Strabo was a Greek geographer and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. Strabo was born to an affluent family from Amaseia in Pontus in around 64 BC, his family had been involved in politics since at least the reign of Mithridates V. Strabo was related to Dorylaeus on his mother's side. Several other family members, including his paternal grandfather had served Mithridates VI during the Mithridatic Wars; as the war drew to a close, Strabo's grandfather had turned several Pontic fortresses over to the Romans. Strabo wrote that "great promises were made in exchange for these services", as Persian culture endured in Amasia after Mithridates and Tigranes were defeated, scholars have speculated about how the family's support for Rome might have affected their position in the local community, whether they might have been granted Roman citizenship as a reward. Strabo's life was characterized by extensive travels, he journeyed to Egypt and Kush, as far west as coastal Tuscany and as far south as Ethiopia in addition to his travels in Asia Minor and the time he spent in Rome.
Travel throughout the Mediterranean and Near East for scholarly purposes, was popular during this era and was facilitated by the relative peace enjoyed throughout the reign of Augustus. He moved to Rome in 44 BC, stayed there and writing, until at least 31 BC. In 29 BC, on his way to Corinth, he visited the island of Gyaros in the Aegean Sea. Around 25 BC, he sailed up the Nile until reaching Philae, after which point there is little record of his proceedings until AD 17, it is not known when Strabo's Geography was written, though comments within the work itself place the finished version within the reign of Emperor Tiberius. Some place its first drafts around 7 BC, others around AD 17 or 18; the latest passage to which a date can be assigned is his reference to the death in AD 23 of Juba II, king of Maurousia, said to have died "just recently". He worked on the Geography for many years and revised it not always consistently, it is an encyclopaedical chronicle and consists of political, social, geographic description of whole Europe: British Isles, Iberian Peninsula, Germania, The Alps, Greece.
The Geography is the only extant work providing information about both Greek and Roman peoples and countries during the reign of Augustus. On the presumption that "recently" means within a year, Strabo stopped writing that year or the next, when he died, he was influenced by Homer and Aristotle. The first of Strabo's major works, Historical Sketches, written while he was in Rome, is nearly lost. Meant to cover the history of the known world from the conquest of Greece by the Romans, Strabo quotes it himself and other classical authors mention that it existed, although the only surviving document is a fragment of papyrus now in possession of the University of Milan. Strabo studied under several prominent teachers of various specialties throughout his early life at different stops along his Mediterranean travels, his first chapter of education took place in Nysa under the master of rhetoric Aristodemus, who had taught the sons of the same Roman general who had taken over Pontus. Aristodemus was the head of two schools of rhetoric and grammar, one in Nysa and one in Rhodes, the former of the two cities possessing a distinct intellectual curiosity of Homeric literature and the interpretation of epics.
Strabo was an admirer of Homer's poetry a consequence of his time spent in Nysa with Aristodemus. At around the age of 21, Strabo moved to Rome, where he studied philosophy with the Peripatetic Xenarchus, a respected tutor in Augustus's court. Despite Xenarchus's Aristotelian leanings, Strabo gives evidence to have formed his own Stoic inclinations. In Rome, he learned grammar under the rich and famous scholar Tyrannion of Amisus. Although Tyrannion was a Peripatetic, he was more relevantly a respected authority on geography, a fact significant, considering Strabo's future contributions to the field; the final noteworthy mentor to Strabo was Athenodorus Cananites, a philosopher who had spent his life since 44 BC in Rome forging relationships with the Roman elite. Athenodorus endowed to Strabo three important items: his philosophy, his knowledge, his contacts. Unlike the Aristotelian Xenarchus and Tyrannion who preceded him in teaching Strabo, Athenodorus was Stoic in mindset certainly the source of Strabo's diversion from the philosophy of his former mentors.
Moreover, from his own first-hand experience, Athenodorus provided Strabo with information about regions of the empire which he would not otherwise have known. Strabo is most notable for his work Geographica, which presented a descriptive history of people and places from different regions of the world known to his era. Although the Geographica was utilized in its contemporary antiquity, a multitude of copies survived throughout the Byzantine Empire, it first appeared in Western Europe in Rome as a Latin translation issued around 1469. The first Greek edition was published in 1516 in Venice. Isaac Casaubon, classical scholar and editor of Greek texts, provided the first critical edition in 1587. Although Strabo cited the antique Greek astronomers Eratosthenes and Hipparchus, acknowledging their astronomical and mathematical efforts towards geography, he claimed that
A mastaba or pr-djt is a type of ancient Egyptian tomb in the form of a flat-roofed, rectangular structure with inward sloping sides, constructed out of mud-bricks. These edifices marked the burial sites of many eminent Egyptians during Egypt's Early Dynastic Period and Old Kingdom. In the Old Kingdom epoch, local kings began to be buried in pyramids instead of in mastabas, although non-royal use of mastabas continued for over a thousand years. Egyptologists call these tombs mastaba, from the Arabic word مصطبة "stone bench"; the afterlife ruled every aspect of the society. This is reflected in Egyptian architecture and most prominently by the enormous amounts of time and labour involved in the building of tombs. Ancient Egyptians believed the soul could live only if the body was preserved from corruption and depredation as well as fed. Starting in the Predynastic era and continuing into the dynasties, the ancient Egyptians developed complex and effective methods for preserving and protecting the bodies of the dead.
The ancient Egyptians buried their dead in pit graves dug out from the sand. The body of the deceased was buried inside the pit on a mat along with some items believed to help them in the afterlife; the first tomb structure that the Egyptians built was the mastaba. Mastabas provided better protection from grave robbers. However, the human remains were not in contact with the dry desert sand, so natural mummification could not take place. Use of the more secure mastabas required Ancient Egyptians to devise a system of artificial mummification; until at least the Old Period or First Intermediate Period, only high officials and royalty would be buried in these mastabas. The word'mastaba' comes from the Arabic word for a bench of mud, when seen from a distance a mastaba does resemble a bench. Historians speculate that the Egyptians may have borrowed architectural ideas from Mesopotamia since at the time they were both building similar structures; the above-ground structure of a mastaba is rectangular in shape with inward-sloping sides and a flat roof.
The exterior building materials were bricks made of sun dried mud, available from the Nile River. After more durable materials like stone came into use, all but the most important monumental structures were built from the available mud bricks. Mastabas were about four times as long as they were wide, many rose to at least 30 feet in height; the mastaba was built with a north-south orientation, which the Ancient Egyptians believed was essential for access to the afterlife. This above-ground structure had space for a small offering chapel equipped with a false door. Priests and family members brought food and other offerings for the soul, or ba, of the deceased because Egyptians believed that the soul had to be maintained in order to continue to exist in the afterlife. Inside the mastaba, a deep chamber was lined with stone and bricks; the burial chambers were cut deep, until they passed the bedrock, were lined with wood. A second hidden chamber called a "serdab", from the Persian word for "cellar", was used to store anything that may have been considered essential for the comfort of the deceased in the afterlife, such as beer, grain and precious items.
The mastaba housed a statue of the deceased, hidden within the masonry for its protection. High up the walls of the serdab were small openings that would allow the ba to leave and return to the body; these openings "were not meant for viewing the statue but rather for allowing the fragrance of burning incense, the spells spoken in rituals, to reach the statue". The mastaba was the standard type of tomb in pre-dynastic and early dynastic Egypt for both the pharaoh and the social elite; the ancient city of Abydos was the location chosen for many of the cenotaphs. The royal cemetery was at Saqqara, overlooking the capital of Memphis. Mastabas evolved over the early dynastic period. During the 1st Dynasty, a mastaba was constructed simulating house plans of several rooms, a central one containing the sarcophagus and others surrounding it to receive the abundant funerary offerings; the whole was built in a shallow pit. The typical 2nd and 3rd Dynasty mastabas was the'stairway mastaba', the tomb chamber of which sank deeper than before and was connected to the top with an inclined shaft and stairs.
After pharaohs began to construct pyramids for their tombs in the 3rd Dynasty, members of the nobility continued to be buried in mastaba tombs. This is evident on the Giza Plateau, where at least 150 mastaba tombs have been constructed alongside the pyramids. In the 4th Dynasty, rock-cut tombs began to appear; these were tombs built into the rock cliffs in Upper Egypt in an attempt to further thwart grave robbers. Mastabas were developed with the addition of offering chapels and vertical shafts. 5th Dynasty mastabas had elaborate chapels consisting of several rooms, columned halls and'serdab'. The actual tomb chamber was built below the south-end of mastaba, connected by a slanting passage to a stairway emerging in the center of a columned hall or court. Mastabas are still well attested in the Middle Kingdom. Here they had a revival, they were solid structures with the decoration only on the outside. By the time of the New Kingdom, "the mastaba becomes rare, being supersede
Memphis was the ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, the first nome of Lower Egypt. Its ruins are located near the town of Mit Rahina, 20 km south of Giza. According to legend related by Manetho, the city was founded by the pharaoh Menes. Capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom, it remained an important city throughout ancient Egyptian history, it occupied a strategic position at the mouth of the Nile Delta, was home to feverish activity. Its principal port, Peru-nefer, harboured a high density of workshops and warehouses that distributed food and merchandise throughout the ancient kingdom. During its golden age, Memphis thrived as a regional centre for commerce and religion. Memphis was believed to be under the protection of the patron of craftsmen, its great temple, Hut-ka-Ptah, was one of the most prominent structures in the city. The name of this temple, rendered in Greek as Aἴγυπτoς by the historian Manetho, is believed to be the etymological origin of the modern English name Egypt; the history of Memphis is linked to that of the country itself.
Its eventual downfall is believed to be due to the loss of its economic significance in late antiquity, following the rise of coastal Alexandria. Its religious significance diminished after the abandonment of the ancient religion following the Edict of Thessalonica; the ruins of the former capital today offer fragmented evidence of its past. They have been preserved, along with the pyramid complex at Giza, as a World Heritage Site since 1979; the site is open to the public as an open-air museum. Memphis has had several names during its history of four millennia, its Ancient Egyptian name was Inbu-Hedj. Because of its size, the city came to be known by various other names that were the names of neighbourhoods or districts that enjoyed considerable prominence at one time or another. For example, according to a text of the First Intermediate Period, it was known as Djed-Sut, the name of the pyramid of Teti; the city was at one point referred to as Ankh-Tawy, stressing the strategic position of the city between Upper and Lower Egypt.
This name appears to date from the Middle Kingdom, is found in ancient Egyptian texts. Some scholars maintain that this name was that of the western district of the city that lay between the great Temple of Ptah and the necropolis at Saqqara, an area that contained a sacred tree. At the beginning of the New Kingdom, the city became known as Men-nefer, which became "Memfi" in Coptic; the name "Memphis" is the Greek adaptation of this name, the name of the pyramid of Pepi I, located west of the city. However, Greek poet Hesiod in his Theogony says that Memphis was a daughter of river god Nilus and the wife of Epaphus, who founded the city and named it after his wife. In the Bible, Memphis is called Noph; the city of Memphis is 20 km south of Cairo, on the west bank of the Nile. The modern cities and towns of Mit Rahina, Abusir, Abu Gorab, Zawyet el'Aryan, south of Cairo, all lie within the administrative borders of historical Memphis; the city was the place that marked the boundary between Upper and Lower Egypt..
The island of the city is today uninhabited. The closest settlement is the town of Mit Rahina. Estimates of historical population size differ between sources. According to Tertius Chandler, Memphis had some 30,000 inhabitants and was by far the largest settlement worldwide from the time of its foundation until around 2250 BCE and from 1557 to 1400 BCE. K. A. Bard is more cautious and estimates the city's population to have amounted to about 6,000 inhabitants during the Old Kingdom. Memphis became the capital of Ancient Egypt for over eight consecutive dynasties during the Old Kingdom; the city reached a peak of prestige under the 6th dynasty as a centre for the worship of Ptah, the god of creation and artworks. The alabaster sphinx that guards the Temple of Ptah serves as a memorial of the city's former power and prestige; the Memphis triad, consisting of the creator god Ptah, his consort Sekhmet, their son Nefertem, formed the main focus of worship in the city. Memphis declined after the 18th dynasty with the rise of Thebes and the New Kingdom, was revived under the Persians before falling into second place following the foundation of Alexandria.
Under the Roman Empire, Alexandria remained the most important Egyptian city. Memphis remained the second city of Egypt until the establishment of Fustat in 641 CE, it was largely abandoned and became a source of stone for the surrounding settlements. It was still an imposing set of ruins in the 12th century but soon became a little more than an expanse of low ruins and scattered stone; the legend recorded by Manetho was that Menes, the first pharaoh to unite the Two Lands, established his capital on the banks of the Nile by diverting the river with dikes. The Greek historian Herodotus, who tells a similar story, relates that during his visit to the city, the Persians, at that point the suzerains of the country, paid particular attention to the condition of these dams so that the city was saved from the annual flooding, it has been theorised that Menes was a mythical king, similar to Romulus of Rome. Some scholars suggest that Egypt most became unified through mutual need, developing cultural ties and trading partnerships, although it is u
J. R. M. Butler
Sir James Ramsay Montagu Butler, was a British politician and academic. He was a member of parliament for Cambridge University from 1922 to 1922, he was Regius Professor of Modern History at the University of Cambridge from 1947 to 1954, Vice-Master of Trinity College, Cambridge from 1954 to 1960. He saw military service during both the First and Second World Wars. Butler was born at Trinity College, Cambridge where his father, Henry Montagu Butler, Cambridge senior classic in 1855, was master of the college, his mother, Montagu Butler's second wife, Agnata Frances Ramsay, attained the highest marks in the Classical Tripos at Cambridge in 1887. With this impeccable classical background, Butler attended Harrow School and Trinity College; as an undergraduate he was a brilliant scholar, winning a number of prizes including the Chancellor's Medal in Classics and the Craven Scholarship, gaining a double first class in Classics and History. He was president of the Cambridge Union in 1910; when the First World War broke out in 1914, he joined the Scottish Horse.
This was a regiment in the Yeomanry, it saw service in the Middle East, first at Gallipoli and Egypt. Butler next gained a position in the Directorate of Military Operations in the War Office and ended the war serving in the general staff of the British forces in France, his service led to the award of an Officer of the Order of the British Empire and he was twice mentioned in despatches. At the end of the war Butler returned to Cambridge. In 1922 he stood as a member of parliament for Cambridge University, his greatest achievement during his short tenure in the House of Commons was the passage of the Oxford and Cambridge Universities Act 1922, which put into law the proposals of the Royal Commission established in 1919 to review the organisation and constitutions of the universities and the statutes of their colleges. He was defeated in the 1923 general election by his cousin Sir George Geoffrey Gilbert Butler. Promotion to tutor came in 1928, a lectureship in history in 1929 and as senior tutor in 1931.
However, another world war had intervened in his academic career. During the Second World War, Butler returned to military service in the Army Intelligence Corps, recruiting many former students including Bernard Willson to work on code breaking at Bletchley Park. From 1942 he worked in the field of civil affairs and military government, with particular focus on France. After the conclusion of hostilities, he was appointed editor United Kingdom Military Series of the History of the Second World War by the Prime Minister Clement Attlee, he was appointed Regius Professor of Modern History in 1947, holding the chair until 1954. He wrote two of the volumes concerning grand strategy published in that series. In 1958 he was given a knighthood for his work on the books. Butler resigned his chair in 1954 and was appointed emeritus professor; the following year he was elected vice-master of Trinity College, a post he held until 1960. The Passing of the Great Reform Bill Henry Montagu Butler: a memoir History of England, 1815–1918 Grand Strategy, vol II Lord Lothian Grand Strategy, vol III with J.
M. A. Gwyer Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Works by or about J. R. M. Butler in libraries
The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church were ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers. There is no definitive list; the era of these scholars who set the theological and scholarly foundations of Christianity ended by AD 700. In the past, the Church Fathers were regarded as authoritative and more restrictive definitions were used which sought to limit the list to authors treated as such. However, the definition has widened as scholars of patristics, the study of the Church Fathers, have expanded their scope. In both the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church traditions there are four Fathers who are called the "Great Church Fathers": In the Catholic Church, they are collectively called the "Eight Doctors of the Church", in the Eastern Orthodox Church, three of them are honored as the "Three Holy Hierarchs"; the Apostolic Fathers were Christian theologians who lived in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, who are believed to have known some of the Twelve Apostles, or to have been influenced by them.
Their writings, though popular in Early Christianity, were not included in the canon of the New Testament once it reached its final form. Many of the writings derive from the same time period and geographical location as other works of early Christian literature that did come to be part of the New Testament, some of the writings found among the Apostolic Fathers' seem to have been just as regarded as some of the writings that became the New Testament, his epistle, 1 Clement, was copied and read in the Early Church. Clement calls on the Christians of Corinth to maintain order, it is the earliest Christian epistle aside from the New Testament. Ignatius of Antioch was a student of the Apostle John. En route to his martyrdom in Rome, Ignatius wrote a series of letters. Important topics addressed in these letters include ecclesiology, the sacraments, the role of bishops, the Incarnation of Christ, he is the second after Clement to mention Paul's epistles. Polycarp of Smyrna was a Christian bishop of Smyrna.
It is recorded that he had been a disciple of "John." The options/possibilities for this John are John, the son of Zebedee, traditionally viewed as the author of the Gospel of John, or John the Presbyter. Traditional advocates follow Eusebius of Caesarea in insisting that the apostolic connection of Polycarp was with John the Evangelist, that he was the author of the Gospel of John, thus the Apostle John. Polycarp tried and failed to persuade Pope Anicetus to have the West celebrate Passover on the 14th of Nisan, as in the Eastern calendar. Around A. D. 155, the Smyrnans of his town demanded Polycarp's execution as a Christian, he died a martyr. The story of his martyrdom describes how the fire built around him would not burn him, that when he was stabbed to death, so much blood issued from his body that it quenched the flames around him. Polycarp is recognized as a saint in both the Roman Eastern Orthodox churches. Little is known of Papias apart from what can be inferred from his own writings.
He is described as "an ancient man, a hearer of John and a companion of Polycarp" by Polycarp's disciple Irenaeus. Eusebius adds. In this office Papias was succeeded by Abercius of Hierapolis; the name Papias was common in the region, suggesting that he was a native of the area. The work of Papias is dated by most modern scholars to about A. D. 95–120. Despite indications that the work of Papias was still extant in the Late Middle Ages, the full text is now lost. Extracts, appear in a number of other writings, some of which cite a book number; those who wrote in Greek are called the Greek Fathers. In addition to the Apostolic Fathers, famous Greek Fathers include: Justin Martyr, Irenaeus of Lyons, Clement of Alexandria, Athanasius of Alexandria, John Chrysostom, Cyril of Alexandria, the Cappadocian Fathers, Peter of Sebaste, Maximus the Confessor, John of Damascus. Justin Martyr was an early Christian apologist, is regarded as the foremost interpreter of the theory of the Logos in the 2nd century.
He was martyred, alongside some of his students, is considered a saint by the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches. Irenaeus was bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul, now Lyon, France, his writings were formative in the early development of Christian theology, he is recognized as a saint by both the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church. He was a notable early Christian apologist, he was a disciple of Polycarp. His best-known book, Against Heresies attacked them. Irenaeus wrote that the only way for Christians to retain unity was to humbly accept one doctrinal authority—episcopal councils. Irenaeus proposed that the Gospels of Matthew, Mark and John all be accepted as canonical. Clement of Alexandria was the first member of the church of Alexandria to be more than a name, one of its most distinguished teachers, he united Greek philosophical traditions with Christian doctrine and valued gnosis that with communion for all people could be held by common Christians.
He developed a Christian Platonism. Like Origen, he arose from Catechetical School of Alexandria and was well versed in pagan literature. Origen, or Origen Adamantius was a theologian. A
In Egyptian mythology, Ptah is the demiurge of Memphis, god of craftsmen and architects. In the triad of Memphis, he is the father of Nefertum, he was regarded as the father of the sage Imhotep. Ptah is an Egyptian deity and considered the demiurge who existed before all other things and, by his will, thought the world into existence, it was first conceived by Thought, realized by the Word: Ptah conceives the world by the thought of his heart and gives life through the magic of his Word. That which Ptah commanded was created, with which the constituents of nature and flora, are contained, he plays a role in the preservation of the world and the permanence of the royal function. In the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty, the Nubian pharaoh Shabaka would transcribe on a stela known as the Shabaka Stone, an old theological document found in the archives of the library of the temple of the god at Memphis; this document has been known as the Memphite Theology, shows the god Ptah, the deity responsible for the creation of the universe by thought and by the word.
Ptah is the patron of craftsmanship, carpenters and sculpture. He bears many epithets that describe his role in ancient Egyptian religion and its importance in society at the time: Ptah the beautiful face Ptah lord of truth Ptah master of justice Ptah who listens to prayers Ptah master of ceremonies Ptah lord of eternity Like many deities of ancient Egypt he takes many forms, through one of his particular aspects or through syncretism of ancient deities of the Memphite region. Sometimes represented as a dwarf and deformed, his popularity would continue to grow during the Late Period. Associated with the god Bes, his worship exceeded the borders of the country and was exported throughout the eastern Mediterranean. Through dissemination by the Phoenicians, we find figures of Ptah in Carthage. Ptah is represented in the guise of a man with green skin, contained in a shroud sticking to the skin, wearing the divine beard, holding a sceptre combining three powerful symbols of ancient Egyptian religion: The Was sceptre The sign of life, Ankh The Djed pillarThese three combined symbols indicate the three creative powers of the god: power and stability.
From the Old Kingdom, he absorbs the appearance of Sokar and Tatenen, ancient deities of the Memphite region. His form of Sokar is found contained in its white shroud wearing the Atef crown, an attribute of Osiris. In this capacity, he represents the patron deity of the necropolis of Saqqara and other famous sites where the royal pyramids were built, he formed with Osiris a new deity called Ptah-Sokar-Osiris. Systematically, statuettes representing the human form, half-human, half-hawk, or in its falcon form of the new deity, began to be placed in tombs to accompany and protect the dead on their journey to the West, his Tatenen form is represented by a young and vigorous man wearing a crown with two tall plumes that surround the solar disk. He thus embodies the underground fire that raises the earth; as such, he was revered by metalworkers and blacksmiths, but he was feared because it was he who caused earthquakes and tremors of the earth's crust. In this form Ptah is the master of ceremonies for Heb Sed, a ceremony traditionally attesting to the first thirty years of the pharaoh's reign.
The god Ptah could correspond with the sun deities Re or Aten during the Amarna period, where he embodied the divine essence with which the sun god was fed to come into existence, to say to be born, according to the Memphite mythological/theological texts. In the holy of holies of his temple in Memphis, as well as in his great sacred boat, he drove in procession to visit the region during major holidays. Ptah was symbolized by two birds with human heads adorned with solar disks, symbols of the souls of the god Re: the Ba; the two Ba are identified as the twin gods Shu and Tefnut and are associated with the djed pillar of Memphis. Ptah is embodied in the sacred bull, Apis. Referred to as a herald of Re, the sacred animal is the link with the god Re from the New Kingdom, he received worship in Memphis at the heart of the great temple of Ptah, upon the death of the animal, was buried with all the honours due to a living deity in the Serapeum of Saqqara. As god of craftsmen, the cult of the god Ptah spread throughout Egypt.
With the major royal projects of the Old Kingdom, the high priests of Ptah were sought after and worked in concert with the vizier, filling the role of chief architect and master craftsman, responsible for the decoration of the royal funerary complexes. In the New Kingdom, the cult of the god would develop in different ways in Memphis, his homeland, but in Thebes, where the workers of the royal tomb honoured him as patron of craftsmen. For this reason, the oratory of Ptah who listens to prayers was built near the site of Deir el-Medina, the village where the workers and craftsmen were housed. At Memphis, the role of intercessor with humans was visible in the appearance of the enclosure that protected the sanctuary of the god. Large ears were carved on the walls. With the Nineteenth Dynasty, his cult grew and he became one of the four great deities of the empire of Ramses, he was worshipped at Pi-Ramesses as master of coronations. With the Third Intermediate Period, Ptah returned to the centre of the monarchy where the coronation of the Pharaoh was held again in his temple.
The Ptolemies continued this tradition, the high priests of Ptah were incr