Tories (British political party)

The Tories were members of two political parties which existed sequentially in the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from the 17th to the early 19th centuries. The first Tories emerged in 1678 in England, when they opposed the Whig-supported Exclusion Bill which set out to disinherit the heir presumptive James, Duke of York, who became James II of England and VII of Scotland; this party ceased to exist as an organised political entity in the early 1760s, although it was used as a term of self-description by some political writers. A few decades a new Tory party would rise to establish a hold on government between 1783 and 1830, with William Pitt the Younger followed by Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool; the Earl of Liverpool was succeeded by fellow Tory Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, whose term included the Catholic Emancipation, which occurred due to the election of Daniel O'Connell as a Catholic MP from Ireland.

When the Whigs subsequently regained control, the Representation of the People Act 1832 removed the rotten boroughs, many of which were controlled by Tories. In the following general election, the Tory ranks were reduced to 180 MPs. Under the leadership of Robert Peel, the Tamworth Manifesto was issued, which began to transform the Tories into the Conservative Party. However, Peel lost many of his supporters by repealing the Corn Laws, causing the party to break apart. One faction, led by Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli, survived to become the modern Conservative Party, whose members are still referred to as Tories as they still follow and promote the ideology of Toryism; the first Tory party could trace its principles and politics, though not its organization, to the English Civil War which divided England between the Royalist supporters of King Charles I and the supporters of the Long Parliament upon which the King had declared war. This action resulted from this parliament not allowing him to levy taxes without yielding to its terms.

In the beginning of the Long Parliament, the King's supporters were few, the Parliament pursued a course of reform of previous abuses. The increasing radicalism of the Parliamentary majority, estranged many reformers in the Parliament itself and drove them to make common cause with the King; the King's party thus comprised a mixture of supporters of royal autocracy and of those Parliamentarians who felt that the Long Parliament had gone too far in attempting to gain executive power for itself and, more in undermining the episcopalian government of the Church of England, felt to be a primary support of royal government. By the end of the 1640s, the radical Parliamentary programme had become clear: reduction of the King to a powerless figurehead and replacement of Anglican episcopacy with a form of Presbyterianism; this prospective form of settlement was prevented by a coup d'état which shifted power from Parliament itself to the Parliamentary New Model Army, controlled by Oliver Cromwell. The Army had King Charles I executed and for the next eleven years the British kingdoms operated under military dictatorship.

The Restoration of King Charles II produced a reaction in which the King regained a large part of the power held by his father. No subsequent British monarch would attempt to rule without Parliament, after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, political disputes would be resolved through elections and parliamentary manoeuvring, rather than by an appeal to force. Charles II restored episcopacy in the Church of England, his first "Cavalier Parliament" began as a royalist body, passed a series of acts re-establishing the Church by law and punishing dissent by both Roman Catholics and non-Anglican Protestants. These acts did not reflect the King's personal views and demonstrated the existence of a Royalist ideology beyond mere subservience to the Court. A series of disasters in the late 1660s and 1670s discredited Charles II's governments, powerful political interests began to agitate for a greater role of Parliament in government, coupled with more tolerance for Protestant dissenters; these interests would soon coalesce as the Whigs.

As direct attacks on the King were politically impossible and could lead to execution for treason, opponents of the power of the Court framed their challenges as exposés of subversive and sinister Catholic plots. Although the matter of these plots was fictitious, they reflected two uncomfortable political realities: first, that Charles II had undertaken measures to convert the kingdom to Catholicism; as a political term, "Tory" entered English politics during the Exclusion Bill crisis of 1678–1681. The Whigs, were those who supported the exclusion of James, the Duke of York from the succession to thrones of Scotland and England and Ireland and the Tories were those who opposed the Exclusion Bill. "The court party reproached their antagonists with their affinity to the fanatical conventiclers in Scotland, who were known

Ekman velocity

In oceanography, Ekman velocity – referred as a kind of the residual ageostropic velocity as it derivates from geostrophy – is part of the total horizontal velocity in the upper layer of water of the open ocean. This velocity, caused by winds blowing over the surface of the ocean, is such that the Coriolis force on this layer is balanced by the force of the wind, it takes about two days for the Ekman velocity to develop before it is directed at right angles to the wind. The Ekman velocity is named after the Swedish oceanographer Vagn Walfrid Ekman. Through vertical eddy viscosity, winds act directly and frictionally on the Ekman layer, the upper 50–100m in the ocean; the frictional surface flow is at an angle to the right of the wind. This surface flow modifies the flow beneath it, more to the right, the exponentially-weaker-with-depth flow vectors die down at around 50–100 meters, form a spiral, called the Ekman spiral; the angle of each successive layer as we move downward through the spiral depends on the strength and vertical distribution of the vertical eddy viscosity.

When the contributions from all the vertical layers are added up – the integration of the velocity over depth, from the bottom to the top of the Ekman layer – the total "Ekman transport" is 90 degrees to the right of the wind direction in the Northern Hemisphere and left in the Southern Hemisphere. Suppose geostrophic balance is achieved in the Ekman layer, wind stress is applied at the water surface: f z ^ × u = − ∇ ϕ + ∂ τ ∂ z, where ϕ = p / ρ 0, τ is the applied stress divided by ρ 0 ; z ^ is the unit vector in the vertical direction; the definition of Ekman velocity is the difference between the total horizontal velocity and the geostrophic velocity: u e = u − u g. As the geostropic velocity is defined as u g = 1 f z ^ × ∇ ϕ, therefore f z ^ × u e = ∂ τ ∂ z or u e = − z ^ ×. Next, the Ekman transport is obtained by integrating the Ekman velocity from the bottom level – at which the Ekman velocity vanishes – to the surface. U e = ∫ z b z t u e d z = − z ^ ×; the SI unit of Ekman transport is: m2·s−1, the horizontal velocity integrated in the vertical direction.

Based on Ekman theory and geostrophic dynamics, the analysis of near-surface currents, i.e. tropical Pacific near-surface currents, can be generated by using high resolution data of wind and altimeter sea level. The surface velocity is defined as the motion of a standard World Ocean Circulation Experiment/Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere 15m drogue drifter. Near-surface Ekman velocity can be estimated with variables which best represent the ageostrophic motion of the WOCE/TOGA 15m drogue drifters relative to the surface wind stress. Geostrophic velocities are calculated with sea level gradients which are derived from TOPEX/Poseidon sea surface height analyses. Geostrophic and Ekman velocity are assumed to satisfy the


Tetzaveh, Tetsaveh, T'tzaveh, or T'tzavveh is the 20th weekly Torah portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the eighth in the Book of Exodus. The parashah reports God's commands to bring olive oil for the lamp, make sacred garments for the priests, conduct an ordination ceremony, make an incense altar, it constitutes Exodus 27:20–30:10. The parashah is made up of 5,430 Hebrew letters, 1,412 Hebrew words, 101 verses, 179 lines in a Torah Scroll. Jews read it the 20th Sabbath after Simchat Torah, in March. In traditional Sabbath Torah reading, the parashah is divided into עליות, aliyot. In the first reading, God instructed the Israelites to bring Moses clear olive oil, so that Aaron and his descendants as High Priest could kindle lamps in the Tabernacle. God instructed Moses to make sacral vestments for Aaron: a breastpiece, the Ephod, a robe, a gold frontlet inscribed "holy to the Lord," a fringed tunic, a headdress, a sash, linen breeches. In the second reading, God detailed the instructions for the breastpiece.

God instructed Moses to place Thummim inside the breastpiece of decision. In the third reading, God detailed the instructions for the robe, fringed tunic, headdress and breeches. God instructed Moses to place pomegranates and gold bells around the robe's hem, to make a sound when the High Priest entered and exited the sanctuary, so that he would not die. In the fourth reading, God laid out an ordination ceremony for priests involving the sacrifice of a young bull, two rams, unleavened bread, unleavened cakes with oil mixed in, unleavened wafers spread with oil. God instructed Moses to lead the bull to the front of the Tabernacle, let Aaron and his sons lay their hands upon the bull's head, slaughter the bull at the entrance of the Tent, put some of the bull's blood on the horns of the altar. God instructed Moses to let Aaron and his sons lay their hands upon the first ram and slaughter it, sprinkle its blood, dissect it. In the fifth reading, God instructed Moses to take one of the rams, let Aaron and his sons lay their hands upon the ram's head, slaughter the ram, put some of its blood and on the ridge of Aaron's right ear and on the ridges of his sons' right ears, on the thumbs of their right hands, on the big toes of their right feet.

In the sixth reading, God promised to meet and speak with Moses and the Israelites there, to abide among the Israelites, be their God. In the seventh reading, God instructed Moses to make an incense altar of acacia wood overlaid with gold—sometimes called the Golden Altar. Jews who read the Torah according to the triennial cycle of Torah reading read the parashah according to the following schedule: The parashah has parallels or is discussed in these Biblical sources: This is the pattern of instruction and construction of the Tabernacle and its furnishings: The Priestly story of the Tabernacle in Exodus 25–27 echoes the Priestly story of creation in Genesis 1:1–2:3; as the creation story unfolds in seven days, the instructions about the Tabernacle unfold in seven speeches. In both creation and Tabernacle accounts, the text notes the completion of the task. In both creation and Tabernacle, the work done is seen to be good. In both creation and Tabernacle, when the work is finished, God takes an action in acknowledgement.

In both creation and Tabernacle, when the work is finished, a blessing is invoked. And in both creation and Tabernacle, God declares something "holy."Martin Buber and others noted that the language used to describe the building of the Tabernacle parallels that used in the story of creation. Jeffrey Tigay noted that the lampstand held seven candles, Aaron wore seven sacral vestments, the account of the building of the Tabernacle alludes to the creation account, the Tabernacle was completed on New Year's Day, and Carol Meyers noted that Exodus 25:1–9 and 35:4–29 list seven kinds of substances — metals, skins, oil and gemstones — signifying the totality of supplies. The priestly garments of Exodus 28:2–43 are echoed in Psalm 132:9, where the Psalmist exhorts, “Let Your priests be clothed with righteousness,” and in Psalm 132:16, where God promises, “Her priests will I clothe with salvation.” The 19th century German commentator Franz Delitzsch interpreted this to mean that the priests would be characterized by conduct that accorded with God's will, that the priests would not bring about salvation instrumentally, but possess it and proclaim it in their whole outward appearance.

The Hebrew Bible refers to the Urim and Thummim in Exodus 28:30. The Torah mentions the combination of ear and toe in three places. In Exodus 29:20, God instructed Moses how to initiate the priests, telling him to kill a ram, take some of its blood, put it on the tip of the right ear of Aaron and his sons, on the thumb of their right hand, on the great toe of their right foot, dash the remaining blood against the altar round about, and Leviticus 8:23–24 reports that Moses followed God's instructions to initiate Aaron and his sons. Leviticus 14:14, 17, 25, 28 set forth a similar procedure for the cleansing of a person with skin disease. In Leviticus 14:14, God instructed the priest on the day of the person's clea