Spanish-style bullfighting, known as a corrida de toros, tauromaquia or fiesta, is practiced in Spain, where it originates, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, as well as in parts of Southern France and Portugal. In a traditional corrida, three toreros called matadores or, in French, toréadors, each fight two out of a total of six fighting bulls, each of, at least four years old and weighs up to about 600 kg. Bullfighting season in Spain runs from March to October, it is said that fighting the bull was important in ancient times when sacrificing bulls for the gods. According to Frommer's Travel Guide, bullfighting in Spain traces its origins to 711 A. D. with the first official bullfight, or "corrida de toros," being held in honor of the coronation of King Alfonso VIII. Most historians trace bull-involving festivities to prehistorical times, as a trend that once extended through the entire Mediterranean coast and has just survived in Iberia and part of France; some experts, like Alejandro Recio, considers that the Neolithic city of Konya, in Turkey, discovered by in James Mellaart in 1958, offers evidence of sacrificial tauromaquia associated with sacred rituals.
This claim is based on the abundance of representations of bulls, as well as on the preservation of horns and bullheads attached to walls. Since various archeological findings had proven the uninterrupted importance of the bull as a symbol of the sun for the Iberian cults, like the presence of berracos, or the importance of the bull in the surviving Celtiberian and Celtic rituals that survive to this day. Considering the nature of this pre-roman religions the ritual sacrifice through direct of symbolic combat of sacred animals was a part of the use of bulls in them; as for the bullring itself, it has speculated that, once part of the Roman Empire, Spain owes its bullfighting tradition in part to gladiator games. It is true that during Roman Hispania gladiators were forced to fight by sword bulls, bears and other native beasts, but it is questionable if those spectacles were seen as equivalent by the population; the shape of the bullfighting ring may be prior to Rome and derived from its mystic association to the sun and solar religions.
In fact, the Romans tried to abolish the "puere" practice of bullfighting, considering it was too risky for the youth and not a proper way of worshiping the deities, but their efforts led them nowhere. During the Arab rule of Iberia, the Arab ruling class tried to exterminate and ban the practice of bullfighting, considering it a pagan celebration that had nothing to do with the three books, a heresy. Bullfighting was illegal in all Arab territory, but still, the practice didn't come close to dying, but became a mark of identity and resistance for Christian Iberians for the nobility that started using it as a way to gain prestige. At first, bullfighting was reserved for Spanish aristocracy. In the 16th century Pope Saint Pius V banned bullfighting for being a pagan thing and for being dangerous for the participants. Anyone who would sponsor, watch or participate in a bullfight was to be excommunicated; this did nothing to deter Spanish and Portuguese from keeping the tradition alive, the following pope did what he could to backtrack such a pointless penalty.
The softer version at least suggested that bullfighting should not be used as a way to honor Christ or the saints, as it was being used in Spain and Portugal. That petition was ignored. King Felipe V, the first Bourbon, ended this trend because he believed it was in poor taste for nobles to practice such a bloody sport. Commoners took the sport and gave it the shape it has today; the revolution in bullfighting forms was parallel to the discontent of the foreign ruler of the Bourbons, their lack of interest in understanding the politics, economics or culture of their new kingdom that culminated in the Esquilache Riots. New forms of bullfighting continued to develop as anti-French and anti-nobility grew in the population and came to an end when Carlos III managed to reduce the social tension and, among other gestures of goodwill, built two of the eldest and largest bullfighting rings in Madrid, as part of his attempts to fix the hostility and alienation that the Spanish felt towards the French rulers.
Son and grandson of bullfighters, he is credited with crystallizing the tradition of modern bullfighting. He established the cuadrillas, he organized the spectacle in tercios de lidia borrowed from the theatre. Invented the Veronica and other basic cape movements. Invented the current traje de luces, "suit of light". Created a spectacle based on cape maneuvers and agility over physical confrontation. Bullfighters today still cling to a traditionally strict code of conduct; the oldest bullring in Spain is located in the southern town of Ronda, but cities like Madrid and Pamplona have a rich bullfighting legacy and some of the largest rings in the world. Each matador has six assistants—two picadores mounted on horseback, three banderilleros, a mozo de espada. Collectively they compose a team of bullfighters; the crew includes an ayuda and subalternos including at least two peones. The modern corrida is ritualized, with three distinct parts or tercios, the start of each of, announced by a trumpet sound.
The participants first enter the arena
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Tordesillas is a town and municipality in the province of Valladolid, Castile and León, central Spain. It is located 25 kilometres southwest of the provincial capital, Valladolid at an elevation of 704 metres; the population was c. 9,000 as of 2009. The town is located on the Douro River. There are highway connections to Madrid, 182 kilometres to the southeast, with Salamanca, 96 kilometres to the southwest; the provincial capital of Valladolid is linked by four-lane highway. Because of its important highway connections Tordesillas has become a major transit hub; the economy is based on services — connected to tourism — and the agricultural production of the surrounding area. Wheat has long been the traditional agricultural product; the town is well served by hotels with a parador, four three-star hotels, one two-star hotel, ten hostels and pensions. There is a camping site. There is an abundance of restaurants — 27 in total — with the Parador restaurant having a three star classification. North of the town there is a fertile valley formed by the Douro, with extensive use of irrigation by central pivots.
The town is known for its Toro de la Vega festival during which a bull was slaughtered by people on horseback and on foot. Animal rights groups tried to stop this from taking place; the bull is at least five years old when he's killed and is allowed to live in a large property to keep him territorial, unlike other animals who are killed for the butcher at one year of age. In May 2016 the Regional government issued a decree prohibiting the slaughter of the bull in public; the mayor of the town, backed unanimously by the opposition, made a statement of outrage on the same day of the prohibition. The bull's slaughter had come to be inextricably associated with the name of the town, overshadowing its rich monumental and historical heritage; the Roman Turris Sillae, built on the hill of Siellas, was the bulwark of the defensive line of the Duero during the Reconquest. In 1262 it received its charter from Alfonso X the Wise; the town began to be favored by the royal family and nobility, above all after Alfonso XI built a palace.
In the 15th century the town hosted several meetings of the Cortes. During the skirmishes between Henry IV and the nobility the city supported the monarchy, again during the clashes between the Catholic Monarchs and Joanna La Beltraneja in 1476; the Catholic Monarchs signed the Treaty of Tordesillas with the Portuguese crown in 1494, which established the line dividing the globe between Spain and Portugal for colonization purposes. This affected the Portuguese and Spanish colonization of the Americas, placed the name Tordesillas in history worldwide since. Despite Tordesillas' traditional support for the monarchy, in the Castilian War of the Communities by citizens of Castile against the rule of Charles V, the city took the side of the Comuneros; the leaders chose Charles' own mother, Queen Joanna I, as an alternative ruler in more than title in 1519. They came to the town to ask for the mediation of Joanna I, confined within the Santa Clara convent since 1509 by her father Ferdinand II. However, in 1521, after nearly a year of rebellion, the reorganized supporters of the emperor Charles V struck a crippling blow to the comuneros at the Battle of Villalar, royal troops of the Count of Haro captured Tordesillas.
This 16th-century event was the beginning of a long decline from prosperity. The ongoing position of Tordesillas at a crossing of historic roads and modern highways has been the decisive factor in its economic survival and development; the Santa Clara buildings were built by King Alfonso XI as his palace in 1344. His son Peter the Cruel had it embellished by Mudéjar artists, beautiful works at Santa Clara, though on a much smaller scale than they did in the Alcázar of Seville; the facade, a lovely small patio, a chapel and the baths remain of Peter the Cruel's palace. Blanche de Bourbon was held here after her abandonment by Peter for María de Padilla in 1353; the former portal, blocked off now, has a fine Mudéjar doorway. In 1363 he ceded Santa Clara to two of his daughters by María de Padilla, they turned it into a convent. In 1420 the Infante Don Enrique of Aragón burst into the palace and seized the person of John II, who escaped the Infante thanks to Álvaro de Luna. Santa Clara convent's saddest association is with Joanna I, Queen of Castile and Aragon, the daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon.
She ascended the Castilian throne as Princess of Asturias in 1502 and succeeded her mother as Queen regnant of Castile in 1504. Joanna's life with her husband Philip I of Castile was rendered unhappy by his infidelity and political insecurity, during which he attempted to usurp her legal birthrights of power; this led in great part to the rumors of her insanity due to reports of depressive or neurotic acts committed while she was being imprisoned or coerced by her husband. His early death in 1506 added the pressures of her father now maneuvering to block her legal birthrights of power and sole rule, he succeeded, as Regent ordered his daughter confined within the Convent of Santa Clara in 1509. Here she received her son Charles I after his arrival in Spain in 1517 from Flanders. Charles had
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Francoist Spain, known in Spain as the Francoist dictatorship known as the Spanish State from 1936 to 1947 and the Kingdom of Spain from 1947 to 1975, is the period of Spanish history between 1936 and 1975, when Francisco Franco ruled Spain as dictator with the title Caudillo. The nature of the regime changed during its existence. Months after the start of the Spanish Civil War in July 1936, Franco emerged as the single rebel military leader and was proclaimed Head of State on 1 October 1936, ruling a dictatorship over the territory controlled by the Nationalist faction; the 1937 Unification Decree merging all parties supporting the rebel side led to Nationalist Spain becoming a single-party regime. The end of the war in 1939 brought the extension of the Franco rule to the whole country and the exile of Republican institutions; the Francoist dictatorship took a form described as "fascistized dictatorship", or "semi-fascist regime", bringing a clear influence from German and Italian totalitarianisms in fields such as labor relations, the autarkic economic policy, the particular use of symbols, or the single-party, the FET y de las JONS.
In its years the regime opened up and became closer to developmental dictatorships, although it always preserved residual fascist trappings. During the Second World War, Spain's entry in to the Axis alongside its supporters from the civil war and Italy, never came to be after Franco's demands for the war-torn country to join proved too much for the other members to accept. Spain helped Germany and Italy in various ways while maintaining its neutrality. However, Spain was isolated by many other countries for nearly a decade after World War II and its autocratic economy, still trying to recover from the civil war, suffered from chronic depression. Reforms were implemented in the 1950s and Spain abandoned autarky, delegating authority to liberal ministers; this led to massive economic growth that lasted until the mid-1970s, second only to Japan, known as the "Spanish miracle". During the 1950s the regime changed from being totalitarian and using severe repression to an authoritarian system with limited pluralism.
Spain joined the United Nations in 1955 and during the Cold War, Franco was one of the world's foremost anti-Communist figures: his regime was assisted by the West, it was asked to join NATO. Franco died in 1975 at the age of 82, he restored the monarchy before his death, which made his successor King Juan Carlos I, who led the Spanish transition to democracy. On 1 October 1936, Franco was formally recognised as Caudillo of Spain—the Spanish equivalent of the Italian Duce and the German Führer—by the Junta de Defensa Nacional, which governed the territories occupied by the Nationalists. In April 1937, Franco assumed control of the Falange Española de las JONS led by Manuel Hedilla, who had succeeded José Antonio Primo de Rivera, executed in November 1936 by the Republican government, he merged it with the Carlist Comunión Tradicionalista to form the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS, the sole legal party of Francoist Spain, it was the main component of the Movimiento Nacional. The Falangists were concentrated at local government and grassroot level, entrusted with harnessing the Civil War's momentum of mass mobilisation through their auxiliaries and trade unions by collecting denunciations of enemy residents and recruiting workers into the trade unions.
While there were prominent Falangists at a senior government level before the late 1940s, there were higher concentrations of monarchists, military officials and other traditional conservative factions at those levels. However, the Falange remained the sole party; the Francoists took control of Spain through a comprehensive and methodical war of attrition which involved the imprisonment and executions of Spaniards found guilty of supporting the values promoted by the Republic: regional autonomy, liberal or social democracy, free elections and women's rights, including the vote. The right-wing considered these "enemy elements" to comprise an "anti-Spain", the product of Bolsheviks and a "Judeo-Masonic conspiracy", which had evolved after the Reconquista of the Iberian Peninsula from the Islamic Moors, a Reconquista, declared formally over with the Alhambra Decree of 1492 expelling the Jews from Spain. At the end of the Spanish Civil War, according to the regime's own figures there were more than 270,000 men and women held in prisons and some 500,000 had fled into exile.
Large numbers of those captured were returned to Spain or interned in Nazi concentration camps as stateless enemies. Between six and seven thousand exiles from Spain died in Mauthausen, it has been estimated that more than 200,000 Spaniards died in the first years of the dictatorship from 1940–1942 as a result of political persecution and disease related to the conflict. Spain's strong ties with the Axis resulted in its international ostracism in the early years following World War II as Spain was not a founding member of the United Nations and did not become a member until 1955; this changed with the Cold War that soon followed the end of hostilities in 1945, in the face of which Franco's strong anti-communism tilted its regime to ally with the United States. Independent political parties and trade unions were banned throughout the duration of the dictatorship. Once decrees for economic stabilisation were put forth by the late 1950s, the way was opened for massive foreign investment – "a watershed in post-war economic and ideological normalisation leading to extraordinarily rapid e
A bull is an intact adult male of the species Bos taurus. More muscular and aggressive than the female of the species, the cow, the bull has long been an important symbol in many cultures, plays a significant role in both beef ranching and dairy farming, in a variety of other cultural activities; the female counterpart to a bull is a cow, while a male of the species, castrated is a steer, ox or bullock, although in North America this last term refers to a young bull, in Australia to a draught animal. Usage of these terms varies with area and dialect. Colloquially, people unfamiliar with cattle may refer to both castrated and intact animals as "bulls". A wild, unmarked bull is known as a micky in Australia. Improper or late castration on a bull results in it becoming a coarse steer known as a stag in Australia and New Zealand. In some countries an incompletely castrated male is known as a rig or ridgling; the word "bull" denotes the males of other bovines, including bison and water buffalo as well as many other species of large animals including elephants, seals & walruses, camels, elk, moose and antelopes.
Bulls are much more muscular than cows, with thicker bones, larger feet, a muscular neck, a large, bony head with protective ridges over the eyes. These features assist bulls in fighting for domination over a herd, giving the winner superior access to cows for reproduction; the hair is shorter on the body, but on the neck and head there is a "mane" of curlier, wooly hair. Bulls are about the same height as cows or a little taller, but because of the additional muscle and bone mass they weigh far more. Most of the time, a bull has a hump on his shoulders; when a bull is full-grown, he can weigh as much as 2,000 pounds. In horned cattle the horns of bulls tend to be thicker and somewhat shorter than those of cows, in many breeds they curve outwards in a flat arc rather than upwards in a lyre shape, it is not true, as is believed, bulls have horns and cows do not: the presence of horns depends on the breed, or in horned breeds on whether the horns have been disbudded. Cattle that do not have horns are referred to as polled, or muleys.
Castrated male cattle are physically similar to females in build and horn shape, although if allowed to reach maturity they may be taller than either bulls or cows, with muscled shoulders. Bulls become fertile at about seven months of age, their fertility is related to the size of their testicles, one simple test of fertility is to measure the circumference of the scrotum: a young bull is to be fertile once this reaches 28 centimetres. Bulls have a fibro-elastic penis. Given the small amount of erectile tissue, there is little enlargement after erection; the penis is quite rigid when non-erect, becomes more rigid during erection. Protrusion is not affected much by erection, but more by relaxation of the retractor penis muscle and straightening of the sigmoid flexure. Bulls are affected by a condition known as "corkscrew penis"; the penis of a mature bull is about 3–4 cm in diameter, 80–100 cm in length. The bull's glans penis has a elongated shape. A common misconception repeated in depictions of bull behavior is that the color red angers bulls, inciting them to charge.
In fact, like most mammals, cattle are red-green color blind. In bullfighting, it is the movement of the matador's cape, not the color, which provokes a reaction in the bull. Other than the few bulls needed for breeding, the vast majority of male cattle are castrated and slaughtered for meat before the age of three years, except where they are needed as work oxen for haulage. Most of these beef animals are castrated as calves to reduce aggressive behavior and prevent unwanted mating, although some are reared as uncastrated bull beef. A bull is ready for slaughter one or two months sooner than a castrated male or a female, produces proportionately more, leaner muscle. Frame score is a useful way of describing the skeletal size of other cattle. Frame scores can be used as an aid to predict mature cattle sizes and aid in the selection of beef bulls. Frame scores are calculated from hip age. In sales catalogues, this measurement is reported in addition to weight and other performance data such as estimated breed value.
Adult bulls may weigh between 1,000 kilograms. Most are capable of aggressive behavior and require careful handling to ensure safety of humans and other animals; those of dairy breeds may be more prone to aggression, while beef breeds are somewhat less aggressive, though beef breeds such as the Spanish Fighting Bull and related animals are noted for aggressive tendencies, which are further encouraged by selective breeding. It is estimated that 42% of all livestock-related fatalities in Canada are a result of bull attacks, fewer than one in twenty victims of a bull attack survives. Dairy breed bulls are dangerous and unpredictable. Being trampled, jammed against a wall or gored by a bull was one of the most frequent causes of death in the dairy industry before 1940. With regard to such risks, one popular farming magazine has suggested, "Handle with a staff and take no
A lancer was a type of cavalryman who fought with a lance. Lances were used in mounted warfare by the Assyrians as early as 700 BC and subsequently by Greek, Gallic and Roman horsemen; the weapon was used in Asia and Europe during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance by armoured cavalry, before being adopted by light cavalry in Eastern Europe. In a modern context, a lancer regiment denotes an armoured unit; the lancer had become a common sight in every European and Indian army during this time, with the exception of the Ottoman troops, they discarded the heavy armour to give greater freedom of movement in combat. The Polish "winged" lancers were amongst the last to abandon the armour in Europe. There was debate over the value of the lance in mounted combat during the 18th century and most armies had few lancer units by the beginning of the 1800s. However, during the Napoleonic Wars, lancers were to be seen in many of the combatant nations as their value in shock tactics became clear. During the wars, the Poles became a ready source of recruitment for several armies, willingly or unwillingly.
Polish lancers served with distinction in the Austrian, Prussian and French armies, most famously in Napoleon's French Imperial Guard as the 1er Regiment de Chevau-Legers-Lanciers de la Garde Impériale. At the Battle of Waterloo, French lances were "nearly three meters long, weighed three kilograms, had a steel point on a wooden staff," according to historian Alessandro Barbero, he adds that they were "terrifyingly efficient." Commander of the French 1st Corps, 4th Division General Durutte, who saw the battle from the high ground in front of Papelotte, would write "I had never before realized the great superiority of the lance over the sword."In the Siege of Los Angeles, during the war between Mexico and the United States, a company of Californio lancers temporarily recaptured the town, expelling a company of U. S. Marines. Although having substantial impact in the charge lancers could be vulnerable to other cavalry at close quarters, where the lance proved a clumsy and deflected weapon when employed against sabres.
By the late 19th century, many cavalry regiments in the British and other European armies were composed of troopers with lances, as primary weapons, in the front rank and horsemen with sabres only in the second: the lances for the initial shock and sabres for the subsequent mêlée. Lancers wore a double-breasted jacket with a coloured panel at the front, a coloured sash, a square-topped Polish cap, their lances had small swallow-tailed flags just below the spearhead. The pennons were removed or wrapped in a canvas cover on active service. With the improved range and accuracy of infantry rifles, the high-profile presented by lancers with their conspicuous weapons became a problem; the ułans or uhlans, as lancers are known in the Polish and German languages were trained to lower their lances when scouting on hill-tops. In 1914, lances were still being carried by regiments in the British, French, Italian, Spanish, Turkish, Belgian and Russian armies, amongst others. All German cavalry retained a steel lance as their primary weapon.
As late as 1914, half of the troopers in each Russian regular cavalry regiment carried lances on active service, as did all cossacks. The British lancer regiments lost this weapon for all but ceremonial use following the Boer War, but a conservative backlash led to its reintroduction for active service from 1908 to 1928; the French army did not have lancer regiments as such, but steel lances 2.97 metres in length were carried by the twenty-six dragoon regiments and some light cavalry units in 1914. The French had earlier tested the Indian bamboo lances used by the British cavalry, but had rated them as being too fragile for the shock of encounter. Prior to the outbreak of World War I, there had been controversy as to whether lances or sabres were the more effective "armes blanches" for cavalry, but neither proved a match for modern firearms; some armies continued to use lances throughout this war, but they saw use on the Western Front after initial clashes in France and Belgium in 1914. On the Eastern Front, mounted cavalry still had a role and lances saw limited use by the Russian and Austrian armies.
During the 1920s, the use of lances ceased for active service in most armies. British and Indian lancer regiments continued to carry lances on mounted parades, until mechanization took place in the late 1930s; some other armies retained lance armed ceremonial units. The Polish cavalry did not discard the lance as a weapon until 1934 and continued to train with lances until the outbreak of World War II; some modern armored cavalry units are still designated as lancer regiments for historical reasons. There are examples in the armies of Spain, United Kingdom, Belgium, Pakistan and Australia, Argentina and Chile; the elite troops of the Colombian National Army are called "lanceros". The