A tor, known by geomorphologists as either a castle koppie or kopje, is a large, free-standing rock outcrop that rises abruptly from the surrounding smooth and gentle slopes of a rounded hill summit or ridge crest. In the South West of England, the term is also used for the hills themselves – the high points of Dartmoor in Devon and Bodmin Moor in Cornwall; the word tor, meaning hill, is notable for being one of the few Celtic loanwords to be borrowed into vernacular English before the modern era – such borrowings are words of a geographic or topographical nature. Another such word is crag. Tors are landforms created by the weathering of rock. Tors are less than 5 meters high. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain their origin and this remains a topic of discussion among geologists and geomorphologists, physical geographers, it is considered that tors were created by geomorphic processes that differed in type and duration according to regional and local differences in climate and rock types.
For example, the Dartmoor granite was emplaced around 280 million years ago, with the cover rocks eroded away soon afterwards, exposing it to chemical and physical weathering processes. Where joints are spaced, the large crystals in the granite disintegrate to form a sandy regolith known locally as growan; this is stripped off by solifluction or surface wash when not protected by vegetation, notably during prolonged cold phases during the Quaternary ice ages - periglaciation. Where joints happen to be unusually spaced, core blocks can survive and escape above the weathering surface, developing into tors; these can be monolithic, as at Haytor and Blackingstone Rock, but are more subdivided into stacks arranged in avenues. Each stack can comprise several tiers or pillows, which may become separated: rocking pillows are called logan stones; these stacks are vulnerable to frost action and collapse leaving trails of blocks down the slopes called clitter or clatter. Weathering has given rise to circular "rock basins" formed by the accumulation of water and repeated freezing and thawing.
An example is found at Kes Tor on Dartmoor. Dating of 28 tors on Dartmoor showed that most are young, less than 100,000 years old, with none over 200,000 years old, they emerged at the start of the last major ice age. By contrast, in the Scottish Cairngorms, the other classic granite tor concentration in Britain, the oldest tors dated are between 200 and 675,000 years old, with glacially-modified ones having dates of 100-150,000 years; this may reflect more arctic climate. Bornhardt – A large dome-shaped, steep-sided, bald rock Etchplain – A plain where the bedrock has been subject to considerable subsurface weathering Inselberg – Isolated rock hill or small mountain that rises abruptly from a flat surrounding plain Nubbin – A small and gentle hill consisting of a bedrock core dotted with rounded residual blocks. List of geographical tors Ian. "The Physical Anatomy of Dartmoor". Dartmoor – A Statement of its Time. London: Collins. Pp. 30–78. ISBN 978-0-00-718499-6
Michael Charles Barber, SJ is an American prelate of the Catholic Church serving as the fifth and current bishop of Oakland. After attending Saint Pius X Preparatory School in Galt, Barber entered the Jesuit novitiate in 1973. After beginning his studies at Loyola Marymount University, he received his BA in Philosophy and History at Gonzaga University in Spokane, Washington in 1978. From 1982 to 1985 he studied sacred theology at Regis College at the University of Toronto. In 1989, he obtained a licentiate in systematic theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome. Barber was ordained a priest for the Society of Jesus on June 8, 1985, he made his final vows in 2005. After ordination he held the following positions: Missionary in Apia, Western Samoa, Assistant Professor at the Gregorianum. Since 1991 he is a chaplain in the U. S. Naval Reserve, achieving the rank of Captain. Bishop Barber had been awarded the Meritorious Service Medal and was invested as a Knight of the Holy Sepulchre and a Magistral Chaplain of the Order of Malta.
In 2010 he became the Director of Spiritual Formation at Saint John's Seminary in Brighton in the Archdiocese of Boston. On May 3, 2013, Pope Francis appointed Barber as bishop of the Diocese of Oakland, he was consecrated and installed on May 25, 2013. Barber, a Jesuit, was the first American bishop appointed by Pope Francis, the first Jesuit pope. Besides English, he speaks Italian, Samoan, liturgical Spanish and Latin. Parishioners were upset over his conservative leanings and that he ordered the replacement of two priests, one of whom publicly identifies as gay while remaining celibate. Pope Names Jesuit as Bishop of Oakland Pope names Jesuit to lead Oakland diocese "Space" Oddity – Cali Jesuit in Boston Launched to Oakland NOMINA DEL VESCOVO DI OAKLAND Roman Catholic Diocese of Oakland Official Site Bishop Barber, Diocese of Oakland
Year 462 was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Leo; the denomination 462 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. September 1 – Possible start of the first Byzantine indiction cycle. Emperor Leo I pays a large ransom for Licinia Placidia, they return after seven years of captivity in Carthage. The Statue of Zeus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, is destroyed by fire after being moved to Constantinople; the Monastery of Stoudios is founded in Constantinople. The Daming calendar is introduced in China by mathematician Zu Chongzhi. Anicia Juliana, daughter of Olybrius Muryeong, king of Baekje Licinia Eudoxia, Roman empress Lóegaire mac Néill, High King of Ireland