Swiss Armed Forces
The Swiss Armed Forces operates on land, in the air, and in international waters. Under the countrys system, professional soldiers constitute about 5 percent of the military. Because of Switzerlands long history of neutrality, the armed forces do not take part in conflicts in other countries, Switzerland is part of the NATO Partnership for Peace programme. The structure of the Swiss militia system stipulates that the soldiers keep their own equipment, including all personally assigned weapons. Compulsory military service applies to all male Swiss citizens, with women serving voluntarily, males usually receive initial orders at the age of 18 for military conscription eligibility screening. About two-thirds of young Swiss men are found suitable for service, approximately 20,000 persons are trained in basic training for a duration from 18 to 21 weeks. The reform Army XXI was adopted by vote in 2003. The land component of the Swiss Armed Forces originated from the troops of the Old Swiss Confederacy.
The cantonal armies were converted into the army with the constitution of 1848. From this time, it was illegal for the cantons to declare war or to sign capitulations or peace agreements. Paragraph 13 explicitly prohibited the federation from sustaining a standing army, the first complete mobilization, under the command of Hans Herzog, was triggered by the Franco-Prussian War in 1871. In 1875, the army was called in to crush a strike of workers at the Gotthard tunnel, four workers were killed and 13 were severely wounded.5 million, the second largest armed force per capita after the Israeli Defence Forces. Wille was subsequently put in command of the complete mobilization in 1914. Wille ordered the suppression of the 1918 general strike with military force, three workers were killed, and a rather larger number of soldiers died of the Spanish flu during mobilization. In 1932, the army was called to suppress an anti-fascist demonstration in Geneva, the troops shot dead 13 demonstrators, wounding another 65.
This incident long damaged the reputation, leading to persistent calls for its abolition among left-wing politicians. The third complete mobilization of the army took place during World War II under the command of Henri Guisan, the Patrouille des Glaciers race, created to test the abilities of soldiers, was created during the war. In the 1960s and 1970s, the forces were organised according to the Armee 61 structure
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface by cutting grooves into it. Wood engraving is a form of printing and is not covered in this article. Engraving was an important method of producing images on paper in artistic printmaking, in mapmaking. Other terms often used for printed engravings are copper engraving, copper-plate engraving or line engraving, hand engraving is a term sometimes used for engraving objects other than printing plates, to inscribe or decorate jewellery, trophies and other fine metal goods. Traditional engravings in printmaking are engraved, using just the same techniques to make the lines in the plate. Each graver is different and has its own use, engravers use a hardened steel tool called a burin, or graver, to cut the design into the surface, most traditionally a copper plate. Modern professional engravers can engrave with a resolution of up to 40 lines per mm in high grade work creating game scenes, dies used in mass production of molded parts are sometimes hand engraved to add special touches or certain information such as part numbers.
In addition to engraving, there are engraving machines that require less human finesse and are not directly controlled by hand. They are usually used for lettering, using a pantographic system, there are versions for the insides of rings and the outsides of larger pieces. Such machines are used for inscriptions on rings, lockets. Gravers come in a variety of shapes and sizes that yield different line types, the burin produces a unique and recognizable quality of line that is characterized by its steady, deliberate appearance and clean edges. The angle tint tool has a curved tip that is commonly used in printmaking. Florentine liners are flat-bottomed tools with multiple lines incised into them, ring gravers are made with particular shapes that are used by jewelry engravers in order to cut inscriptions inside rings. Flat gravers are used for work on letters, as well as wriggle cuts on most musical instrument engraving work, remove background. Knife gravers are for line engraving and very deep cuts, round gravers, and flat gravers with a radius, are commonly used on silver to create bright cuts, as well as other hard-to-cut metals such as nickel and steel.
Square or V-point gravers are typically square or elongated diamond-shaped and used for cutting straight lines, V-point can be anywhere from 60 to 130 degrees, depending on purpose and effect. These gravers have very small cutting points, other tools such as mezzotint rockers and burnishers are used for texturing effects. Burnishing tools can be used for stone setting techniques
Motorways of Switzerland
Autobahnen in German, Autoroutes in French, Autostrade in Italian, Autostradas in Romansch are the names of the national freeways or motorways of Switzerland. Swiss motorways have a speed limit of 120 km/h. Motorways are restricted to vehicles that can obtain a speed of at least 80 km/h, a short stretch of autobahn around the Lucerne area in 1955 created Switzerlands first autobahn. For Expo 1964, an autoroute was built between Lausanne and Geneva, the Bern-Lenzburg autobahn was inaugurated in 1967. There are 200 tunnels with a length of 220 kilometres. The Swiss autobahn/autoroute network has not yet completed, priority has been given to the most important routes, especially the north-south. Swiss autobahns/autoroutes very often have an emergency lane except in tunnels, some newly built autobahn sections, like the lone section crossing the Jura region in the north-western part of Switzerland, have only emergency bays. The Swiss autobahn/autoroute system requires the purchase of a vignette — which costs 40 Swiss francs — for one year in order to use its roadways.
The Swiss vignette is offered only as a toll sticker. Trucks have to pay a toll based on the tonnage, there are only the exceptions of the Munt la Schera and Great St Bernard tunnels and of the train shuttles carrying road vehicles. Note, Portions in italics indicate routes under construction or projection, various stretches of motorway were constructed with straight sections of about 2 km length. The guardrails were replaced by cables and could be removed if necessary within a few hours. After cleaning the roadways, painting the runway markings, and setting up wireless connections, the last example of a runway was Highway A1 - section Murten - be Payerne, opened in the 1990s, parallel to the runway of the airbase in Payerne. The use of aircraft was tested by the WK-units. The section in Oensingen was used on 16 September 1970 from 12-15 oclock for a military exercise, the level of secrecy was accordingly high. All unnecessary notices were therefore to be avoided, but many spectators were present, the aviators and airport Regiment 3 with the DH-112 Venom performed exercises, which placed great demands on the infrastructure and the skill of the pilots.
The exercise was successful, which served as a lesson for other landing and takeoff exercises in other sections of the Swiss motorway network, never tested following motorway sections, Stans A2, Short for emergency starting of Dassault Mirage III with JATO rokets. With the reform of the army in 1995, the concept of highway-airfields was abandoned, no further operations upkeep or testing is undertaken at this time
Map series occur when an area is to be covered by a map that, due to its scale, must be spread over several sheets. Nevertheless, the sheets of a map series can be used quite independently, as they generally have full map surround details. If a publisher produces several map series at different scales, these series are called scale series, in everyday use, individual maps and atlases are sometimes described as being part of a map series. The scope of a map series can range from as few as two sheets to at least tens of thousands of sheets, obsolete maps, especially of the 19th century, are often named Topographic Atlases, because their small-sized sheets were bound into atlases. An example of such a map series is the Topographic Atlas of the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Brunswick. It is technically difficult, and it would be highly impractical, to print. For that reason, map series are issued and preserved in loose-leaf form, in extreme cases, a map series can include thousands of sheets.
Probably the greatest map series ever created is the 1,25,000 topographic map of the Soviet Union, with about 300,000 sheets, completed in 1987. Occasionally, smaller map series will be compiled by the buyer into a bound volume, the sheets of a map series can be glued by the buyer to their neighbouring sheets, especially as a wall decoration. So, for example, the National Map of Switzerland, which consists of 22 sheets, can be seen as a decoration in the Federal Palace of Switzerland. Map series are divided into systems of single sheets named and numbered according to common principles. Thus, the characteristics of a sheet in a map series apply equally to all the other sheets of the map series. So, for example, all normally have the same cartographic projections, scale. Theoretically, almost any sheet network design can be used, in practice, variants of the mercator projection are the most widely used today, frequently in conjunction with the UTM coordinate system. All sheets of a map series are created in the same way, an individual sheets title and number identifies and locates that sheets place in the map series.
The sheets are divided from each other either square to the map grid, or along the meridians, in the first case, the sheets will all be the same size. In the second case, the size will decrease towards the north or the south. To determine whether a map sheet forms part of a map series
The scale of a map is the ratio of a distance on the map to the corresponding distance on the ground. This simple concept is complicated by the curvature of the Earths surface, because of this variation, the concept of scale becomes meaningful in two distinct ways. The first way is the ratio of the size of the globe to the size of the Earth. The generating globe is a model to which the Earth is shrunk. The ratio of the Earths size to the generating globes size is called the nominal scale, many maps state the nominal scale and may even display a bar scale to represent it. The second distinct concept of scale applies to the variation in scale across a map and it is the ratio of the mapped points scale to the nominal scale. In this case means the scale factor. If the region of the map is small enough to ignore Earths curvature—a town plan, in maps covering larger areas, or the whole Earth, the maps scale may be less useful or even useless in measuring distances. The map projection becomes critical in understanding how scale varies throughout the map, when scale varies noticeably, it can be accounted for as the scale factor.
Tissots indicatrix is often used to illustrate the variation of point scale across a map, map scales may be expressed in words, as a ratio, or as a fraction. Examples are, one centimetre to one hundred metres or 1,10,000 or 1/10,000 one inch to one mile or 1,63,360 or 1/63,360 one centimetre to one thousand kilometres or 1,100,000,000 or 1/100,000,000. In addition to the many maps carry one or more bar scales. For example, some modern British maps have three bar scales, one each for kilometres and nautical miles, a lexical scale may cause problems if it expressed in a language that the user does not understand or in obsolete or ill-defined units. For example, a scale of one inch to a furlong will be understood by older people in countries where Imperial units used to be taught in schools. A map is classified as small scale or large scale or sometimes medium scale, small scale refers to world maps or maps of large regions such as continents or large nations. In other words, they show areas of land on a small space.
They are called small scale because the fraction is relatively small. Large scale maps show areas in more detail, such as county maps or town plans might
Rail transport in Switzerland
The Swiss rail network is noteworthy for its density, its coordination between services, its integration with other modes of transport, timeliness and a thriving domestic and trans-alp freight system. This is made necessary by strong regulations on truck transport, and is enabled by properly coordinated intermodal logistics. In 2015, with 5,323 kilometres network length, Switzerland has not only the worlds most dense railway network, virtually 100% of its network is electrified, except for the few tracks on which only steam locomotives operate for touristic purposes. There are 62 railway companies in Switzerland, share of commuters who travel to work using public transport is 30%. Share of rail in goods transport performance by road and rail is 39%, Switzerland is a member of the International Union of Railways. The UIC Country Code for Switzerland is 85, three quarters of the Swiss rail network is at standard gauge, comprising 3,773 km, administered mostly by three companies. Important railway stations are the Zürich HB, Basel SBB, Winterthur, Luzern, Zürich Oerlikon, Zürich Stadelhofen, Swiss Federal Railways is the largest railway company in Switzerland and handles the majority of national and international traffic. BLS is the main company, with 10% of the standard-gauge network.
It manages the other major Alpine route Bern-Brig via both Lötschberg Tunnels and connection at Brig with SBBs Simplon Tunnel to Italy, the Schweizerische Südostbahn AG operates on 147 km between Romanshorn on Lake Constance to St. Gallen. And further via Herisau to the Toggenburg valley in northeast Switzerland, via Wattwil and Rapperswil SOB travels the track over the Seedamm on Lake Zurich and finally over the high moorland of Rothenthurm down to Arth-Goldau in Central Switzerland. The named train Voralpen Express is operated by the Südostbahn and it runs every hour between Lucerne and St. Gallen. The German national railway company Deutsche Bahn owns cross-border lines from the German border to Basel Badischer Bahnhof station, the German DB operates longer-distance trains from Germany to Swiss cities, including ICE services to Basel, Berne and Interlaken. The French-Swiss joint-venture TGV Lyria operates high-speed trains between Paris and South-France with services to Geneva, Berne, Basel, the Austrian Railjet by ÖBB operates the service between Zurich and Austria.
The service runs via Buchs SG and calls Innsbruck, Salzburg, SBB and Trenitalia jointly operate EuroCity services between Switzerland and Italy. These services are running between Geneva and Milan or even Venice via the Simplon Tunnel, between Basel and Milan via Berne and the Lötschberg Base and Simplon Tunnels, and between Zurich and Milan via the Gotthard route. It passes through the upper Rhine Valley and several side valleys, as well as the Engadine, the Bernina Pass is the highest point on this line, at 2253 m. The Furka-Oberalp-Bahn is a 1,000 mm railway in the southern alps. Its name refers to two passes, the Furka Pass and the Oberalp Pass, the Furka pass lies at the upper end of the Rhône valley
Topographic Atlas of Switzerland
The Topographic Atlas of Switzerland, known as the Siegfried Atlas or Siegfried Map is an official map series of Switzerland. Its publication was begun by the Federal Topographic Bureau under Hermann Siegfried, during this period the individual maps were drawn by different lithographers, including Walter Hauenstein, Georg Christian von Hoven and Rudolf Leuzinger. Since it is, in todays parlance, not strictly an atlas but a map series, the Siegfried Map was based on the original records that had already been created for the earlier Dufour Map. The area covered by the scale was initially divided into 462 pages. A format of 35 centimetres x 24 centimetres for each page was common to both scales, another significant departure from the Dufour Map was the presence of contours to symbolize the relief. In addition, three colors were used directly for printing, whereas the Dufour Map was initially monochrome, on the Siegfried Map, the colours used were brown for the contour lines on vegetated terrain, blue for water and contour lines on glaciers, and black for the rest.
The Siegfried Map projection was an equivalent, as for the Dufour Map. The print mode used for the 1,25,000 pages was initially intaglio, the 1,50,000 pages were printed via a lithography process, and from 1910 by intaglio. Until 1949, there were occasional revised editions of Siegfried Map pages, from 1952, the Siegfried and Dufour Maps were replaced by the new National Map of Switzerland. Siegfried Map in the map collection of the Swiss Federal Office of Topography Images of all first editions and editions of the Siegfried Map Online access to www. geo. admin. ch
The city of Bern or Berne is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their Bundesstadt, or federal city. With a population of 141,762, Bern is the fourth-most populous city in Switzerland, the Bern agglomeration, which includes 36 municipalities, had a population of 406,900 in 2014. The metropolitan area had a population of 660,000 in 2000, Bern is the capital of the canton of Bern, the second-most populous of Switzerlands cantons. The official language in Bern is German, but the language is an Alemannic Swiss German dialect. In 1983, the old town in the centre of Bern became a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Bern is ranked among the top ten cities for the best quality of life. The etymology of the name Bern is uncertain and it has long been considered likely that the city was named after the Italian city of Verona, which at the time was known as Bern in Middle High German. As a result of the find of the Bern zinc tablet in the 1980s, it is now common to assume that the city was named after a pre-existing toponym of Celtic origin.
The bear was the animal of the seal and coat of arms of Bern from at least the 1220s. The earliest reference to the keeping of bears in the Bärengraben dates to the 1440s. No archaeological evidence that indicates a settlement on the site of city centre prior to the 12th century has been found so far. In antiquity, a Celtic oppidum stood on the Engehalbinsel north of Bern, fortified since the second century BC, during the Roman era, a Gallo-Roman vicus was on the same site. The Bern zinc tablet has the name Brenodor, in the Early Middle Ages, a settlement in Bümpliz, now a city district of Bern, was some 4 km from the medieval city. The medieval city is a foundation of the Zähringer ruling family, according to 14th-century historiography, Bern was founded in 1191 by Berthold V, Duke of Zähringen. In 1218, after Berthold died without an heir, Bern was made an imperial city by the Goldene Handfeste of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. In 1353, Bern joined the Swiss Confederacy, becoming one of the eight cantons of the period of 1353 to 1481.
The city grew out towards the west of the boundaries of the peninsula formed by the river Aare, the Zytglogge tower marked the western boundary of the city from 1191 until 1256, when the Käfigturm took over this role until 1345. It was, in turn, succeeded by the Christoffelturm until 1622, during the time of the Thirty Years War, two new fortifications – the so-called big and small Schanze – were built to protect the whole area of the peninsula
Intaglio is the family of printing and printmaking techniques in which the image is incised into a surface and the incised line or sunken area holds the ink. It is the direct opposite of a relief print, copper or zinc plates are used as a surface or matrix, and the incisions are created by etching, drypoint, aquatint or mezzotint. Collagraphs may be printed as intaglio plates, in etching, for example, the plate is covered in a resin ground or an acid-resistant wax material. Using an etching needle, or a tool, the image is engraved into the ground. The plate is dipped into acid. The acid bites into the surface of the plate where it was exposed, biting is a printmaking term to describe the acids etching, or incising, of the image. After the plate is bitten, the plate is removed from the acid bath. To print an intaglio plate, ink is applied to the surface by wiping and/or dabbing the plate to push the ink into the recessed lines, the plate is rubbed with tarlatan cloth to remove most of the excess ink.
The final smooth wipe is often done with newspaper or old public phone book pages, a damp piece of paper is placed on top of the plate, so that when going through the press the damp paper will be able to be squeezed into the plates ink-filled grooves. The paper and plate are covered by a thick blanket to ensure even pressure when going through the rolling press. The rolling press applies very high pressure through the blanket to push the paper into the grooves on the plate, the blanket is lifted, revealing the paper and printed image. Martin Schongauer was one of the earliest known artists to exploit the copper-engraving technique and Netherlandish engraving began slightly after the Germans, but were well developed by 1500. Drypoint and etching were German inventions of the century, probably by the Housebook Master. In the nineteenth century, Viennese printer Karel Klíč introduced a combined intaglio, photogravure retained the smooth continuous tones of photography but was printed using a chemically-etched copper plate.
This permitted a photographic image to be printed on regular paper, at one time intaglio printing was used for all mass-printed materials including banknotes, stock certificates and magazines, fabrics and sheet music. Today intaglio engraving is largely used for paper or plastic currency, passports, photogravure, an intaglio photo-printmaking process Rotogravure Line engraving Viscosity printing History of printing Intaglio and other printmaking definitions
Hachures /ˈhæʃʊərz/ are an older mode of representing relief. They show orientation of slope, and by their thickness and overall density they provide a sense of steepness. Being non-numeric, they are useful to a scientific survey than contours. They are a form of shading, although different from the one used in shaded maps, Hachure representation of relief was standardized by the Austrian topographer Johann Georg Lehmann in 1799. Hachures may be combined with other ways of representing relief, like shades, the result being a shaded hachure map, emil von Sydow designed maps with coloured hachures, green for lowlands and brown for highlands. Hachures are strokes drawn in the direction of the steepest slope, steeper slopes are represented by thicker, shorter strokes, while gentler slopes are represented by thinner and farther apart strokes. A very gentle slope or an area, like the top of a hill, are usually left blank. The hachures are traditionally monocolour, usually black, gray or brown, using two complementary colours for the hachures on a neutral background colour would give a shading effect as if the relief were illuminated.
In representing relief with hachures on a map, six rules are to be followed, The hachures are drawn in the direction of the steepest gradient. The hachures are arranged in rows perpendicular to their direction, the strokes are spaced at an equal distance inside a row. The strokes have the same thickness inside a row, if the map is illuminated, strokes are thinner and farther apart on the illuminated side. If the illumination is vertical, rule 5 is kept, in the case of oblique illumination, the rules above are to be obeyed for large-scale maps. If the map being drawn is a map, rules may be relaxed in order to obtain a more suggestive representation. Hachures are still used today on Large Scale maps to show slopes and on British Ordnance Survey Maps and in various countries toposheets to show Road and Railway Cutting and Embankments. On British OS Maps they have become long triangles with the base at the top. Embankments are further identified by having a line around them, desktop Hachure Maps from Digital Elevation Models Archive of Hampshire Maps at the Geography Department of the University of Portsmouth Map of part of Hampshire, 1810s Map of Hampshire,1826