Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for various purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details used classification schemes in use worldwide; this following table summarises common classifications for cars. Microcars and their Japanese equivalent— kei cars— are the smallest category of automobile. Microcars straddle the boundary between car and motorbike, are covered by separate regulations to normal cars, resulting in relaxed requirements for registration and licensing. Engine size is 700 cc or less, microcars have three or four wheels. Microcars are most popular in Europe, where they originated following World War II; the predecessors to micro cars are Cycle cars. Kei cars have been used in Japan since 1949. Examples of microcars and kei cars: Honda Life Isetta Tata Nano The smallest category of vehicles that are registered as normal cars is called A-segment in Europe, or "city car" in Europe and the United States.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines this category as "minicompact", however this term is not used. The equivalents of A-segment cars have been produced since the early 1920s, however the category increased in popularity in the late 1950s when the original Fiat 500 and BMC Mini were released. Examples of A-segment / city cars / minicompact cars: Fiat 500 Hyundai i10 Toyota Aygo The next larger category small cars is called B-segment Europe, supermini in the United Kingdom and subcompact in the United States; the size of a subcompact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of between 85–99 cubic feet. Since the EPA's smaller minicompact category is not as used by the general public, A-segment cars are sometimes called subcompacts in the United States. In Europe and Great Britain, the B-segment and supermini categories do not any formal definitions based on size. Early supermini cars in Great Britain include Vauxhall Chevette.
In the United States, the first locally-built subcompact cars were the 1970 AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, Ford Pinto. Examples of B-segment / supermini / subcompact cars: Chevrolet Sonic Hyundai Accent Volkswagen Polo The largest category of small cars is called C-segment or small family car in Europe, compact car in the United States; the size of a compact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of 100–109 cu ft. Examples of C-segment / compact / small family cars: Peugeot 308 Toyota Auris Renault Megane In Europe, the third largest category for passenger cars is called D-segment or large family car. In the United States, the equivalent term is intermediate cars; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency defines a mid-size car as having a combined passenger and cargo volume of 110–119 cu ft. Examples of D-segment / large family / mid-size cars: Chevrolet Malibu Ford Mondeo Kia Optima In Europe, the second largest category for passenger cars is E-segment / executive car, which are luxury cars.
In other countries, the equivalent terms are full-size car or large car, which are used for affordable large cars that aren't considered luxury cars. Examples of non-luxury full-size cars: Chevrolet Impala Ford Falcon Toyota Avalon Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row, have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows; the equivalent terms in British English are people carrier and people mover. Minivans have a'one-box' or'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating. Mini MPV is the smallest size of MPVs and the vehicles are built on the platforms of B-segment hatchback models. Examples of Mini MPVs: Fiat 500L Honda Fit Ford B-Max Compact MPV is the middle size of MPVs; the Compact MPV size class sits between large MPV size classes. Compact MPVs remain predominantly a European phenomenon, although they are built and sold in many Latin American and Asian markets.
Examples of Compact MPVs: Renault Scenic Volkswagen Touran Ford C-Max The largest size of minivans is referred to as'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have become popular. If the term'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it refers to a Large MPV. Examples of Large MPVs: Dodge Grand Caravan Ford S-Max Toyota Sienna The premium compact class is the smallest category of luxury cars, it became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models. Examples of premium compact cars: Audi A3 Buick Verano Lexus CT200h A compact executive car is a premium car larger than a premium compact and smaller than an executive car. Compact executive cars are equivalent size to mid-size cars and are part of the D-segment in the European car classification.
In North American terms, close equivalents are "luxury compact" and "entry-level luxury car", although the latter is used for the smaller premium compact cars. Examples of compact executive cars: Audi A4 BMW 3 Series Buick Regal An executive car is a premium car larger than a compact executive and smaller than an full-size luxury car. Executive cars are classified as E-segment cars in the European car classification. In the United States and several other coun
Front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an FR, or front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear. This was the traditional automobile layout for most of the 20th century. Modern designs use the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout. In automotive design, a front mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one that places the engine in the front, with the rear wheels of vehicle being driven. In contrast to the front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, the engine is pushed back far enough that its center of mass is to the rear of the front axle; this aids in weight distribution and reduces the moment of inertia, improving the vehicle's handling. The mechanical layout of an FMR is the same as an FR car; some models of the same vehicle can be classified as either FR or FMR depending on the length of the installed engine and its centre of mass in relation to the front axle. FMR cars are characterized by a long hood and front wheels that are pushed forward to the corners of the vehicle, close to the front bumper.
Grand tourers have FMR layouts, as a rear engine would not leave much space for the rear seats. FMR should not be confused with a "front midships" location of the engine, referring to the engine being located behind the front axle centerline, in which case a car meeting the above FMR center of mass definition could be classified as a FR layout instead; the v35 Nissan Skyline / Infiniti G35 / Nissan 350Z are FM cars. FMR layout came standard in most pre–World War II, front-engine / rear-wheel-drive cars
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines, like the internal combustion engine, burn a fuel to create heat, used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air, clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and motion; the word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, knowledge of how to construct them was treated as a military secret; the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines but pumps.
In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses. In modern usage, the term engine describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force. Devices converting heat energy into motion are referred to as engines. Examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts. Examples of engines which produce thrust include rockets; when the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers. The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to maintain motion, thus a motor is a device. Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English. In some engineering jargons, the two words have different meanings, in which engine is a device that burns or otherwise consumes fuel, changing its chemical composition, a motor is a device driven by electricity, air, or hydraulic pressure, which does not change the chemical composition of its energy source.
However, rocketry uses the term rocket motor though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but all such devices derive their power from the engine. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, converts it into mechanical energy, while an engine creates power from pressure. Simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass or treadmill, with ropes and block and tackle arrangements; these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be more ancient.
By the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries; some were quite complex, with aqueducts and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. More sophisticated small devices, such as the Antikythera Mechanism used complex trains of gears and dials to act as calendars or predict astronomical events. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century AD, including the Aeolipile and the vending machine these machines were associated with worship, such as animated altars and automated temple doors.
Medieval Muslim engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. In the medieval Islamic world, such advances made it possible to mechanize many industrial tasks carried out by manual labour. In 1206, al-Jazari employed a crank-conrod system for two of his water-raising machines. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in 1629. In the 13th century, the solid rocket motor was invented in China. Driven by gunpowder, this simplest form of internal combustion engine was unable to deliver sustained power, but was useful for propelling weaponry at high speeds towards enemies in battle and for fireworks. After invention, this innovation spread throughout Europe; the Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston he
The Ford Anglia is a compact car, designed and manufactured by Ford UK. It is related to the Ford Prefect and the Ford Popular; the Anglia name was applied to various models between 1939 and 1967. A total of 1,594,486 Anglias were produced, it was replaced by the Ford Escort. The first Ford Anglia model, the E04A, was released on 31 October 1939 as smallest model in the UK Ford range, it was a facelifted version of that model. The Anglia was a simple vehicle aimed with few features. Most were painted Ford black. Styling was late-1930s, with an upright radiator. There were standard and deluxe models, the latter having better instrumentation and, on pre-war models, running boards. Both front and rear suspensions used transverse leaf springs, the brakes were mechanical; the two-door Anglia is similar to the longer, four-door, E93A Ford Prefect. A bulge at the back enabled a spare wheel to be removed from its vertical outside stowage on the back of the car and stowed flat on the boot floor, which usefully increased luggage space.
Some back seat leg room was sacrificed to the luggage space, being reduced from 43¾ inches in the Ford 7Y to 38½ inches in the Anglia. The Anglia replaced the 7Y saloon, but the van version of the earlier model continued to be built until 1946, after which some minor changes sufficed to rebaptize the van the "E04C"; the domestic market engine was the 933 cc straight-four side-valve engine familiar to drivers of predecessor models since 1933. The 1172 cc straight-four engine from the Ford Ten was fitted for some export markets, including North America, where imports began for model year 1948, they had sealed beam headlights and small, separate parking lights mounted underneath, as well as dual tail lights, into which flashing turn signals could be added without adding additional lights. A minor styling change was made in December 1947, with the name "Anglia" now incorporated in the top of the grille surround; the car retained a vacuum-powered wiper with its tendency to slow down or stop above about 40 mph, the point at which the suction effect from the induction manifold disappeared.
A contemporary road test commended the Anglia's ability to pull away from 6 mph in top gear. Compulsory driving tests had only been introduced in the UK. Most potential buyers would approach the vehicle without the benefit of formal driving tuition; the cars did have synchromesh between second and top gears, but not between first and second, so many would have sought, wherever possible, to avoid en route changes down to first. Production, hindered by the diversion of Ford's factory to military production during the Second World War, ceased in 1948 after 55,807 had been built. Initial sales in Britain began in early 1940. Production was suspended in early 1942, resumed in mid-1945; the E04A was built in Australia from 1940 to 1945 and was produced in tourer and roadster body styles. The former had a rear seat and the latter was a two-seater convertible; the Australian-built Anglia A54A used the chassis and front panels of the English E04A and was offered in 4-door sedan, coupe utility and panel van body styles.
The 8HP 933cc engine was used and all models featured running boards. Three different types of radiator grille were fitted to A54A models. Both the original and the revised E04A grilles were used and a third style, unique to the A54A, was introduced in 1948; this featured a centrally placed vertical chrome strip. The 1949 model, code E494A, was a makeover of the previous model with a rather more 1940s style front-end, including the sloped, twin-lobed radiator grille. Again it was a spartan vehicle and in 1948 was Britain's lowest-priced four-wheel car; the 10HP, 1172 cc engine was again available in export markets - this model is called the E493OA. An Anglia tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1948 had a top speed of 57 mph and could accelerate from 0-50 mph in 38.3 seconds. A fuel consumption of 36.2 miles per imperial gallon was recorded. The test car cost £309 including taxes. Including all production, 108,878 were built; when production as an Anglia ceased in October 1953, it continued as the basic Ford Popular until 1959.
The Australian built A494A Anglias of the 1949 to 1953 period shared the frontal styling and 90 inch wheelbase chassis of their English E494A counterparts but differed in many other ways, notably in the range of body styles offered. A494As were produced in 4-door saloon, 2-door tourer, 2-door coupe utility and 2-door roadster utility models. All body styles had running boards, the boot of the Australian saloon was less prominent than that of the English saloon; the 933-cc, 8 HP unit was the only engine offered, but the 1172-cc, 10 HP engine was available from 1950. At the time of its introduction, the A494A Tourer was the cheapest new car on the Australian market. In 1953, Ford released the 100E, designed by Lacuesta Automotive, it was a new car, its style following the example of the larger Ford Consul introduced two years earlier and of its German counterpart, the Ford Taunus P1, by featuring a modern three-box design. The 100E was available as a four-door Prefect. During this period, the old Anglia was available as the 103E Popular, touted as the cheapest car in the world.
Internally there were individual front seats trimmed in PVC, hinged to allow access to the rear. The instruments (speedome
Ford of Britain
Ford of Britain is a British wholly owned subsidiary of Blue Oval Holdings, itself a subsidiary of Ford International Capital LLC, a subsidiary of Ford Motor Company. Its business has its registered office in Brentwood, Essex, it adopted the name of Ford of Britain in 1960. Ford of Britain operates three major manufacturing sites in the UK, in Bridgend and Halewood, it operates a large research and development facility in Dunton, which employs over 3,000 engineers. Ford has been the UK's biggest-selling car and commercial vehicle brand for 34 and 45 consecutive years respectively; the first Ford cars, three Model As, were imported into the UK in 1903 and the first dealership in Southampton opened in 1910. In 1909 the Ford Motor Company Limited was established under the chairmanship of Percival Perry opening an office at 55 Shaftesbury Avenue, London, on 8 March 1911. An assembly plant in an old Tram factory in Trafford Park, was opened in 1911 employing 60 people to make the Model T and the company was re-registered as Henry Ford & Son, Ltd.
This was the first Ford factory outside North America. At first the cars were assembled from imported chassis and mechanical parts with bodies sourced locally. Six thousand cars were produced in 1913 and the Model T became the country's biggest selling car with 30% of the market. In 1914 Britain's first moving assembly line for car production started with 21 cars an hour being built. After the First World War, the Trafford Park plant was extended, in 1919, 41% of British registered cars were Fords. In 1917, a plant opened in Cork, Ireland for tractor manufacture, but from 1921 cars were built as well; this factory was the first to be purpose built by Ford in Europe. The company of Henry Ford and Son Limited–Fordson– was incorporated on 17 April 1917, starting its life on the site of an old Cork racecourse, its first registered office was at Cork. Although the Manchester plant was served by the Manchester Ship Canal, Ford decided that access to a deep water port was required and in 1923 a new site was chosen by the River Thames at Dagenham, east of London.
In December 1928 Ford announced in London that it had formed a new company, Ford Motor Company Limited, with three US directors and four English directors – including chairman Sir Percy Perry – with a capital of £7 million. This company had acquired all Ford's European and Middle Eastern business in exchange for 60% of its capital; the balance of 40% of the capital of the new Ford Motor Company Limited, 2.8 million shares of £1 each, was now available for public subscription. These shares were over-subscribed. There was considerable investing interest from America as US investors had had no previous opportunity of investing in a Henry Ford business; the new chairman, Sir Percival Perry, had been, now was again, central to the development of Ford in Europe. Perry's association with Henry Ford dated from 1905 when Perry became a shareholder of Ford's first British agency but the first link between them was earlier, in 1903; the two men first met in 1906 in Detroit. From Britain Perry envisioned Ford making vehicles outside USA and selling them across the British Empire and Europe.
He raced the company's cars, organised a chain of exclusive dealers and superintended the Trafford Park assembly plant. In 1919 Henry Ford chose to run operations from Detroit, Perry was determined to run all European business himself. Perry resigned in May 1919, his American managers having failed him Henry Ford offered Perry the chairmanship of this new Ford Motor Company Limited in 1928. At the first meeting of shareholders in London on 6 March 1929 Perry reported "during the first three months of our first year we and our associated companies in Europe have delivered upwards of 50,000 Model'A' vehicles into the hands of satisfied owners; the improved Fordson tractor is not yet in production but it is hoped to deliver the first tractors manufactured at our Cork works within the next month." Construction started at Dagenham in 1929, in October 1931, Britain's and Europe's largest car plant opened producing the Model AA truck and Model A car. This was at the height of the Depression and the Model A was too expensive to tax and run in Britain and few were sold, only five in the first three months.
A smaller car was urgently needed and this came in 1932 with the 933 cc Model Y, a car much more suited to the market and becoming in 1935 Britain's first £100 car. This was Ford's first car designed for sale outside North America. Between 1932 and 1937 over 157,000 were made at Dagenham and Cork and at its peak it captured 41% of its market sector. In 1938, Ford's Cork factory hit an important milestone, producing its 25,000th vehicle since becoming an assembly plant in 1932. In all, 73,000 cars and tractors had been built at Cork up to that time; the original 1928 plan was for Canada, having the benefit of imperial-preference tariffs, to manufacture components for Ford assembly plants in the British Empire. Dagenham was to do, did, the same for assembly plants in Europe but in 1932, mired in the financial depression, both France and Germany announced their intention to impose heavy new tariffs on imported components. In France urgent arrangements were made with Mathis for their plant to be leased by a joint-venture to be known as Matford and devoted to the full manufacture of Ford or Matford products.
More capital was required. There were consequential exchange
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. The term transmission refers to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device. In British English, the term transmission refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft and final drive shafts. In American English, the term refers more to the gearbox alone, detailed usage differs; the most common use is in motor vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, inappropriate for starting and slower travel; the transmission reduces the higher engine speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque in the process. Transmissions are used on pedal bicycles, fixed machines, where different rotational speeds and torques are adapted. A transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies.
This switching may be done automatically. Directional control may be provided. Single-ratio transmissions exist, which change the speed and torque of motor output. In motor vehicles, the transmission is connected to the engine crankshaft via a flywheel or clutch or fluid coupling because internal combustion engines cannot run below a particular speed; the output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, which drives the wheels. While a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the only mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include power transformation. Hybrid configurations exist. Automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in response to speed and throttle input. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, steam engines, in support of pumping and hoisting.
Most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the output shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft, this reduction in speed produces a mechanical advantage, increasing torque. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in shaft speed with a reduction of torque; some of the simplest gearboxes change the physical rotational direction of power transmission. Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios. In this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque. However, the highest gears may be "overdrive" types. Gearboxes have found use in a wide variety of different—often stationary—applications, such as wind turbines. Transmissions are used in agricultural, construction and automotive equipment. In addition to ordinary transmission equipped with gears, such equipment makes extensive use of the hydrostatic drive and electrical adjustable-speed drives.
The simplest transmissions called gearboxes to reflect their simplicity, provide gear reduction, sometimes in conjunction with a right-angle change in direction of the shaft. These are used on PTO-powered agricultural equipment, since the axial PTO shaft is at odds with the usual need for the driven shaft, either vertical, or horizontally extending from one side of the implement to another. More complex equipment, such as silage choppers and snowblowers, have drives with outputs in more than one direction; the gearbox in a wind turbine converts the slow, high-torque rotation of the turbine into much faster rotation of the electrical generator. These are more complicated than the PTO gearboxes in farm equipment, they weigh several tons and contain three stages to achieve an overall gear ratio from 40:1 to over 100:1, depending on the size of the turbine. The first stage of the gearbox is a planetary gear, for compactness, to distribute the enormous torque of the turbine over more teeth of the low-speed shaft.
Durability of these gearboxes has been a serious problem for a long time. Regardless of where they are used, these simple transmissions all share an important feature: the gear ratio cannot be changed during use, it is fixed at the time. For transmission types that overcome this issue, see Continuously variable transmission known as CVT. Many applications require the availability of multiple gear ratios; this is to ease the starting and stopping of a mechanical system, though another important need is that of maintaining good fuel efficiency. The need for a transmission in an automobile is a consequence of the characteristics of the internal combustion engine. Eng