See also: Toque.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Toques.|
|This article about a location in the autonomous community of Galicia, Spain is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
See also: Toque.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Toques.|
|This article about a location in the autonomous community of Galicia, Spain is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
1. Toque – A toque is a type of hat with a narrow brim or no brim at all. They were popular from the 13th to the 16th century in Europe, now it is primarily known as the traditional headgear for professional cooks, except in Canada where the term is primarily used for knit caps. The word toque is Breton for hat, the spelling with the que is Middle Breton, and Modern Breton is spelled tok. Old Breton spells the word toc, the word was borrowed into the French language both for the chefs uniform and the knit cap. The word toque is Arabic طوق for round and طاقية taqia for hat originally for something round that has an opening, the word has been known in English since 1505. It came through the Medieval French toque, presumably by the way of the Spanish toca womans headdress, a toque blanche, often shortened to toque, is a tall, round, pleated, starched white hat worn by chefs. The toque most likely originated as the result of the evolution of head coverings worn by cooks throughout the centuries. Their roots are traced to the casque à meche worn by 18th-century French chefs. The colour of the casque à meche denoted the rank of the wearer, boucher, the personal chef of the French statesman Talleyrand, was the first to insist on white toques for sanitary reasons. The modern toque is popularly believed to have originated with the French chefs Marie-Antoine Carême, a toque, or sometimes touge, was the traditional headgear of various French magistrates. A red toque is sometimes worn by German judges, primarily by justices on the Federal Constitutional Court, the pleated, low, round hat worn in French universities – the equivalent of the mortarboard or tam at British and American universities – is also called a toque. In the Napoleonic era, the French first empire replaced the coronets of traditional heraldry with a standardized system of toques. Toque is also used for a hat or helmet, worn for riding, especially in equestrian sports, often black. The Canadian-English term was assimilated from Canadian-French tuque, toque first appeared in writing around 1870. The fashion is said to have originated with the coureurs de bois, French and Métis fur traders, list of headgear Tam EtymologyOnLine Heraldry. org Napoleonic heraldry Index to French Heraldry
2. Spain – By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and later by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem. This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles later renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, Espan, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians, Basques and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula. The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
3. Autonomous communities of Spain – Spain is not a federation, but a highly decentralized unitary state. Some scholars have referred to the system as a federal system in all. There are 17 autonomous communities and two cities that are collectively known as autonomies. The two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet used this right and this unique framework of territorial administration is known as the State of Autonomies. The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a country made up of different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown by the 16th century, the constituent territories—be it crowns, kingdoms, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories also exhibited a variety of customs, laws. From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime, leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries. This culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces and these were the Basque Country and Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism, therefore, economic and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1913 and it was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonias mediaeval institution of government, was restored. During General Francos dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the unity of the Spanish nation, peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats. When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy, the then Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. In the end, the constitution, published and ratified in 1979, found a balance in recognizing the existence of nationalities and regions in Spain, within the indissoluble unity of the Spanish nation. The starting point in the organization of Spain was the second article of the constitution. In order to exercise this right, the established a open process whereby the nationalities
4. Carballo – It belongs to the Comarca of Bergantiños. The seafood company Calvo is headquartered here, Carballo dates back to 759 AD, the name is actually a Galician word meaning Oak, referring to the settlements surroundings of forest on mountainous terrain. It has a geographical position that allows you to establish easy communication with the main cities of Galicia, Spain. This is evident from the Anllóns River and through the area of Razo-Baldaio. The Municipality of Carballo was created in 1836, in 1920, the Architect Julio Galan father of Julio Galán Gómez, built the Town Hall used until 1974. In the 1920s and 1930s is widely modernized Carballo, schools being built and their medicinal properties are indicated in nonspecific respiratory diseases as well as hormonal problems of Hypothyroidism and Hypogonadism. Later, the Romans, during the Roman Empire, attracted by the fertility of the land, for the abundance of minerals and for its Sulphurous waters, Carballo was inhabited since ancient times, this is evident from its historical and artistic heritage. In Brañas do Carregal are the remains of the dolmen of Pedra Moura, studies indicate that the name of the region, Bergantiños, could have originated from the Celtic tribe of the Brigantinos. From Roman times there are very few Archaeological remains, the remains are still supposed to date from the Middle Ages or the 18th century. Inside, projecting the image of the Asunción, attributed to Rodeiro, interesting are also the churches of Entrecruces, eighteenth century Baroque, and Sofán, eighteenth and nineteenth facade, where a Christ by Ferreiro is preserved. The church of Oza, meanwhile, presents a St. Breixo facade carved in stone, while inside the temple this same crown Baroque altarpiece figure the best preserved in the whole environment. Since the twentieth century churches dating with Baroque altarpieces or Razo, from the same period is the church of Bertoia, which can be seen a Gothic Christ and a processional cross from the eighteenth century. Interesting too are also the Granaries and Mills, a parish with strong personality is to Rebordelos, belonging to the jurisdiction of Caión throughout the Middle Ages and of modern and independent constitutive council until 1836. There is a mámoa on the leading to the beach of Pedra do Sal, a Celtic castro Costenla in place, several mansions in Vilar de Peres. In iglesario of Rebordelos it is known about the presence of the Count of Grajal and the Convent of San Agustin, the church of San Salvador is located in the town center, with a street that surrounds it. Rebordelos parish is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, Baldaio marshes, Pedra do Sal, beaches A Lapeira, Arnela and Leira, Puerto Loureiro and Pedra Furada, witnessed countless shipwrecks. Several palaces that are preserved in the village of Carballo are example of these are the Palace of Pallas, the Gontade Palace. While the civil architecture, highlights the nineteenth century building that housed the jail and is now converted into the Museum of Bergantinos The municipality has 31,466 registered inhabitants and it has a density of 167.39 inhabitants per square kilometer
5. Ferrol, Galicia – Ferrol, is a city in the Province of A Coruña in Galicia, located on the Atlantic coast in north-western Spain. According to the 2014 census, the city has a population of 70,389 making it the 5th largest settlement in Galicia. With Eume to the south and Ortegal the north, Ferrol forms the Ferrolterra conurbation, the city has been a major naval shipbuilding centre for most of its history, being the capital of the Spanish Navys Maritime Department of the North since the time of the early Bourbons. Before that, in the 17th century, Ferrol was the most important arsenal in Europe, today, the city is also known as the home of the shipbuilding yards of Navantia. The city was the birthplace of the Spanish General and dictator Francisco Franco in 1892 and it was also the birthplace of the founder of the Spanish Socialist Workers Party, Pablo Iglesias, in 1850. In 1982 the government of Spain adopted officially Ferrol in consonance with its long history, the origin of the name comes from the legend of a Breton saint, Ferreol, who arrived here on a ship, amid a chorus of seven siren. Another tradition says that Ferrol proceeds from farol, alluding to the figure that appears on the coat of arms of the city. The existence of human settlements in this Galician city is backed up by the abundance of burial chambers, megalithic monuments as well as Petroglyphs. In Roman times, in the 1st century BC, a port existed in the bay of Ferrol. In 1568 a fire reduced to rubble the old medieval town, as a naval base, at that time the town was considered more important as a Royal Arsenal than as a safe harbour. With the arrival of the Bourbons in the 18th century, Ferrol became a leading naval centre, Ferrol was made Capital of the Maritime Department of the North, formed under Ferdinand VI and Charles III for the defence of the Spanish Colonial Empire in America. The Royal Dockyards of A Graña and Ferrol, built between 1726–1783, produced ships protected with copper sheets from the mills of Xubia. In 1772, The Spanish Royal Academy of Naval Engineers of Ferrol, Ferrol was virtually impossible to blockade in the age of sail, as strong westerly winds would take any blockading force away along the treacherous north coast of Spain where they had no safe haven. The geography of Ferrol meant that an entire Spanish fleet could slip out on a single tide, by the time the British were able to resume the blockade, the Spanish would be safely away and out to sea. The alliance with the United Kingdom during the Peninsular War of 1808–14 failed to prevent the deterioration in the town’s fortunes, the arsenals and fortresses were abandoned and they were easily occupied by the French in 1809. Under Ferdinand VII, Ferrol lost its title of capital, the second half of the 19th century brought to the Royal Dockyards of Ferrol not just plenty of work but social and political tensions which ended up in the failed republican uprising of 1872. Such was the case of the Cleopatra, carrying one of the two Cleopatra Needles, the one standing today on the Thames Embankment in London, UK and it arrived in Ferrol on 19 October 1877 after tragedy and almost sinking off the West coast of France five days earlier. There is a plaque commemorating the event and those who died to be seen at the base of the Needle in London, the arrival of the British coincided with the construction of a local electric-powered trolley streetcars line
6. Fisterra – Fisterra is a municipality in the province of A Coruña, in the autonomous community of Galicia, Spain. It belongs to the comarca of Fisterra, Fisterra is on Cape Finisterre, the final destination for many pilgrims on the Way of St. James. Fisterra is on the rocky Costa da Morte, named because of the number of shipwrecks along these shores. The name Fisterra comes from Latin FINIS TERRAE, meaning Lands End and this name stems from the fact that this area is on a remote peninsula that is one of the westernmost points of land in Galicia, and hence in Spain. Fisterra is an ancient port and fishing village, formed by narrow streets leading to the Plaza de Ara Solis, the chapel of Nosa Señora do Bon Suceso, dating from the 18th century, is on the plaza. There is a lighthouse on a 600-metre promontory called Monte Facho at the tip of Cape Finisterre overlooking the Atlantic Ocean. On the road up to the lighthouse is the church of Santa María de Fisterra which contains the Chapel of Santo Cristo. Fisterra is 108 km from A Coruña, and 98 km from Santiago de Compostela, Fisterra has some spectacular beaches like O Rostro, Arnela, Mar de Fóra, Langosteira, Ribeira, and Corveiro. Many of the beaches are framed by steep cliffs leading down to the Mare Tenebrosum, there are several rocks in this area associated with religious legends, such as the holy stones, the stained wine stones, the stone chair, and the tomb of Orcabella. In 1479, a hospital to accommodate the pilgrims was built. Many of the pilgrims were noblemen or otherwise famous, thousands of visitors continue to arrive in Fisterra every day. In the area there are remnants of pre-Christian beliefs and sacred locations. On Cape Finisterre, some claim there is the Altar Soli. The Monte Facho, on Cape Finisterre, was the place where the Celtic Nerios from Duio carried out their offerings, St. William of Gellone also lived in a house located there. Near St. Williams house, sterile couples would have sexual intercourse on one stone to try to conceive. Castle of San Carlos, built during the reign of Charles III of Spain, church of Nosa Señora das Areas. It houses the image of the Holy Christ of Fisterra, Bon Suceso Chapel Fisterra Lighthouse, the main on the Costa de la Muerte. Every Easter there is a festival featuring the Christ of the Golden Beard
7. Mugardos – Mugardos is a small fishing borough and municipality in the comarca of Ferrol, located in the province of A Coruña in the autonomous community of Galicia, northwestern Spain. It is bordered with the municipalities of Ares and Fene, due to its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, Mugardos does not enjoy extreme oscillation in its weather conditions between winter and summer. The summers tend to be a bit dryer than the winters, like the rest of Galicia, it is rainy and green. The municipality comprises the main township of Mugardos, and several smaller villages and it is part of the historical comarca of Ferrolterra, and is situated near the metropolitan outskirts of the city of Ferrol. The municipality is subdivided into four parroquias, Santiago de Franza, San Vicente de Meá, San Xulián de Mugardos and San Xoán de Piñeiro. During the 1960s and 1970s Mugardos was much larger than it is now, recently, however, it has undergone drastic changes. This is supposed to have morphed over time into the form Mugardos, one of the most historic places in Mugardos is El Castillo de la Palma which is a castle standing on the southern shore of La Ria de Ferrol. The castle was built in 1597 with its name being Nuestra Señora de la Palma. When it was built, the castle was used as a watch tower but later when it was reformed. Facing the castle is El Castillo de San Felipe which forms the part of the defensive system. These two castles are adjoined by a large and sturdy chain that was used to prevent the entrance of enemy ships, later, the castle was also used as a military prison where the most famous prisoner, Antonio Tejero, was held captive. Tejero was responsible for the coup de etat in 1981. Recently, the Palm Castle has been bought by a chain and is pending restoration. Fiesta de La Virgen del Carmen, The Carmen Festival is celebrated the weekend of July 16, on this day there is a ceremony and procession where men hold up the statue of the Virgin and walk her down the promenade. Fiesta del Pulpo, The Octopus Festival is celebrated the Saturday before the Carmen festival, dia de San Julian, Saint Julian´s day, is the Patron saint of the town. La Feria Pirata, The pirate festival has various merchants come to town and sell artisan goods like food, musicians and other attractions are also invited to perform. There are many attractions for children like a few rides, interactive games. The people who also dress up as pirates or in medieval inspired clothing
8. Galicia (Spain) – Galicia is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law. It had a population of 2,718,525 in 2016 and has an area of 29,574 km2. Galicia has over 1,660 km of coastline, including its islands and islets, among them Cíes Islands, Ons, Sálvora, Cortegada. Galicia was incorporated into the Roman Empire at the end of the Cantabrian Wars in 19 BC, in 410, the Germanic Suebi established a kingdom with its capital in Braga, this kingdom was incorporated into that of the Visigoths in 585. The Governor also presided the Real Audiencia do Reino de Galicia, from the 16th century, the representation and voice of the kingdom was held by an assembly of deputies and representatives of the cities of the kingdom, the Cortes or Junta of the Kingdom of Galicia. This institution was forcibly discontinued in 1833 when the kingdom was divided into four provinces with no legal mutual links. During the 19th and 20th centuries, demand grew for self-government and this resulted in the Statute of Autonomy of 1936, soon frustrated by Francos coup detat and subsequent long dictatorship. After democracy was restored the legislature passed the Statute of Autonomy of 1981, approved in referendum and currently in force, the interior of Galicia is characterized by a hilly landscape, mountain ranges rise to 2,000 m in the east and south. The coastal areas are mostly a series of rías and cliffs. The climate of Galicia is usually temperate and rainy, with drier summers. Its topographic and climatic conditions have made animal husbandry and farming the primary source of Galicias wealth for most of its history, allowing for a relative high density of population. With the exception of shipbuilding and food processing, Galicia was based on a farming and fishing economy until after the mid-20th century, in 2012, the gross domestic product at purchasing power parity was €56,000 million, with a nominal GDP per capita of €20,700. There are smaller populations around the cities of Lugo and Ourense. The political capital is Santiago de Compostela, in the province of A Coruña, Vigo, in the province of Pontevedra, is the most populous municipality, with 292,817, while A Coruña is the most populous city, with 215,227. 56% of the Galician population speak Galician as their first language and these Callaeci were the first tribe in the area to help the Lusitanians against the invading Romans. The Romans applied their name to all the tribes in the northwest who spoke the same language. In any case, Galicia, being per se a derivation of the ethnic name Kallaikói, the name evolved during the Middle Ages from Gallaecia, sometimes written Galletia, to Gallicia. This coincides with the spelling of the Castilian Spanish name, the historical denomination Galiza became popular again during the end of the 19th and the first three-quarters of the 20th century, and is still used with some frequency today