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The masts of traditional sailing ships were not single spars, but were constructed of separate sections or masts, each with its own rigging. The topmast is one of these; the topmast is semi-permanently attached at the top. Its shrouds run to the edges of the top, rather than to the sides of the hull, though long shrouds leading well aft to the hull, more in the manner of backstays, are sometimes seen. In accordance with the standard square rig sail plan, the topmast carries the topsail. In the late 19th century, topsails became so big that merchant ships began to divide them into two separate sails for easier handling; the majority of large square-riggers today carry separate upper and lower topsails. The main topmast carries the upper end of the main-topmast-staysail; the fore-topmast will carry a staysail, but depending on where the lower end of the stay is attached it may be called a fore-topmast-staysail or an inner jib. When steel masts were introduced, with their lengths no longer limited by the height of a tree, ships were constructed with single spars serving as both lower mast and topmast.

In every other respect, the "topmast" lived on, with separate shrouds to the lower mast and a top between the two. The section of mast above the top was painted white as the lower masthead used to be, with the section of the steel mast representing the topmast continuing on above in its usual colour. Topgallant masts and royal masts were combined, being shorter, they were one spar in the days of wood. A common arrangement on tall ships now in use is a steel spar as lower and topmast, surmounted by a wooden mast as topgallant and royal

Nine-turn bridge

The Nine-turn bridge or Zigzag bridge is one of the features of the Chinese Garden, where the bridge is designed to turn several times, so one can enjoy viewing different scenes. The bridge is made of stones or concrete with decorated guard rails, the angles of the turns can be at right angle, at any other angle or curved; the Nine-turn bridge is found in the Chinese Gardens that were made during the Song Dynasty. The nine-turn bridge is found in many Chinese Gardens worldwide, or lakes and ponds, natural or man-made. Yu Garden, China West Lake, Hangzhou - Quyuanfenghe Geyuan Garden, Hangzhou Classical Gardens of Suzhou:Lingering Garden, Lion Grove Garden, Humble Administrator's Garden, etc. Huizhou West Lake, Huizhou Lou Lim Ieoc Garden, Macao Chengcing Lake, Taiwan Lotus Pond, ditto Dahu Park, Taipei Bihu Park, ditto Honmoku Municipal Park, Japan - Shanghai-Yokohama Friendship Garden Gifu Park, Gifu City - Sino-Japanese Friendship Park National Arboretum, Washington, D. C. U. S. A. - Chinese Garden: a replica of Geyuan Garden Luisenpark, Germany - Chinese Garden The zigzag bridge is sometimes found in the Japanese Garden, but it is a simple wooden bridge without guard rails.

Architecture of the Chinese Garden Japanese Garden

International Critical Commentary

The International Critical Commentary is a series of commentaries in English on the text of the Old Testament and New Testament. It is published by T&T Clark, now an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing. Started over one hundred years ago, the International Critical Commentary series has been a regarded academic-level commentary on the Bible, it aims to marshall all available aids to exegesis: linguistic, archaeological, historical and theological. No unifying scheme is sought but each scholar has been free to express their expertise. Edited by Samuel Rolles Driver, Alfred A. Plummer and Charles Augustus Briggs, the series has been in the hands of various editors since; the current editors are Graham I. Davies and Christopher M. Tuckett. Skinner, John E.. Genesis. 552 pages Murphy, James G.. Exodus. 232 pages Murphy, James G.. Leviticus. 318 pages Gray, G. Buchanan. Numbers. 489 pages Driver, S. R.. Deuteronomy. 434 pages Moore, George F.. Judges. ISBN 978-0-567-05004-5. 476 pages Smith, Henry P.. Samuel I and II.

421 pages Gehman, H. S.. Kings I and II. 574 pages Curtis, E. L.. Chronicles I and II. 534 pages Batten, L. W.. Ezra and Nehemiah. 384 pages Paton, L. B.. Esther. 334 pages Driver, S. R.. Job. 360 pages Briggs, Charles A.. G.. Psalms: Volume 1. 360 pages Briggs, Charles A.. G.. Psalms: Volume 2. 571 pages Toy, C. H.. Proverbs. 554 pages Barton, G. A.. Ecclesiastes. 212 pages Williamson, Hugh G. M.. Isaiah 1–5. 448 pages Williamson, Hugh G. M.. Isaiah 6–12. 808 pages Gray, George Buchanan. Isaiah 1–27. 472 pages Goldingay, John. Isaiah 40–55, vol. 1. 424 pages Goldingay, John. Isaiah 40–55, vol. 2. 392 pages Goldingay, John. Isaiah 56–66. 560 pages McKane, William. Jeremiah 1–25. 658 pages McKane, William. Jeremiah 26–52. 1,396 pages Salters, R. B.. Lamentations. 416 pages Cooke, G. A.. Ezekiel. 557 pages Montgomery, James A.. Daniel. 478 pages Macintosh, A. A.. Hosea. 600 pages Harper, W. R.. Amos and Hosea. 424 pages Smith, John Merlin Powis. A.. Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk and Joel. 560 pages Bewer, J. A.. G.. Haggai, Zechariah and Jonah. 515 pages Allen, Willoughby C..

St. Matthew. 350 pages Allison, Dale C.. Matthew 1–7. 731 pages Allison, Dale C.. Matthew 8–18. 807 pages Allison, Dale C.. Matthew 19–28. 789 pages Gould, Ezra P.. St. Mark. 317 pages Plummer, Alfred A.. St. Luke. 592 pages McHugh, John. John 1–4. 368 pages Bernard, J. H.. St. John 1–7, vol. 1. 740 pages Bernard, J. H.. St. John 8–21, vol. 2. 740 pages Barrett, C. K.. Acts: Volume 1. 692 pages Barrett, C. K.. Acts: Volume 2. 1,272 pages Headlam, A. C.. The Epistle to the Romans. 450 pages Cranfield, C. E. B.. The Epistle to the Romans: Volume 1. 480 pages Cranfield, C. E. B.. The Epistle to the Romans: Volume 2. 496 pages Plummer, Alfred A.. The First Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians. 424 pages Plummer, Alfred A.. The Second Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians. 404 pages Thrall, Margaret E.. The Second Epistle to the Corinthians 1–7. 978 pages Thrall, Margaret E.. The Second Epistle to the Corinthians 8–13. 978 pages Burton, Ernest DeWitt. The Epistle to the Galatians. 539 pages Best, Ernest. Ephesians. 685 pages Abbott, Thomas K..

The Epistles to the Ephesians and to the Colossians. 315 pages McL. Wilson, Robert. Colossians and Philemon. 512 pages Vincent, Marvin R.. Philippians and Philemon. 201 pages Frame, J. E.. Thessalonians. 326 pages Lock, W. W.. Pastoral Epistles. 163 pages Marshall, I. Howard. Pastoral Epistles. 882 pages Moffat, J. J.. The Epistle to the Hebrews. 264 pages Ropes, J. H.. The Epistle of St. James. 319 pages Allison, Dale C.. James. 848 pages Bigg, C. C.. The Epistles of St. Peter and St. Jude. 353 pages Brooke, A. E.. The Johannine Epistles. 242 pages Charles, R. H.. The Revelation of St. John: Volume 1. 373 pages Charles, R. H.. The Revelation of St. John: Volume 2. 497 pages Anchor Bible Series Exegesis Textual criticism List of Biblical commentaries

Agnes Wickfield

Agnes Wickfield is a character of David Copperfield, a novel by Charles Dickens. She is a friend and confidante of David since his childhood and at the end of the novel, his second wife. In Dickens' language, she is the "real heroine" of the novel. Agnes Wickfield is introduced in chapter 15 of the novel. Agnes, whose mother is dead, takes care of her alcoholic yet affectionate father and of the house, as the "little housekeeper". David takes residence in the house for his school-years. David and Agnes, being of same age. Throughout his boyhood, David, in many ways, becomes dependent on Agnes. Agnes becomes his friend and confidante, David regards her as a sister. Though Agnes loves him, she never tells him. After leaving the house when he passes school, David maintains close contact with Agnes, she warns him against his friend James Steerforth, as his "bad angel", which proves true. Her father's villainous clerk, Uriah Heep, taking advantage of Mr. Wickfield's alcoholism and his affection for his daughter, becomes powerful.

He wants Agnes's hand in marriage. Agnes, resists Heep throughout the years. Hiding her true feelings for David, she helps and advises him in his infatuation with and marriage to Dora Spenlow; when Wilkins Micawber is recruited as a clerk by Heep, she urges him to gather evidence against Heep. After Dora's death, Agnes consoles and encourages David to return to his normal life and the profession of writing. While living in Switzerland, David realizes. After returning to England he tries hard to conceal his feelings, but realizing Agnes loves him as well, he proposes to her, they marry and take residence in London. Agnes bears David at least five children. Like typical Dickensian heroines, Agnes is a passive character, an ideal Victorian lady, her characterization is criticized as "too perfect". David describes her as an angel. Recent researches have been more favorable to her. Cultural historian Peter Gay in an article titled "The Legless Angel of'David Copperfield': There's More to Her Than Victorian Piety" stated that, she shows the effects of parentification.

The death of her mother and alcoholism and weak-mindedness of her father makes her more matured for her age, along with gifts of intelligence and presence of mind. One significant feature of Agnes' character is her calm and tranquil nature. David's first impression about her is comparing her to a "stained glass window" of a church. David compares Agnes with the tranquil brightness of the church-window. Agnes' character was based on Dickens' sisters-in-law Mary and Georgina Hogarth, both of whom were close to Dickens. Mary died in 1837 at the age of 17, Georgina, from 1842, lived with the Dickens family. Dickens referred to her affectionately as his "little housekeeper". After Dickens' separation from his wife Catherine, Georgina stayed with him for the rest of his life and took complete responsibility for managing his household

Car Audio Sports Organizations

The Car Audio Sports Organization is MECA started in 1999. Web sites are: HBO VICE News feature from 2017 Finals: SQL focuses on high performance musical systems: Sound Quality, custom installs, RTA Freq-Out contests. Vehicles are classified by audio system complexity of design. There are seven classes overall in this category, they are Stock, Modified Street, Modex and Master. Each class has certain restrictions, with the most being in Stock, the least in Master. MECA utilizes a standard test tracks, which feature various songs to test different aspects of sound quality, for all of its judging at competitions; the TermLab Magnum is the official 4X points contest RTA Freq-Out meter. For 4X points Sound Quality contests, 3 Judges evaluate the audio system separately, the scores are averaged to determine the winners in 7 classes. There are 4 Install classes.

They are Stock, Street and Extreme. Certain criteria must be met to receive the best score possible, these are outlined in the rule book. RTA Freq-Out has no class separation. MECA added Dueling Demos to the contest list in 2013, there are 3 classes: Street+, Extreme. MECA released the "Tantric Tuning" CD in 2017 with licensing from Chesky Records; the CD is available in the Shop at the MECA web site. SPL focuses on audio systems that are created to reproduce loud bass and music, with Sound Pressure and Park & Pound contests. State and World Champions and USA National Points Champions are credentialed each year. Vehicles are grouped according to the "Pressure Class" method which separates the vehicles by complexity of audio system design, combined with the potential of the audio system to make "bass"; the "Pressure Class Formula" adds woofer cone surface area with sub amp power. Woofer cone surface area is measured in square inches. For example, a round 12" woofer is 113 sq. inches and a square 12" woofer is 144 sq. inches.

Power is determined by the TermLab Magnum meter. The TermLab meter is the official MECA decibel contest meter. There are 18 SP classes and 5 Park & Pound classes. Sound Pressure is measured inside the vehicle. Park & Pound is measured outside the vehicle, 6' from the passenger side, with heavy-duty bass music tracks, for example: BassMekanik 808 CD released 2009. "Show & Shine" car/truck/motorcycle contests. Judging based on cleanliness, attention to details, modifications. MECA Kids events for youngsters and their parents, include Sound Pressure, Park & Pound, Dueling Demos, Show & Shine for powerwheels type toys; the Rule Book is free on-line at and for SPL Social media sites include, 105 USA events in with 700+ members,114 USA events in 2009. 130+ USA events in 2013 with 500+ members, 90+ USA Retail Members 20+ Manufacturer Members 105 vehicles competed at 2008 World Finals Soundfest in Nashville, Tennessee.

2009 World Finals Soundfest at the Tennessee State Fairgrounds in Nashville on October 3-4th. 2010 World Finals Soundfest to be held in Lebanon, TN on October 16-17th, at the James E. Ward Agricultural Center. 2018 World Finals Soundfest in Louisville, KY on weekend of October 14, 2018.

Alligator (Abandon Kansas album)

Alligator is the third studio album from Abandon Kansas, released by Bad Christian Music on May 11, 2015. Ben Rickaby, giving the album four stars at HM, wrote, "This is a great indie alt-rock album featuring a wide range of musical styles and ambient sounds to get across the raw emotion behind the lyrics." Awarding the album three and a half stars on Jesus Freak Hideout, Ryan Barbee said "this isn't a faultless album." Nathaniel Schexnayder, writing a two and a half stars review on Jesus Freak Hideout, stated: "maybe there should have been some extra thought put into this complicated album." Meanwhile, rating the album four stars for Jesus Freak Hideout, Scott Fryberger wrote, "alligator feels like the band is coming into their own." Brody B. for his part, gave the album four stars at Indie Vision Music, describing that "despite some odd track placements, Alligator is an incredible record."