National Maps of Switzerland
The National Maps of Switzerland are a set of official map series designed and distributed by Swisstopo, the Swiss Federal Office of Topography. Each map series is based on an oblique, cylindrical projection, all maps are updated in a complete cycle of about six years. In 1938, the Federal Office of Topography started issuing new map sheets and they first appeared in 1,50,000 scale, and from 1952 in 1,25,000 scale. In addition, further generalisations were made in smaller scales, in each scale, the whole of Switzerland was covered. In 1979, with the issuance of the last 1,25,000 scale sheet, the map sheets have been produced in several different versions, topographic maps, tourist maps, special maps. They are now available on electronic media. The topographic maps have been published in the following scale series, in addition, there are composition maps covering urban agglomerations, or tourist areas. Many of 1,50,000 scale map sheets are available as hiking maps or as ski tour maps. For all of these maps, the Pierres du Niton rocks, in 2005, a proposal for the spelling of local names on the national map in a manner closer to the way in which they are pronounced was made available for the formal Swiss consultation process.
Many national map users are opposed to this proposal
Lithography is a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water. The printing is from a stone or a plate with a smooth surface. It was invented in 1796 by German author and actor Alois Senefelder as a method of publishing theatrical works. Lithography can be used to print text or artwork onto paper or other suitable material, Lithography originally used an image drawn with oil, fat, or wax onto the surface of a smooth, level lithographic limestone plate. The stone was treated with a mixture of acid and gum arabic, when the stone was subsequently moistened, these etched areas retained water, an oil-based ink could be applied and would be repelled by the water, sticking only to the original drawing. The ink would finally be transferred to a paper sheet. This traditional technique is used in some fine art printmaking applications. In modern lithography, the image is made of a coating applied to a flexible aluminum plate. The image can be printed directly from the plate, or it can be offset, by transferring the image onto a sheet for printing.
In fact, photolithography is used synonymously with offset printing, the technique as well as the term were introduced in Europe in the 1850s. Beginning in the 1960s, photolithography has played an important role in the fabrication, Lithography uses simple chemical processes to create an image. For instance, the part of an image is a water-repelling substance. Thus, when the plate is introduced to a printing ink and water mixture, the ink will adhere to the positive image. This allows a flat print plate to be used, enabling much longer, Lithography was invented by Alois Senefelder in the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1796. In the early days of lithography, a piece of limestone was used. After the oil-based image was put on the surface, a solution of gum arabic in water was applied, during printing, water adhered to the gum arabic surfaces and was repelled by the oily parts, while the oily ink used for printing did the opposite. Lithography works because of the repulsion of oil and water. The image is drawn on the surface of the print plate with a fat or oil-based medium such as a wax crayon, which may be pigmented to make the drawing visible
The Swiss Alps extend over both the Western Alps and the Eastern Alps, encompassing an area sometimes called Central Alps. The Swiss Alps comprise almost all the highest mountains of the Alps, such as Dufourspitze, the Dom, the Liskamm, the Weisshorn, the other following major summits can be found in this list of mountains of Switzerland. Since the Middle Ages, transit across the Alps played an important role in history, the region north of St Gotthard Pass became the nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the early 14th century. The Alps cover 65% of Switzerlands total 41,285 square kilometres surface area, making it one of the most alpine countries. The glaciers of the Swiss Alps cover an area of 1,220 square kilometres — 3% of the Swiss territory, the Swiss Alps are situated south of the Swiss Plateau and north of the national border. The limit between the Alps and the runs from Vevey on the shores of Lake Geneva to Rorschach on the shores of Lake Constance, passing close to the cities of Thun.
The not well defined regions in Switzerland that lie on the margin of the Alps, the Swiss Prealps are mainly made of limestone and they generally do not exceed 2,500 metres. The Alpine cantons are Valais, Graubünden, Glarus, Ticino, St. Gallen, Obwalden, Schwyz, Appenzell Innerrhoden, Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Fribourg and Zug. The countries with which Switzerland shares mountain ranges of the Alps are, Italy, the Alps are usually divided into two main parts, the Western Alps and Eastern Alps, whose division is along the Rhine from Lake Constance to the Splügen Pass. The western ranges occupy the greatest part of Switzerland while the more numerous eastern ranges are smaller and are all situated in the canton of Graubünden. The latter are part of the Central Eastern Alps, except the Ortler Alps which belong to the Southern Limestone Alps, the Pennine and Bernina Range are the highest ranges of the country, they contain respectively 38,9 and 1 summit over 4000 metres. The lowest range is the Appenzell Alps culminating at 2,500 metres, Western Alps Eastern Alps The north side of the Swiss Alps is drained by the Rhône, Rhine and Inn while the south side is mainly drained by the Ticino.
The rivers on the empty into the Mediterranean and Black Sea. The major triple watersheds in the Alps are located within the country, they are, Piz Lunghin, Witenwasserenstock, between the Witenwasserenstock and Piz Lunghin runs the European Watershed separating the basin of the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. The European watershed lies in fact only partially on the main chain, Switzerland possesses 6% of Europes fresh water, and is sometimes referred to as the water tower of Europe. Since the highest dams are located in Alpine regions, many mountain lakes are artificial and are used as hydroelectric reservoirs. Some large artificial lakes can be found above 2,300 m, the melting of low-altitude glaciers can generate new lakes, such as the 0.25 km² large Triftsee which formed between 2002–2003. The following table gives the area above 2000 m and 3000 m
Map series occur when an area is to be covered by a map that, due to its scale, must be spread over several sheets. Nevertheless, the sheets of a map series can be used quite independently, as they generally have full map surround details. If a publisher produces several map series at different scales, these series are called scale series, in everyday use, individual maps and atlases are sometimes described as being part of a map series. The scope of a map series can range from as few as two sheets to at least tens of thousands of sheets, obsolete maps, especially of the 19th century, are often named Topographic Atlases, because their small-sized sheets were bound into atlases. An example of such a map series is the Topographic Atlas of the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Brunswick. It is technically difficult, and it would be highly impractical, to print. For that reason, map series are issued and preserved in loose-leaf form, in extreme cases, a map series can include thousands of sheets.
Probably the greatest map series ever created is the 1,25,000 topographic map of the Soviet Union, with about 300,000 sheets, completed in 1987. Occasionally, smaller map series will be compiled by the buyer into a bound volume, the sheets of a map series can be glued by the buyer to their neighbouring sheets, especially as a wall decoration. So, for example, the National Map of Switzerland, which consists of 22 sheets, can be seen as a decoration in the Federal Palace of Switzerland. Map series are divided into systems of single sheets named and numbered according to common principles. Thus, the characteristics of a sheet in a map series apply equally to all the other sheets of the map series. So, for example, all normally have the same cartographic projections, scale. Theoretically, almost any sheet network design can be used, in practice, variants of the mercator projection are the most widely used today, frequently in conjunction with the UTM coordinate system. All sheets of a map series are created in the same way, an individual sheets title and number identifies and locates that sheets place in the map series.
The sheets are divided from each other either square to the map grid, or along the meridians, in the first case, the sheets will all be the same size. In the second case, the size will decrease towards the north or the south. To determine whether a map sheet forms part of a map series
History of cartography
Cartography, or mapmaking, has been an integral part of the human history for thousands of years. Maps began as drawings but can adopt three-dimensional shapes. The term cartography is modern, loaned into English from French cartographie in the 1840s, the earliest known maps are of the stars, not the earth. Dots dating to 16,500 BC found on the walls of the Lascaux caves map out part of the night sky, the Cuevas de El Castillo in Spain contain a dot map of the Corona Borealis constellation dating from 12,000 BC. Cave painting and rock carvings used simple visual elements that may have aided in recognizing landscape features, another ancient picture that resembles a map was created in the late 7th millennium BC in Çatalhöyük, modern Turkey. This wall painting may represent a plan of this Neolithic village, Maps in Ancient Babylonia were made by using accurate surveying techniques. For example, a 7.6 ×6.8 cm clay tablet found in 1930 at Ga-Sur, near contemporary Kirkuk, cuneiform inscriptions label the features on the map, including a plot of land described as 354 iku that was owned by a person called Azala.
Most scholars date the tablet to the 25th to 24th century BC, Leo Bagrow dissents with a date of 7000 BC. Hills are shown by overlapping semicircles, rivers by lines, the map is marked to show the cardinal directions. An engraved map from the Kassite period of Babylonian history shows walls, in contrast, the Babylonian World Map, the earliest surviving map of the world, is a symbolic, not a literal representation. It deliberately omits peoples such as the Persians and Egyptians, who were known to the Babylonians. The area shown is depicted as a circular shape surrounded by water, examples of maps from ancient Egypt are quite rare. Its originality can be seen in the inscriptions, its precise orientation. In reviewing the literature of early geography and early conceptions of the earth, all lead to Homer. Regardless of the doubts about Homers existence, one thing is certain, Homers knowledge of the Earth was very limited. He and his Greek contemporaries knew very little of the Earth beyond Egypt as far south as the Libyan desert, the south-west coast of Asia Minor, the coast of the Black Sea was only known through myths and legends that circulated during his time.
In his poems there is no mention of Europe and Asia as geographical concepts and that is why the big part of Homers world that is portrayed on this interpretive map represents lands that border on the Aegean Sea. Additional statements about ancient geography may be found in Hesiods poems, through the lyrics of Works and Days and Theogony he shows to his contemporaries some definite geographical knowledge. He introduces the names of rivers as Nile, the shores of the Bosporus, and the Euxine, the coast of Gaul, the island of Sicily
The Swiss Plateau or Central Plateau constitutes one of the three major landscapes in Switzerland alongside the Jura Mountains and the Swiss Alps. It covers about 30% of the Swiss surface and it comprises the regions between the Jura and the Alps, partly flat but mostly hilly, and lies at an average height between 400 and 700 m AMSL. It is by far the most densely populated region of Switzerland, in the north and northwest, the Swiss Plateau is sharply delimited geographically and geologically by the Jura Mountains. In the south, there is no border with the Alps. Usually, the rising of the terrain to altitudes above 1500 metres AMSL, however, if a division into the three main regions Jura Mountains, Swiss Plateau and Alps is considered, the Alpine foreland belongs clearly to the Swiss Plateau. In the southwest, the Swiss Plateau is confined by Lake Geneva, in the northeast, by Lake Constance, the Swiss Plateau is part of a larger basin that extends beyond the border of Switzerland. At its southwestern end, in France, the plateau, in the Genevois, ends at Chambéry where Jura, at the other side of the Lake Constance, the plateau continues in the German and Austrian Pre-Alps.
Many cantons of Switzerland include a part in the Swiss Plateau, the geological layers of the Swiss Plateau are relatively well known. Around 2500 –3000 metres below the surface, but considerably deeper near the Alps and it is covered by unfolded strata of Mesozoic sediments, which are part of the Helvetic nappes. Its depth gradually decreases from about 2.5 km in the west to 0.8 km in the east and these layers, like the ones of the Jura Mountains, were deposited in a relatively shallow sea, the Tethys Ocean. Above the Mesozoic layers, is the Molasse, consisting of conglomerate, marl, the uppermost layer consists of gravel and glacial sediments that have been transported by the glaciers of the ice ages. Geologically the most important layer of the Swiss Plateau is the thick molasse sequence that accumulated at the border of the Alps due to the erosion of the concurrently uplifted mountains. The thickness of the molasse increases from west to east, the former alpine rivers built huge fans of sediment at the foot of the mountains.
The eroded material has been sorted by grain size, the coarse material was predominantly deposited near the Alps. In the middle of the plateau, there are sandstones and near the Jura, clays. During the Tertiary orogenic uplift, around 60 –40 millions years ago, through processes of rising and lowering that were brought by the folding of the Alps, the area was twice flooded by a sea. The corresponding sediments are distinguished as sea molasse and freshwater molasse, even though the latter consists rather of fluvial, lower sea molasse, The limestone plateau subsided gradually, and a shallow sea invaded, spreading east to the Carpathian Mountains. The sediments consisted of fine-grained sands and marl, there were no conglomerate fans since the proper Alpine folding began only at the end of that period
Intaglio is the family of printing and printmaking techniques in which the image is incised into a surface and the incised line or sunken area holds the ink. It is the direct opposite of a relief print, copper or zinc plates are used as a surface or matrix, and the incisions are created by etching, drypoint, aquatint or mezzotint. Collagraphs may be printed as intaglio plates, in etching, for example, the plate is covered in a resin ground or an acid-resistant wax material. Using an etching needle, or a tool, the image is engraved into the ground. The plate is dipped into acid. The acid bites into the surface of the plate where it was exposed, biting is a printmaking term to describe the acids etching, or incising, of the image. After the plate is bitten, the plate is removed from the acid bath. To print an intaglio plate, ink is applied to the surface by wiping and/or dabbing the plate to push the ink into the recessed lines, the plate is rubbed with tarlatan cloth to remove most of the excess ink.
The final smooth wipe is often done with newspaper or old public phone book pages, a damp piece of paper is placed on top of the plate, so that when going through the press the damp paper will be able to be squeezed into the plates ink-filled grooves. The paper and plate are covered by a thick blanket to ensure even pressure when going through the rolling press. The rolling press applies very high pressure through the blanket to push the paper into the grooves on the plate, the blanket is lifted, revealing the paper and printed image. Martin Schongauer was one of the earliest known artists to exploit the copper-engraving technique and Netherlandish engraving began slightly after the Germans, but were well developed by 1500. Drypoint and etching were German inventions of the century, probably by the Housebook Master. In the nineteenth century, Viennese printer Karel Klíč introduced a combined intaglio, photogravure retained the smooth continuous tones of photography but was printed using a chemically-etched copper plate.
This permitted a photographic image to be printed on regular paper, at one time intaglio printing was used for all mass-printed materials including banknotes, stock certificates and magazines, fabrics and sheet music. Today intaglio engraving is largely used for paper or plastic currency, passports, photogravure, an intaglio photo-printmaking process Rotogravure Line engraving Viscosity printing History of printing Intaglio and other printmaking definitions
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
The French Prealps are a group of subalpine mountain ranges of medium elevation located immediately west of the French Alps. In the southern regions, the ranges are generally disorganized and lack the wide. Three non-contiguous ranges traditionally comprise the southern French Prealps, the Alpilles, Mont Sainte-Victoire, roger Frison-Roche, Les montagnes de la terre
An atlas is a collection of maps, it is typically a map of Earth or a region of Earth, but there are atlases of the other planets in the Solar System. Furthermore, atlases of anatomy exist, mapping out the body or other organisms. Atlases have traditionally been bound into book form, but today many atlases are in multimedia formats, in addition to presenting geographic features and political boundaries, many atlases often feature geopolitical, social and economic statistics. They have information about the map and places in it, the use of the word atlas in a geographical context dates from 1595 when the geographer Gerardus Mercator published Atlas Sive Cosmographicae Meditationes de Fabrica Mundi et Fabricati Figura. This title provides Mercators definition of the word as a description of the creation and form of the whole universe, this distinction is conventionally awarded to the Flemish cartographer Abraham Ortelius who in 1570 published the collection of maps Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. A travel atlas is made for use during travel.
It has maps at a large zoom so the maps can be reviewed easily, a travel atlas may be referred to as a road map. A desk atlas is made similar to a reference book and it may be in hardback or paperback form. With the coming of the market, publishers in different countries can reprint maps from places made elsewhere. This means that the names on the maps often use the designations or abbreviations of the language of the country in which the feature is located. For example, islands near Russia have the abbreviation O. for ostrov and this practice differs from what is standard for any given language, and it reaches its extremity concerning transliterations from other languages. In particular, German mapmakers use the transliterations from Cyrillic developed by the Czechs, national Geographic MapMachine History of atlases Atlases, at the US Library of Congress site - a discussion of many significant atlases, with some illustrations. Part of Geography and Maps, an Illustrated Guide, Historical atlases online Centennia Historical Atlas required reading at the US Naval Academy for over a decade.
Manuscript Atlases held by the University of Pennsylvania Libraries - fully digitized with descriptions, Historical Altas in Persuasive Cartography, The PJ Mode Collection, Cornell University Library Other links Google Earth, a visual 3D interactive atlas. Wikimapia a wikiproject designed to describe the entire world