Toplessness refers to the state in which a woman's torso is exposed above her waist or hips, or with at least her breasts and nipples being exposed in a public place or in a visual medium. The male equivalent is barechestedness commonly called shirtlessness. In the past and, in some cases, until the present, social conventions and concepts of modesty in some cultures required females to cover their bodies below the neck, sometimes above as well. Exposure of the torso, breasts and navel were taboo. While exposed breasts were and are normal in many indigenous societies, most developed countries today have formal or informal dress codes, legal statutes, or religious teachings that require females to cover their breasts in public from adolescence onward. Contemporary Western cultures permit displays of cleavage in appropriate social contexts, but exposing the areola and nipples is regarded as immodest and is sometimes prosecuted as indecent exposure, lewd behavior, or disorderly conduct; because of this, the topfreedom movement challenges laws that forbid females to go topless in places where males are permitted to be barechested, arguing that such restrictions amount to gender discrimination.
Toplessness is more common and less controversial in the fields of entertainment and the arts than it is in society as a whole when it is perceived to have artistic merit. From early prehistoric art to the present day, women have been depicted topless in visual media, from painting and sculpture to film and photography. In contemporary mainstream cinema, Academy Award–winning actresses such as Halle Berry, Kate Winslet, Nicole Kidman have appeared topless in their films. Cabaret and burlesque shows, as well as haute couture fashion shows and pictorials include toplessness or see-through clothing. Societies tend to view exposure of women's breasts in public less favorably if the intent is sexual arousal. Toplessness in adult entertainment, such as in strip clubs or softcore pornography, is regarded by some as indecent and is subject to more stringent government regulation or prohibitions. Public toplessness in Western cultures may be considered acceptable, depending on location and context. Many jurisdictions protect women's right to breastfeed in public or exempt breastfeeding from public indecency laws.
In many parts of Europe and Australia, as well as at many resort destinations around the world, it has become culturally, legally, acceptable for women to sunbathe topless on beaches. Topless sunbathing may be permitted in other areas, such as at some European parks and lakes, in designated areas on some cruise ships, around swimming pools at some hotels; the word "topless" refers to a woman, naked above her waist or hips or, at least, whose breasts are exposed to public view including her areola and nipples. It can describe a woman who appears, poses, or performs with at least her breasts exposed, such as a "topless model" or "topless dancer", or to an activity undertaken while not wearing a top, such as "topless sunbathing", it may indicate a designated location where one might expect to find women not wearing tops, such as a "topless beach" or "topless bar". It can be used to describe a garment, designed to reveal the breasts, such as the "topless swimsuit" designed by Rudi Gernreich in the 1960s.
The word "topless" may carry exhibitionist connotations. Because of this, advocates of women's legal right to uncover their breasts wherever men may go bare-chested have adopted the alternative term "topfree", not perceived to have these connotations. Attitudes towards toplessness have varied across cultures and over time; the lack of clothing above the waist for both females and males was the norm in traditional cultures of North America, Africa and the Pacific Islands until the arrival of Christian missionaries, it continues to be the norm in many indigenous cultures today. The practice was the norm in various Asian cultures before Muslim expansion in the 13th and 14th centuries. In many parts of northern India before the Muslim conquest of India, upper-class women in Maharashtra and the Ganges basin were clothed, while lower-class women were topless. Malayali people of Kerala required Hindu women other than Brahmins and Syrian Christian class to strip to waist in public until 1858 when the Kingdom of Travancore granted all women the right to cover their breasts in public.
Toplessness was the norm for women among several indigenous peoples of South India until the 19th or early 20th century, including the Tamils along the Coromandel Coast and other peoples on the Malabar Coast, Kadar of Cochin Island, Nayar, Kuruba, Koraga and the Uriya. In Thailand, the government of Field Marshal Plaek Pibulsonggram issued a series of cultural standards between 1939 and 1942. Mandate 10 issued on 8 September 1941 instructed Thai people to not appear in public places "without being appropriately dressed". Inappropriate dress included "wearing no shirt or wearing a wraparound cloth". Before the introduction of Western dress codes, Thai women were depicted both clothed and topless in public; until the early 20th century, women from northern Thailand wore a long tube-skirt, tied high above their waist and below their breasts, which were uncovered. In the late 19th century the influence of missionaries and modernization under King Chulalongkorn encouraged local women to cover their breasts with blouses.
In Laos, Henri Mouhot took a picture in 1858 of Laotian women that depicted virgins with clothed breasts and married women with their entire breasts exposed in publi
Topless is a one-woman stage play by Miles Tredinnick. It is set on an open-top sightseeing bus and features tour guide Sandie revealing her personal life whilst pointing out the London sights; the play, produced by The Big Bus Company, ran for two seasons in London, firstly in 1999 and in 2000. The role of Sandie was played by three actresses: Alexandra Moses and Serena Hanson. Although the play was written to be performed in theatres, the original production was performed on the open-top of a double-decker bus driving around the streets of London. An acting edition was published by Matador Books in 2006 and a Kindle ebook version came out in 2011. Topless ISBN 0-9537601-0-3 Jean Marlow Audition Speeches for Women - Extract from Topless. ISBN 0-7136-5276-4 Topless - new edition ISBN 1-905237-75-8 Topless site
Topfreedom is a cultural and political movement seeking changes in laws to allow women to be topless in public places where men are permitted to be barechested, as a form of gender equality. The movement seeks the repeal or overturning of laws which restrict a woman's right not to have her chest covered at all times in public. In addition, topfreedom advocates seek allowing nursing mothers to breastfeed in public. Many societies consider women who expose their nipples and areolae as immodest and contrary to social norms. In many jurisdictions a topless woman may be or harassed or cited for public lewdness, indecent exposure, public indecency or disorderly conduct. Topfreedom advocates seek to change community attitudes to breasts as indecent. Several countries in Europe have decriminalised non-sexual toplessness. Topless swimming and sunbathing on beaches has become acceptable in many parts of Europe, though the practice remains controversial in many places, not common in most places. Many public swimming pools in Europe are owned by municipalities, which are treated as private organisations and allowed to set their dress codes.
In many countries around the world, breastfeeding in public is not unusual. During 2006–2010 and earlier, a number of news reports in the United States cited incidents where women were refused service or harassed for breastfeeding in public. In response, a majority of U. S. states have passed laws explicitly permitting nursing in public. The United States federal government enacted a law in 1999 which provides that "a woman may breastfeed her child at any location in a Federal building or on Federal property, if the woman and her child are otherwise authorized to be present at the location." However, these laws do not apply to rules imposed by private organizations or on private property, such as restaurants, airlines, or shopping malls. In support of Adda Smaradottir's FreeTheNipple act in public cyberspace, young women uploaded their topless photos to Facebook and protested against its Community Standards of considering women's breasts as sexual materials; those photos and related news articles were blocked but Facebook considered those photos did not violate Community Standards.
Bathing and sunbathing in the nude is legal on Danish beaches. Nudity and toplessness in other public outdoor places is also legal, unless it involves "offensive conduct" or is to cause public outrage; the public outrage law is used in practice, but in 1972 audience members were convicted of being nude in the Royal Danish Theatre. In December 2007, a group of women and men calling themselves Topless Front swam topless in public swim baths to promote topless equality. In March 2008, after a campaign by the group, Copenhagen's Culture and Leisure Committee voted to allow topless bathing in its swimming pools. After the Committee had voted, it was revealed that no laws had existed against topless bathing making the vote unnecessary. However, some public baths had restricted it themselves. Public breastfeeding is supported by the vast majority of both sexes in Denmark, is legal and accepted in all places, except for a few private cafés and restaurants that have restricted it. In France, the feminist collective Les TumulTueuses organized a topfree protest in Paris in May 2009.
In Greece toplessness is not illegal and is practiced by locals and tourists alike as there are no cultural taboos against it. In Poland in 2008–2009, two women from Szczecin including glamour model Dorota Krzysztofek, won a court battle that reasserted the women's right to sunbathe topless on public beaches. Krzysztofek, along with her female companion, were fined by local municipal officials for topless sunbathing at a public recreation area; the women took the matter to Civil Court. Their first hearing had to be postponed due to remarkable media interest. On November 7, 2008, judge Szczepańska upheld the city staff decision, charged the women with indecent exposure, explaining that their personal freedoms cannot encroach on the freedoms of families with children who frequent the same recreation spot. Although topless sunbathing is not prohibited in Poland, the judge sentenced them to pay a fine of 230 zloty for breaking the rules of conduct. In her rationale, the judge said that it is not up to the defendants to teach youngsters human anatomy.
The appellate court declared both women to be innocent, because the city staff were unable to prove that anyone at the beach was indignant or scandalized by their toplessness, no complaint was reported. On the contrary, some visitors stood up to their defense. There were no signs at the recreation area against; the appellate court's decision was binding, but it created an aura of ambivalence, with topless sunbathing in public declared acceptable only if nobody else including families with children formally objects to it. In Sweden, toplessness is not illegal. However, private or public establishments are permitted to establish dress codes which may require women to wear tops, deny access or remove individuals who breach these standards. In September 2007, "Bara Bröst" appeared to promote topless equality in these semi-public facilities; the group staged several events in public swim baths in September and October 2007, starting in Uppsala from which they were evicted several times, before succeeding in Sundsvall.
The group scored a victory in June 2009 when the Malmö city's sports and recreation committee approve
Topless is a 2008 Japanese film directed by Eiji Uchida. Shimizu Mina as Natsuko Erika Okuda as Tomomi Aya Ōmasa as Kana So Sakamoto as Koji Ryunosuke Kawai as Kenta Hako as Noriko Sayoko Kobayashi as Miyo Interview with the cast and creators of "Topless" by Tokyo Wrestling Official website Topless at FilmAffinity Topless on IMDb
Andre Romelle Young, known professionally as Dr. Dre, is an American rapper, record producer, entrepreneur, he is the founder and CEO of Aftermath Entertainment and Beats Electronics, was co-owner of Death Row Records. He has produced albums for and overseen the careers of many rappers, including 2Pac, The D. O. C. Snoop Dogg, Xzibit, Knoc-turn'al, 50 Cent, The Game, Kendrick Lamar, he is credited as a key figure in the crafting and popularization of West Coast G-funk, a rap style characterized as synthesizer-based with slow, heavy beats. As of 2018, he is the third richest figure in hip hop, with a net worth of $770 million. Dre began his career as a member of the World Class Wreckin' Cru, he found fame with the influential gangsta rap group N. W. A with Eazy-E, Ice Cube, MC Ren, DJ Yella, which popularized explicit lyrics in rap to detail the violence of street life, his 1992 solo debut The Chronic, released under Death Row Records, made him one of the best-selling American performing artists of 1993.
It earned him a Grammy Award for the single "Let Me Ride", as well as several accolades for the single "Nuthin' but a'G' Thang". That year, he produced Death Row labelmate Snoop Doggy Dogg's quadruple platinum debut Doggystyle, mentored producers such as his step-brother Warren G and Snoop Dogg's cousin Daz Dillinger. In 1996, Dr. Dre left Death Row Records to establish Aftermath Entertainment, he produced a compilation album, Dr. Dre Presents the Aftermath, in 1996, released a solo album, 2001, in 1999. During the 2000s, Dr. Dre focused on producing other artists contributing vocals. Dr. Dre signed Eminem in 1998 and 50 Cent in 2002, co-produced their albums, he has won six Grammy Awards, including Producer of the Year. Dr. Dre has had acting roles in The Wash and Training Day. Rolling Stone ranked Dre 56 on their list of "100 Greatest Artists of All Time". Young was born in Compton, the first child of Theodore and Verna Young, his middle name, Romelle, is derived from The Romells. His parents married in 1964, separated in 1968, divorced in 1972.
His mother remarried to Curtis Crayon and had three children: sons Jerome and Tyree and daughter Shameka. In 1976, Young began attending Vanguard Junior High School in Compton, but due to gang violence, he transferred to the safer suburban Roosevelt Junior High School; the family moved and they lived in apartments and houses in Compton, Long Beach and in the Watts and South Central neighborhoods in Los Angeles. Young has stated that he was raised by his grandmother in New Wilmington Arms housing project in Compton, his mother married Warren Griffin, whom she met at her new job in Long Beach, which added three stepsisters and one stepbrother to the family. Young is the cousin of producer Sir Jinx, he attended Centennial High School in Compton during his freshman year in 1979, but transferred to Fremont High School in South Central Los Angeles due to poor grades. Young attempted to enroll in an apprenticeship program at Northrop Aviation Company, but poor grades at school made him ineligible. Thereafter, he focused on his social life and entertainment for the remainder of his high school years.
Young fathered a son with Cassandra Joy Greene named Curtis. Curtis was brought up by his mother and first met his father 20 years when Curtis became rapper Hood Surgeon. Inspired by the Grandmaster Flash song "The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel", he attended a club called Eve After Dark to watch many DJs and rappers performing live, he subsequently became a DJ in the club under the name "Dr. J", based on the nickname of Julius Erving, his favorite basketball player. At the club, he met aspiring rapper Antoine Carraby to become member DJ Yella of N. W. A. Soon afterwards he adopted the moniker Dr. Dre, a mix of previous alias Dr. J and his first name, referring to himself as the "Master of Mixology". Eve After Dark had a back room with a small four-track studio. In this studio and Yella recorded several demos. In their first recording session, they recorded a song entitled "Surgery", with the lyrics "calling Dr. Dre to surgery" serving as the chorus to the song, he joined the musical group World Class Wreckin' Cru under Kru-Cut in 1984.
The group would become stars of the electro-hop scene. "Surgery", released after being recorded prior to the group's official formation, would prominently feature Dr. Dre on the turntable; the record would become the group's first hit, selling 50,000 copies within the Compton area. Dr. Dre and DJ Yella performed mixes for local radio station KDAY, boosting ratings for its afternoon rush-hour show The Traffic Jam. Dr. Dre's earliest recordings were released in 1994 on a compilation titled Concrete Roots. Stephen Thomas Erlewine of the website AllMusic described the compiled music, released "several years before Dre developed a distinctive style", as "surprisingly generic and unengaging" and "for dedicated fans only", his frequent absences from school jeopardized his position as a diver on his school's swim team. After high school, he attended Chester Adult School in Compton following his mother's demands for him to get a job or continue his education. After brief attendance at a radio broadcasting school, he relocated to the residence of his father and residence of his grandparents before returning to his mother's house.
He dropped out of Che
Peppino di Capri
Peppino di Capri is an Italian popular music singer and pianist, successful in Italy and Europe. His international hits include "St. Tropez Twist". Peppino began singing and playing the piano at age 4, entertaining the American army troops stationed on the island of Capri with a repertoire of American standards. After 6 years of classical studies and playing at nightclubs around Capri and his group The Rockers released their first single, with the songs "Malattia" and "Nun è Peccato", sung in Napoletano in 1958; the single was an instant hit, Peppino spent most of the following year touring. A string of hit singles soon followed alternating between Italian versions of American rock'n'roll and twist songs, originals in Italian and Napoletano, di Capri became one of the top acts in the country. After performing as the opening act for The Beatles in their 1965 tour of Italy and his group attempted, with moderate success, to break out of the European market, their work was well received in Brazil, thanks to the large Italian immigrant community in the country.
The 1970s saw Peppino with the New Rockers. He won the prestigious Festival della canzone italiana in 1973, with the song "Un grande amore e niente più"; the same year, he released the song "Champagne", a big hit in Italy, Germany and Brazil. He won the Festival della canzone italiana again in 1976, with the song "Non lo faccio più". In 1991, he represented Italy at the Eurovision song contest, coming in 7th place with the song "Comme è ddoce'o mare", sung in Neapolitan; as of 2006, Peppino di Capri is the performer with the most appearances at the Festival della canzone italiana, his last appearance being in 2005, singing "La Panchina". Peppino di Capri has participated 15 times in the San Remo Festival, twice winning first place: 1967 "Dedicato all'amore" 1971 "L'ultimo romantico" 1973 "Un grande amore e niente più" 1976 "Non lo faccio più" 1980 "Tu cioè..." 1985 "E mo’ e mo’" 1987 "Il sognatore" 1988 "Nun chiagnere" 1989 "Il mio pianoforte" 1990 "Evviva Maria" 1992 "Favola blues" 1993 "La voce delle stelle" 1995 "Ma che ne sai" 2001 "Pioverà" 2005 "La panchina" In his writings, Orhan Pamuk brings up Peppino di Capri's songs.
His novel Snow, taking place at the Turkish provincial town of Kars, includes the following passage: "Through the open door of a shop which sold women's stockings, bolts of cotton, coloured pencils and cassettes, he heard once again the strains of Peppino di Capri's "Roberta". He recalled hearing it on the radio when he was a child and his uncle had taken him out for a drive to the Bosphorus". In The Museum of Innocence, he writes: "Later on I wrapped my arms around the patient and compassionate Sibel, swaying with her as Pepino di Capri sang “Melancholy.”" Cinquant'anni 1958-2008 by Vincenzo Faiella and Sergio Vellino. A collection of his worldwide discography, etc. Nicola Longobardi Editore 2008. "All the covers of the records, filmography, sheet music, film posters and all the other information were taken from the private collection of Francesco and Antonio Mastroianni". Official website
Phobia (Breaking Benjamin album)
Phobia is the third studio album by American rock band Breaking Benjamin. It was recorded at The Barbershop Studios in Hopatcong, New Jersey and released August 8, 2006 through Hollywood Records and November 21, 2007 in Europe. Phobia was released on August 8, 2006 and sold out at major retail chains such as Best Buy and Target; the album sold 131,000 copies in its first week, which made it the fastest selling and highest charting Breaking Benjamin album, hitting number two on the US Billboard 200. This is the first studio album; the intro track features the sound effects of an airport, namely a flight attendant announcing standard safety procedures and the sound of an airplane making its ascent, alluding to Benjamin Burnley's fear of flying, hence the inspiration for the album name, Phobia. The album re-entered the US Billboard 200 at number 38 on May 2007 with its reissue. On May 21, 2009, the album was certified platinum by the RIAA. Corey Apar of AllMusic views the album as consistent with their past material, concluding "Phobia will not win over any skeptics still holding out on the band, but for those happily settled in the Benjamin camp, it makes for another satisfying listen."
1The CD released with the Phobia Collectors Edition DVD includes this track. 2This track is not listed on the album's back insert. When played, it appears as track 14, making "So Cold" track 15 and "Rain" track 16. "Intro" "Polyamorous" "Home" "Shallow Bay" "Breakdown" "Topless" "Away" "The Diary of Jane" "Dance with the Devil" "Until the End" "Had Enough" "Sooner or Later" "Break My Fall" "So Cold" "Breath" "Evil Angel"This DVD was released in April 2007 as part of the Phobia Collectors Edition CD and DVD package. "The Diary of Jane" is a hidden track song selection on the Hollywood Rip Ride Rockit roller coaster at Universal Studios Florida. "The Diary of Jane" was the fastest added song in Hollywood Records' history, was featured in the video game NASCAR 07. "Unknown Soldier" wanted to end them. "You" was played live for the first time during an all acoustic set at Concert for a Cause IV in April 2007, while the band was still in the recording process. In an interview, Burnley revealed that he had mistakenly forgotten the second verse of the song during the set.
"Topless" is an old fan favorite and performed before the band had released their debut album Saturate, in 1998 when the band first formed and was called "Top of the World". It has been changed since then. "The Diary of Jane", "Breath" were covered by a classical cover quartet tribute band called Vitamin String Quartet, the covers of those songs appear on the albums Strung Out – the String Quartet Tribute and Hard Rock Hits, Vol. 4. According to lead singer Benjamin Burnley on the Phobia DVD, the track "Evil Angel" was one of the first songs he wrote for Phobia; the single "Until the End" is featured on Guitar Hero 5 as well as their other hit singles, "Sooner or Later" from We Are Not Alone and "Give Me a Sign" from Dear Agony as downloadable content in the game