his companion, with the four women, planted some land with maize, it is said that they took the maize from the cave, which this lord Manco Capac named Pacaritambo, which means those of origin because...they came out of that cave. The Spanish conquistadors adopted the local name, transliterating it into Spanish phonetics as Cuzco or, less Cozco. Cuzco was the standard spelling on official documents and chronicles in colonial times, though Cusco was used. Cuzco, pronounced as in 16th-century Spanish, seems to have been a close approximation to the Cusco Quechua pronunciation of the name at the time.
As both Spanish and Quechuan pronunciation have evolved since the Spanish pronunciation of'z' is no longer close to the Quechuan pronunciation of the consonant represented by'z' in "Cuzco". In 1976, the city mayor signed an ordinance banning the traditional spelling and ordering the use of a new one, Cusco, in municipality publications. Nineteen years on 23 June 1990, the local authorities formalized a new spelling related more to Quechan: Qosqo. There is no official spelling of the city's name. In English-language publications both "s" and "z" can be found. However, the Oxford Dictionary of English recognizes "Cuzco" but not "Cusco"; the city's international airport code is still CUZ, reflecting the earlier Spanish spelling. The Killke people occupied the region from 900 to 1200, prior to the arrival of the Inca in the 13th century. Carbon-14 dating of Saksaywaman, the walled complex outside Cusco, established that Killke constructed the fortress about 1100; the Inca expanded and occupied the complex in the 13th century.
In March 2008, archaeologists discovered the ruins of an ancient temple and aqueduct system at Saksaywaman. The temple covers some 2,700 square feet and contains 11 rooms thought to have held idols and mummies, establishing its religious purpose. Together with the results of excavations in 2007, when another temple was found at the edge of the fortress, this indicates a longtime religious as well as military use of the facility. Cusco was long an important center of indigenous people, it was the capital of the Inca Empire. Many believe that the city was planned as an effigy in the shape of a sacred animal. How Cusco was built, or how its large stones were quarried and transported to the site remain undetermined. Under the Inca, the city had two sectors: hanan; each was divided to encompass two of the four provinces, Antisuyu and Qullasuyu. A road led from each quarter to the corresponding quarter of the empire; each local leader was required to build a house in the city and live part of the year in Cusco, restricted to the quarter that corresponded to the quarter in which he held territory.
After the rule of Pachacuti, when an Inca died, his title went to one son and his property was given to a corporation controlled by his other relatives. Each title holder had to build a new house and add new lands to the empire, in order to own land for his family to keep after his death. According to Inca legend, the city was rebuilt by Sapa Inca Pachacuti, the man who transformed the Kingdom of Cuzco from a sleepy city-state into the vast empire of Tawantinsuyu. Archaeological evidence, points to a slower, more organic growth of the city beginning before Pachacuti; the city was constructed according to a definite plan in which two rivers were channeled around the city. Archaeologists have suggested; the city fell to the sp
Ecuador the Republic of Ecuador, is a country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, the Pacific Ocean to the west. Ecuador includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific, about 1,000 kilometres west of the mainland; the capital city is Quito, the largest city. What is now Ecuador was home to a variety of Amerindian groups that were incorporated into the Inca Empire during the 15th century; the territory was colonized by Spain during the 16th century, achieving independence in 1820 as part of Gran Colombia, from which it emerged as its own sovereign state in 1830. The legacy of both empires is reflected in Ecuador's ethnically diverse population, with most of its 16.4 million people being mestizos, followed by large minorities of European and African descendants. Spanish is the official language and is spoken by a majority of the population, though 13 Amerindian languages are recognized, including Quichua and Shuar; the sovereign state of Ecuador is a middle-income representative democratic republic with a developing economy, dependent on commodities, namely petroleum and agricultural products.
It is governed as a democratic presidential republic. One of 18 megadiverse countries in the world, Ecuador hosts many endemic plants and animals, such as those of the Galápagos Islands. In recognition of its unique ecological heritage, the new constitution of 2008 is the first in the world to recognize enforceable Rights of Nature, or ecosystem rights, it has the fifth lowest homicide rate in the Americas. Various peoples had settled in the area of the future Ecuador before the arrival of the Incas; the archeological evidence suggests that the Paleo-Indians' first dispersal into the Americas occurred near the end of the last glacial period, around 16,500–13,000 years ago. The first Indians who reached Ecuador may have journeyed by land from North and Central America or by boat down the Pacific Ocean coastline. Much migrations to Ecuador may have come via the Amazon tributaries, others descended from northern South America, others ascended from the southern part of South America through the Andes.
They developed different languages while emerging as unique ethnic groups. Though their languages were unrelated, these groups developed similar groups of cultures, each based in different environments; the people of the coast developed a fishing and gathering culture. Over time these groups began to interact and intermingle with each other so that groups of families in one area became one community or tribe, with a similar language and culture. Many civilizations arose in Ecuador, such as the Valdivia Culture and Machalilla Culture on the coast, the Quitus, the Cañari; each civilization developed its own distinctive architecture and religious interests. In the highland Andes mountains, where life was more sedentary, groups of tribes cooperated and formed villages. Through wars and marriage alliances of their leaders, a group of nations formed confederations. One region consolidated under a confederation called the Shyris, which exercised organized trading and bartering between the different regions.
Its political and military power came under the rule of the Duchicela blood-line. When the Incas arrived, they found that these confederations were so developed that it took the Incas two generations of rulers—Topa Inca Yupanqui and Huayna Capac—to absorb them into the Inca Empire; the native confederations that gave them the most problems were deported to distant areas of Peru and north Argentina. A number of loyal Inca subjects from Peru and Bolivia were brought to Ecuador to prevent rebellion. Thus, the region of highland Ecuador became part of the Inca Empire in 1463 sharing the same language. In contrast, when the Incas made incursions into coastal Ecuador and the eastern Amazon jungles of Ecuador, they found both the environment and indigenous people more hostile. Moreover, when the Incas tried to subdue them, these indigenous people withdrew to the interior and resorted to guerrilla tactics; as a result, Inca expansion into the Amazon Basin and the Pacific coast of Ecuador was hampered.
The indigenous people of the Amazon jungle and coastal Ecuador remained autonomous until the Spanish soldiers and missionaries arrived in force. The Amazonian people and the Cayapas of Coastal Ecuador were the only groups to resist Inca and Spanish domination, maintaining their language and culture well into the 21st century. Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the Inca Empire was involved in a civil war; the untimely death of both the heir Ninan Cuchi and the Emperor Huayna Capac, from a European disease that spread into Ecuador, created a power vacuum between two factions. The northern faction headed by Atahualpa claims that Huayna Capac gave a verbal decree before his death about how the empire should be divided, he gave the territories pertaining to present-day Ecuador and northern Peru to his favorite son Atahualpa, to rule from Quito. He willed that his heart be buried in Quito, his favorite city, the rest of his body be buried with his ancestors in Cuzco. Huáscar did not recognize his fa
Peru the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE; the Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima.
Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru secured independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, social unrest, internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in 1990. Fujimori left the presidency in 2000 and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in 2017. After the president's regime, Fujimori's followers, called Fujimoristas, have caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power causing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign in March 2018; the sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is classified as an emerging market with a high level of human development and an upper middle income level with a poverty rate around 19 percent.
It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9% and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing; the country forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in social freedom. Peru has a population of 32 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans and Asians; the main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music; the name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama City, in the early 16th century.
When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans. Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, son of an Inca princess and a conquistador, he said the name Birú was that of a common Indian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Ávila, went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language. The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after independence; the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, terracing.
Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money. The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC; these early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed around the coastal and Andean regions throughout Peru. The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture; the Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavín de Huantar. After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the 1st century AD, a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell
Easter Island is a Chilean island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle in Oceania. Easter Island is most famous for its nearly 1,000 extant monumental statues, called moai, created by the early Rapa Nui people. In 1995, UNESCO named Easter Island a World Heritage Site, with much of the island protected within Rapa Nui National Park, it is believed that Easter Island's Polynesian inhabitants arrived on Easter Island sometime near 1200 AD. They created a thriving and industrious culture, as evidenced by the island's numerous enormous stone moai and other artifacts. However, land clearing for cultivation and the introduction of the Polynesian rat led to gradual deforestation. By the time of European arrival in 1722, the island's population was estimated to be 2,000–3,000. European diseases, Peruvian slave raiding expeditions in the 1860s, emigration to other islands, e.g. Tahiti, further depleted the population, reducing it to a low of 111 native inhabitants in 1877.
Chile annexed Easter Island in 1888. In 1966, the Rapa Nui were granted Chilean citizenship. In 2007 the island gained the constitutional status of "special territory." Administratively, it belongs to the Valparaíso Region, comprising a single commune of the Province Isla de Pascua. The 2017 Chilean census registered 7,750 people on the island, of whom 3,512 considered themselves Rapa Nui. Easter Island is one of the most remote inhabited islands in the world; the nearest inhabited land is Pitcairn Island, 2,075 kilometres away. Easter Island is considered part of Insular Chile; the name "Easter Island" was given by the island's first recorded European visitor, the Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeveen, who encountered it on Easter Sunday in 1722, while searching for "Davis Land". Roggeveen named it Paasch-Eyland; the island's official Spanish name, Isla de Pascua means "Easter Island". The current Polynesian name of the island, Rapa Nui, was coined after the slave raids of the early 1860s, refers to the island's topographic resemblance to the island of Rapa in the Bass Islands of the Austral Islands group.
However, Norwegian ethnographer Thor Heyerdahl argued that Rapa was the original name of Easter Island and that Rapa Iti was named by refugees from there. The phrase Te pito o te henua has been said to be the original name of the island since French ethnologist Alphonse Pinart gave it the romantic translation "the Navel of the World" in his Voyage à l'Île de Pâques, published in 1877. William Churchill inquired about the phrase and was told that there were three te pito o te henua, these being the three capes of the island; the phrase appears to have been used in the same sense as the designation of "Land's End" at the tip of Cornwall. He was unable to elicit a Polynesian name for the island and concluded that there may not have been one. According to Barthel, oral tradition has it that the island was first named Te pito o te kainga a Hau Maka, "The little piece of land of Hau Maka". However, there are two words pronounced pito in Rapa Nui, one meaning'end' and one'navel', the phrase can thus mean "The Navel of the World".
Another name, Mata ki te rangi, means "Eyes looking to the sky". Islanders are referred to in Spanish as pascuense. Oral tradition states the island was first settled by a two-canoe expedition, originating from Marae Renga, led by the chief Hotu Matu'a and his captain Tu'u ko Iho; the island was first scouted after Haumaka dreamed of such a far-off country. At their time of arrival, the island had Nga Tavake'a Te Rona. After a brief stay at Anakena, the colonists settled in different parts of the island. Hotu's heir, Tu'u ma Heke, was born on the island. Tu'u ko Iho is viewed as the leader who caused them to walk; the Easter Islanders are considered to be South-East Polynesians. Similar sacred zones with statuary in East Polynesia demonstrates homology with most of Eastern Polynesia. At contact, populations were about 3,000-4,000. By the 15th century, two confederations, hanau, of social groupings, existed, based on lineage; the western and northern portion of the island belonged to the Tu'u, which included the royal Miru, with the royal center at Anakena, though Tahai and Te Peu served as earlier capitals.
The eastern portion of the island belonged to the'Otu'Itu. Shortly after the Dutch visit, from 1724 until 1750, the'Otu'Itu fought the Tu'u for control of the island; this fighting continued until the 1860s. Famine followed the destruction of fields. Social control vanished as the ordered way of life gave way to lawlessness and predatory bands as the warrior class took over. Homelessness prevailed, with many living underground. After the Spanish visit, from 1770 onwards, a period of statue toppling, huri mo'ai, commenced; this was an attempt by competing groups to destroy the socio-spiritual power, or mana, represented by statues, making sure to break them in the fall to ensure they were dead and without power. None were left standing by the time of the arrival of the French missionaries in the 1860s. Between 1862 and 1888, about 94 % of the population emigrated; the island was victimized by blackbirding from 1862 to 1863, res
Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala
Felipe Huaman Poma de Ayala known as Guamán Poma or Wamán Poma, was a Quechua nobleman known for chronicling and denouncing the ill treatment of the natives of the Andes by the Spanish after their conquest. Today, Guaman Poma is noted for his illustrated chronicle, Nueva corónica y buen gobierno; the son of a noble family from the central southern Peruvian province of Lucanas located in the modern day department of Ayacucho, he was a direct descendent of the eminent indigenous conqueror and ruler Huaman-Chava-Ayauca Yarovilca-Huanuco, Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala was a fluent speaker of several Quechua and Aru dialects, who learned the Spanish language as a child or adolescent. He went on to become literate in the language, although he did not achieve a perfect grasp of Spanish grammar, he described himself as "eighty years of age" in his 1615 manuscript, leading many to deduce that he was born in the year 1535, after the 1533 Spanish conquest of Peru. It seems that he used the figure "80" as a metaphor for old age and many other references in his text indicate a possible birthdate of 1550 or shortly thereafter.
The information known about Guamán Poma's life comes from a variety of written sources. Most he was born in the Lucanas province and spent most of his life in or near Huamanga, a central Peruvian district, it is believed that the first time he left his hometown was when he served as an interpreter on the church inspection tour of a Spanish priest named Cristóbal de Albornoz, attempting to eliminate idolatries in the small Quechua towns. In the late 1580s to early 1590s, he was an assistant to Fray Martin de Murúa, another Spanish cleric. In 1594 he was employed by the Spanish judge of Huamanga, in charge of land titles. In late 1600, all of his property was confiscated and he was banished from Huamanga, an event that led to his travels throughout the country and most to the composition of his masterpiece. Based on a published work, in 1967, by archaeologist Edward P. Lanning, "Peru before the Incas", one of the first references to an organized culture around the Huaman Culture, was between 1000 CE - 1476 CE, known as the "Late Intermediate", before the Inca Empire expanded, forming alliances with the most powerful empires.
The Huaman Family, per stirpes, belonged to the wealthy among the Inca Empire and after. As it used to be common, the marriages among the ruling families took place, to remain in control and current. At the time, the Huaman were a selected family of warriors, land owners in several regions of the pre-Inca empire, they venerated the wild bird, that only grows in the Andean Region of Peru, above 4,000 meters above sea level. There can be found, among the Inca's family tree lines: a)Tarco Huaman Inca, son of Inca Mayta Capac, cousin of Capac Yupanqui, grandson of Lloque Yupanqui. B) Huaman Achachi, brother of Tupac Inca Yupanqui. C)Inca Huaman Taysi, son of Inca Rocca. D)Landowner Don Antonio Huaman Cucho, in Huamanga City, in 1570 declares ownership of several cities for the descendent of the Huaman Family as an Inca descendent. During the occupation of the conquerors, the Huaman Family, being a extensive family, were fiercely prosecuted, fearing the overtake of the Andean government, the impeachment of the Hispanic occupation and land ownership claims.
Reasons for which most of wealth in pure gold, ornaments were hidden and re-distributed among the descendants. Most family members moved to different areas from Ecuador; the most prominent landowners were located in Pariamarca, Santiago de Huaman and Huamanga. There is a tale that says that direct descendants from the ruling Inca Huaman, are protected and secretly maintained as of "ready" to overtake the Peruvian empire and re-impose the supremacy of order over chaos. There are tales among the Andeans that one day the "... Hawk will fly high, where the Sun surrenders..." A handful of sixteenth-century documents attest that Huaman Poma served in the 1560s-70s as a Quechua translator for Fray Cristóbal de Albornoz in his campaign to eradicate the messianic apostasy, known as Taki Unquy, from the Christian doctrine of local believers. Huaman Poma appeared as a plaintiff in a series of lawsuits from the late 1590s, in which he attempted to recover land and political title in the Chupas valley that he believed to be his by family right.
These suits proved disastrous for him. Huaman Poma's great work was the El primer nueva corónica y buen gobierno, a 1,189-page document written in Spanish, with sections in Quechua, he wrote Corónica instead of a form of the word common in the Middle Ages. His book remains the longest sustained critique of Spanish colonial rule produced by an indigenous subject in the entire colonial period. Written between 1600 and 1615 and addressed to King Philip III of Spain, the Corónica outlines the injustices of colonial rule and argues that the Spanish were foreign settlers in Peru. "It is our country," he said, "because God has given it to us." The king never received the document. The Crónica is remarkable in many ways. First, it has brilliant melding of writing and fine line drawings; the work includes Huaman Poma's'Mapa Mundi de Reino de las Indias', a cartographic representation of the Inca Empire drawn in the Mappa mundi style favored by medieval European mapmakers, which placed Cusco, the Peruvian capital, at the center of the world.
Second, the manuscript expresses the view