Île-de-France called the région parisienne, contains the city of Paris, is the most populous of the 18 regions of France. It covers 12,012 square kilometres, or two percent of the national territory, has official estimated population of 12,213,364 as of January 1, 2019, or 18.2% of the population of France. The region accounts for nearly 30 percent of the French Gross Domestic Product; the region is made up of eight administrative departments: Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne, Val-d'Oise and Yvelines. It was created as the "District of the Paris Region" in 1961 renamed in 1976 after the historic province of Île-de-France, when its status was aligned with the other French administrative regions created in 1972. Residents are sometimes referred to an administrative word created in the 1980s; the GDP of the region in 2016 was €681 billion. It has the highest per-capita GDP among regions in France and the third-highest of regions in the European Union. In 2018 all of the twenty-eight French companies listed in the Fortune Global 500 had their headquarters in the Paris region.
Besides the landmarks of Paris, the region has many important historic sites, including the Palace of Versailles and the Palace of Fontainebleau, as well as the most-visited tourist attraction in France, Disneyland Paris. Although the modern name Île-de-France means "Island of France", the etymology is in fact unclear; the "island" may refer to the land between the rivers Oise and Seine, or it may have been a reference to the Île de la Cité, where the French royal palace and cathedral were located. The Île-de-France was inhabited by the Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris's Left Bank, it became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris's strategic importance—with its bridges preventing ships from passing—was established by successful defence in the Siege of Paris. In 987, Hugh Capet, Count of Paris and Duke of the Franks, was elected King of the Franks. Under the rule of the Capetian kings, Paris became the largest and most prosperous city in France; the Kings of France enjoyed getting away from Paris and hunting in the game-filled forests of the region. They built palatial hunting lodges, most notably Palace of Fontainebleau and the Palace of Versailles. From the time of Louis XIV until the French Revolution, Versailles was the official residence of the Kings and the seat of the French government; the Ile-de-France became the term used for the territory of Paris and the surrounding province, administered directly by the King.
During the French Revolution, the royal provinces were abolished and divided into departments, the city and region were governed directly by the national government. In the period after World War II, as Paris faced a major housing shortage, hundreds of massive apartment blocks for low-income residents were built around the edges of Paris. In the 1950s and the 1960s, Many thousands of immigrants settled in the communes bordering the city. In 1959, under President Charles De Gaulle, a new region was created out of six departments, which corresponded with the historic region, with the name District de la région de Paris. On 6 May 1976, as part of the process of regionalisation, the district was reconstituted and increased administrative and political powers and renamed the Île-de-France region. Île-de-France has a land area of 12,011 km2. It is composed of eight départements centered on Paris. Around the département of Paris, urbanization fills a first concentric ring of three departments known as the petite couronne, extends into a second outer ring of four départements known as the grande couronne.
The former département of Seine, abolished in 1968, included the city proper and parts of the petite couronne. The petite couronne consists of the départements of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Val-de-Marne, the grande couronne of those of Seine-et-Marne, Yvelines and Val-d'Oise. Politically, the region is divided into 8 départements, 25 arrondissements, 155 cantons and 1 276 communes, out of the total of 35 416 in metropolitan France, The outer parts of the Ile-de-France remain rural. Agriculture land and natu
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
RER line A is one of the five lines in the RER system serving Paris, France. The line runs from the western termini of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Cergy Le Haut and Poissy to the eastern termini of Boissy-Saint-Léger and Marne-la-Vallée – Chessy. Inaugurated: 12 December 1969 Length: 108.5 km Number of stops: 46 Traffic: 300,000,000 journeys per annum Line A serves over 1,200,000 passengers per day. It is formed from the connection of the Saint-Germain-en-Laye-Nanterre line in the west to the Vincennes – Boissy-St-Léger line in the east. Two branches were added in the west, to Poissy and the new town of Cergy-Pontoise, in the east to the new town of Marne-la-Vallée; the two latest extensions were to Disneyland Paris. With more than one million passengers per workday, line A is the busiest Parisian urban rail line. Ever-increasing traffic volume and the need to ward off imminent saturation have been major factors in RATP and SNCF's planning since the inauguration of the line. At least five major capital investment decisions can be directly traced back to this issue: In the early 1980s RATP contracted German conglomerate Siemens to develop a dynamic traffic control system that would remove the capacity constraints caused by conventional block traffic management.
SACEM is still one of the most advanced traffic control systems and enables short spacing between trains during rush hour. Parisians have become used to the sight of a train pulling into a station as the one before it is just clearing the platform. Around the same time, RATP ordered a significant number of MI79/MI84 trains to remedy premature wear and tear on MS61 stock caused by over-utilization on Line A. In the 1980s, the need to relieve congestion on the central segment of Line A was a key factor in selecting the route of the new automated Paris Métro Line 14; the same need governed the choice of the route of RER Line E in the early 1990s and is a factor in plans for that line's westward or south-westward extension. A new class of double-deck trains entered service in 1998, in part a product of RATP's belief that no further infrastructure improvement would relieve congestion on Line A; this was followed in 2011 by the MI 09 double-decker stock, aimed at replacing the aging MI 84 and MS 61 stocks.
14 December 1969: RATP buys the "ligne de Vincennes" from SNCF, connecting Bastille with Boissy-Saint-Léger in the east. A new 2.5-km tunnel between Vincennes and Nation, which replaces Bastille as the terminus. Length: 17.5 km. 21 February 1970: RATP buys the "ligne de St-Germain" from SNCF, connecting the Gare Saint-Lazare with Saint-Germain-en-Laye in the west. A new tunnel between La Défense and the Place de l'Étoile, which replaces St-Lazare as the terminus. Shuttle service is operated La Défense – Étoile, 4 km. 23 November 1971: Tunnel opened Étoile – Auber, 2 km. Shuttle service extended to operate La Défense – Auber. 1 October 1972: Tunnel opened La Défense – Nanterre-Université, 2 km. Shuttle service extended on the "ligne de St-Germain" to operate Saint-Germain – Auber. October 1973: New underground station, Nanterre-Préfecture, between La Défense and Nanterre-Université. 9 December 1977: The lines are connected by a 6-km tunnel, giving birth to the RER A line, Saint-Germain – Boissy-Saint-Léger, 42.5 km.
Two new stations: Châtelet-les Halles and Gare de Lyon. A new branch, "ligne nouvelle de Marne-la-Vallée", 8.5 km, in the east from Vincennes to Noisy-le-Grand. 19 December 1980: The "ligne nouvelle de Marne-la-Vallée" extended from Noisy-le-Grand to Torcy, 9 km. 29 May 1988: New service, "Interconnexion Ouest", Cergy-St-Christophe – Marne-la-Vallée, 47 km. New branch in the west from Nanterre-Préfecture to 15.5 km. May 1990: A branch in the west from Maisons-Laffitte to Poissy, 8.5 km. 1 April 1992: The Marne-la-Vallée line extended from Torcy to Marne-la-Vallée-Chessy, 11 km, to create a link from the centre of Paris to Disneyland Paris. 29 August 1994: Extension opened Cergy-St-Christophe – Cergy-Le Haut, 2.5 km. New station, Neuville-Université, between Conflans-Fin-d'Oise and Cergy-Préfecture. 10 June 2001: New station, Val-d'Europe, between Bussy-St-Georges and Marne-la-Vallée-Chessy. A1 Saint-Germain-en-Laye Le Vésinet – Le Pecq Le Vésinet – Centre Chatou – Croissy Rueil-Malmaison Nanterre – Ville Nanterre – Université A3, A5 A3 Cergy – Le Haut Cergy – Saint-Christophe Cergy – Préfecture Neuville – Université Conflans – Fin d'Oise Achères – Ville A5 Poissy Achères – Grand Cormier Maisons-Laffitte Sartrouville Houilles – Carrières-sur-Seine Nanterre – Préfecture La Défense Charles de Gaulle – Étoile Auber Châtelet – Les Halles Gare de Lyon Nation Vincennes A2 Fontenay-sous-Bois Nogent-sur-Marne Joinville-le-Pont Saint-Maur – Créteil Le Parc de Saint-Maur Champigny La Varenne – Chennevières Sucy – Bonneuil Boissy-Saint-Léger A4 Val de Fontenay Neuilly-Plaisance Bry-sur-Marne Noisy-le-Grand – Mont d'Est Noisy – Champs Noisiel Lognes Torcy Bussy-Saint-Georges Val d'Europe Marne-la-Vallée – Chessy Line A provides two groups of services: St Germain branch – common trunk line – Boissy branch Cergy or Poissy branches – common trunk line – Marne la Vallée branch.
During off-peak hours, the Poissy – Noisy services operate every 20 minutes plus a La Défense – Noisy service every 20 minutes, the St-Germain – Boissy and Cergy – Chessy services operate every
In many countries, Kilometre Zero or similar terms in other languages is a particular location from which distances are traditionally measured. They were markers where drivers could set their odometers to follow the directions in early guide books. One such marker is the Milliarium Aureum of the Roman Empire, believed to be the literal origin for the maxim that "all roads lead to Rome". Argentina marks Kilometre Zero with a monolith in Plaza Congreso in Buenos Aires; the work of the brothers Máximo and José Fioravanti, the structure was placed on the north side of Plaza Lorea on October 2, 1935. An image of Our Lady of Luján appears on the monolith's north face, a relief map of Argentina is on the south face, plaques in honor of José de San Martín are west, on its eastern side, the date of the decree and the name of the relevant authorities. Highways in Australia are built and maintained by the states and territories. In the state of New South Wales, highway distances were traditionally measured from a sandstone obelisk in Macquarie Place in Sydney, designed by Francis Greenway in 1818.
The obelisk lists the distances to various locations in New South Wales at the time. For the railway, it is located at platform 1 of Sydney Central Station; the General Post Office building in Melbourne traditionally serves this purpose in Victoria. In Western Australia, road distances are measured from Point Zero, by the old Treasury Building on the corner of Cathedral Avenue and St George's Terrace in Perth; the Byzantine Empire had an arched building, the Milion of Constantinople, as the starting-place for the measurement of distances for all the roads leading to the other cities. In the 1960s, some fragments were discovered and erected in its original location, now in the district of Eminönü, Turkey; the kilometre zero marker of the eastern origin of the Trans-Canada Highway is located in St. John's, Newfoundland. Coordinates: 47°33′39.78″N 52°42′44.33″W Altitude: 14.02 m The western origin of the Trans-Canada Highway in Victoria, British Columbia, is located on the southern end of Vancouver Island.
Mile zero of the Trans Canada Trail is located adjacent to the Railway Coastal Museum in St. John's, Newfoundland. Coordinates: 47°33′14.0″N 52°42′50.5″W Altitude: 4.5 m Mile zero for the Alaska Highway is located in Dawson Creek, British Columbia. All national distances from Santiago originate at the Km. 0 plaque, located at the Plaza de Armas main square in downtown Santiago. Chile's Autopista Central – Eje Norte-Sur has its Kilometre Zero at the intersection with the Alameda del Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins, the capital's main avenue. China Railway's 0 km is located at the entrance to the Fengtai Yard on the Jingguang Line just outside Beijing; this point was the start of the line. There is no ceremonial plaque; the kilometre zero point for highways is located at Tiananmen Square, just outside the Zhengyangmen Gate. It is marked with a plaque in the ground, with the four cardinal points, four animals, "Zero Point of Highways, China" in English and Chinese. Cuba's Kilometre Zero is located in its capital Havana in El Capitolio.
Embedded in the floor in the centre of the main hall is a replica 25 carat diamond, which marks Kilometre Zero for Cuba. The original diamond, said to have belonged to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and have been sold to the Cuban state by a Turkish merchant, was stolen on 25 March 1946 and mysteriously returned to the President, Ramón Grau San Martín, on 2 June 1946, it was replaced in El Capitolio by a replica in 1973. Copenhagen Town hall square is the zero point. DR-1, DR-2, DR-3 all depart from Kilometre Zero from Santo Domingo's Parque de Independencia. Kilometre Zero in Egypt is located at the Attaba Square Post Office in 1st of Abdel Khaliq Sarwat Pasha Street, Cairo. Kilometre Zero in Ethiopia is in Addis Ababa, in front of St. George's Cathedral; the point was designated by Emperor Haile Selassie in 1930. Kilometre Zero of Finland is located at the Erottaja square in central Helsinki. Kilometre Zero of French national highways located in Paris on the square facing the main entrance of Notre-Dame is considered the official centre of Paris.
48.8534°N 2.3488°E / 48.8534. 52.510788°N 13.398964°E / 52.510788. Distances from London to most parts of the country are measured in miles from the original site of Charing Cross, on the southern side of Trafalgar Square. In Scotland, distances from Edinburgh are measured from the GPO building in Princes Street. See also: London Stone, Hicks Hall, St Mary-le-Bow, a church from which the distance of the original London to Lewes road is measured. In ancient Greece, distances were measured from the altar of twelve gods, located in the ancient agora of Athens. So, that altar can be considered the first kilometre zero in human history. Nowadays, the kilometre zero for Greek high
Vietnamese people in France
The Vietnamese people in France consists of people of Vietnamese ancestry who were born in or immigrated to France. Their population was over 300,000 as of 2014. Unlike other overseas Vietnamese communities in the West, the Vietnamese population in France had been well-established before the Fall of Saigon and the diaspora that resulted from it, they make up over half of the Vietnamese population in Europe. France was the first Western country to where Vietnamese migrants settled due to the colonization of Vietnam by France; the French assistance to Nguyễn Ánh in 1777 was one of earliest formal political relations between the two nations. Despite continued French Catholic missions and military assistance to Vietnam throughout the rest of the 18th century and 19th century, Vietnam did not become a colony of France until the Cochinchina Campaign in the late 1850s and Vietnamese immigration consisted of a mere trickle of diplomats. During the colonial period, there was a significant representation of Vietnamese students in France, which consisted of members from the elite class and royal household.
Professional and blue-collar workers migrated from Vietnam during this period, with some settling permanently. One of the few monuments dating back to these earliest waves of Vietnamese arriving in France is the Temple du Souvenir Indochinois erected in 1907 and subsequently relocated to the Jardin tropical de Paris in the Bois de Vincennes; the onset of World War I and World War II saw the French Empire recruit soldiers and locals of its colonies to volunteer with the war effort in Metropolitan France. 50,000 and 20,000 Vietnamese migrated to France during these periods respectively. The wave of migrants who came during World War I was the first major presence of Vietnamese people in France. While many migrants returned to Vietnam following the war, a significant number resettled in France to work as factory workers, railroad builders and service workers in Paris and the surrounding Île-de-France region, as well as in Lille. By 1939, there were an estimated 93,000 French residents of Vietnamese descent consisting of workers and soldiers, as well as students.
During the interwar period, a Vietnamese community began to be concentrated in Marseilles in southern France. Vietnamese-owned rice farms were established in southeastern France, second and third-generation French Vietnamese started to run their own commercial firms or work in professional sectors. Following the Geneva Accords, which granted Vietnam its independence from France, a number of Vietnamese loyal to the colonial government and Vietnamese married to French colonists emigrated to France. Hundreds of families who were evacuated out of Vietnam by the French government were settled in makeshift camps in the southwest of France; the most notable was in Sainte-Livrade-sur-Lot near Bordeaux, which hosted the Centre d'Accueil des Français d'Indochine. Most of these camps were structured in a similar layout as a traditional town in Vietnam, with a Buddhist temple, markets and medical facilities. During the 1950s to the 1970s, including the Vietnam War, a number of students from South Vietnam continued to arrive in France, as well as members of the middle class involved in commerce.
Although many returned home, as the war situation worsened, a majority decided to resettle permanently in France and brought their families along. It was during this period that Vietnamese community institutions were established to better serve both new immigrants and expatriates, as well as established generations of Vietnamese in France; the largest influx of Vietnamese people arrived in France as refugees after the Fall of Saigon and end of the Vietnam War in 1975. Early Vietnamese refugees who settled in France consisted of professionals who made up the middle class and elite in South Vietnam, along with those with high levels of education and those with family present in the country. Larger waves of refugees included South Vietnamese from different social standings, although their average level of education and affluence was still higher than their peers who settled in North America and the rest of Europe. France received the third highest number of refugees from Vietnam after the United States and Australia, numbering over 100,000 between 1975 and 1990.
By the beginning of the 1990s, refugees had accounted for over three-quarters of the Vietnamese population in France. Despite the community being numerous before the refugee arrival, the Vietnamese American community soon surpassed its counterpart in France as the largest overseas Vietnamese population due to the much higher number of refugees resettling there. Furthermore, Vietnamese refugees who arrived in France had the intent to request asylum in the country, unlike their counterparts who migrated to other Western countries, who made desperate attempts to be permitted resettlement anywhere possible in the United States; the last of Vietnamese refugees arrived in the mid-1990s. Most Vietnamese in France live in Paris and the surrounding Île-de-France area, but a sizeable number reside in the major urban centers in the south-east of the country Marseille and Lyon, as well as in Toulouse. Earlier Vietnamese migrants settled in the cities of Lille and Bordeaux. Unlike their counterparts in North America or Australia, the Vietnamese have not formed distinct enclaves within the major cities of France (although many Vietnamese-based shops and cultural institutions can be found in the Quartier
Ivry-sur-Seine is a commune in the Val-de-Marne department in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 5.3 km from the center of Paris. Paris's main Asian district, the Quartier Asiatique in the 13th arrondissement, borders the commune and now extends into the northern parts of Ivry. Asian commercial activity Chinese and Vietnamese, has increased in Ivry-sur-Seine during the past two decades; the commune contains one of the highest concentrations of Vietnamese in France, who began settling in the city in the late 1970s after the Vietnam War. Politically, Ivry-sur-Seine has demonstrated strong electoral support for the French Communist Party. Between 1925 and 2015 the office of mayor was held by just three individuals: Georges Marrane, Jacques Laloë, Pierre Gosnat, all members of the Communist Party. Ivry-sur-Seine is twinned with Bishop Auckland in England. Ivry-sur-Seine was called Ivry; the name Ivry comes from Medieval Latin Ivriacum or Ibriacum meaning "estate of Eburius", a Gallo-Roman landowner.
In 1897, the name of the commune became Ivry-sur-Seine, in order to distinguish it from other communes of France called Ivry. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighbouring communes. On that occasion, about a third of the commune of Ivry-sur-Seine was annexed to Paris, now forms the Chinatown area of the 13th arrondissement of Paris. Ivry-sur-Seine is most famous as the place of execution of Jean-Marie Bastien-Thiry in March 1963. Richard Ellman notes that James Joyce's daughter, received psychiatric treatment in the commune's hospital in 1936 and was visited by both Joyce and Samuel Beckett. Fnac has its head office in the commune; the head office moved there in 2008. E. Leclerc's head office is in the commune. Ivry-sur-Seine is served by two railway stations on the Paris Métro Line 7: Pierre et Marie Curie and Mairie d'Ivry; the east of the commune is served by Ivry-sur-Seine station on Paris RER line C with stops at the Bibliothèque Nationale de France and the city centre.
Orly Airport is located to the south of Ivry-sur-Seine. Senior high schools: Collège et lycée Romain Rolland Lycée technique Fernand LégerColleges and universities: ESIEA ESME Sudria École des technologies numériques appliquées Institut polytechnique des sciences avancées IONIS School of Technology and Management As of circa 1998 Ivry and Vitry-sur-Seine had a combined Asian population of 3,600; that year about 250 Asians from those communes worked in the 13th arrondissement of Paris, the overall demographics of Ivry and Vitry Asians were similar to those in the 13th arrondissement. Luc Abalo, handball player Nicolas Appert, spent a number of years in Ivry-sur-Seine Antonin Artaud, died in Ivry-sur-Seine on 4 March 1948. Yohann Auvitu, ice hockey player Souleymane Bamba, footballer Paul Boccara and historian. Pierre-Claude-Victor Boiste and editor of the Dictionnaire universel de la langue française Yannick Bonheur, figure skater Pierre Contant d'Ivry, architect born in Ivry-sur-Seine. Mana Dembele, footballer Jean Ferrat, spent a number of years in Ivry-sur-Seine before settling in Ardèche.
Catherine Ferry, singer Reda Kateb, actor Tripy Makonda, footballer Dany N'Guessan, footballer Jean Renaudie and founder of the Atelier de Montrouge, responsible for the complete renovation of Ivry town centre. Bakary Sako, footballer Antoine Spire and writer. Maurice Thorez, former leader of the French Communist Party, elected deputy for d'Ivry-sur-Seine in 1932 until his death in 1964. Mickael Toti, basketball player Makan Traore, footballer Bano Traore, athlete Communes of the Val-de-Marne department INSEE Mayors of Essonne Association Ivry-sur-Seine city council website
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent