Church and Wellesley
Church and Wellesley is an LGBT-oriented enclave in Toronto, Canada. It is bounded by Gerrard Street to the south, Yonge Street to the west, Charles Street to the north, Jarvis Street to the east, with the core commercial strip located along Church Street from Wellesley south to Alexander. Though some gay and lesbian oriented establishments can be found outside this area, the general boundaries of this village have been defined by the Gay Toronto Tourism Guild. While the neighbourhood is home to the community centre, bars and stores catering to the LGBT community, it is a historic community with Victorian houses and apartments dating back to the late 19th and early 20th century. Many LGBT people live in the nearby residential neighbourhoods of The Annex, Cabbagetown, St. James Town, St. Lawrence and the Garden District, in smaller numbers throughout the city and its suburbs. Church and Wellesley is home to the annual Pride Week celebrations, the largest event of its kind in Canada with over 90 floats and an enthusiastic crowd that numbers in the hundreds of thousands.
Pride Toronto is always on the last weekend in June. It runs southward along Yonge Street; the Dyke March is a women-only parade that runs on that Saturday afternoon and has a smaller parade route. There is a weekend-long community fair that closes off Wellesley between Yonge and Church and goes into Church Street; the community fair includes tables from a wide variety of groups involved in or associated with queer culture. The 519 Church Street Community Centre is the meeting place for numerous social and political groups and became well known as a LGBT-friendly space. "The 519", as it is most called, is a city-run recreation centre, adopted locally as the queer community centre, though its programming is not exclusive to LGBT groups and organizations. In 2007, a new wing was opened, upgrades to the existing spaces were completed in 2009. Church and Wellesley is home to the AIDS Memorial, located in Barbara Hall Park, where the names of members of the community who have been lost to AIDS are etched into bronze plaques.
A memorial candlelight vigil is held each year during Pride Week. A number of alternative names for Church and Wellesley exist in local vernacular, including the Gay Ghetto, the Village, the Gaybourhood or the Gay Village — however, many of these "nicknames" are generic to gay villages across the English speaking world, are therefore not descriptive of Church and Wellesley but of gay villages in general. Most people refer to it as Church Street or the Village, since most of the gay-related establishments in the area are located on that street. Bars in the Church and Wellesley neighbourhood include Woody's, Pegasus On Church, Crews & Tangos, the Churchmouse and Firkin, O'Grady's, Statler's, Black Eagle, Flash, Glad Day and Fly; the Church Wellesley Village Business Improvement Area was established October 2002. In the summer of 2004, the business association launched a pilot project; every Sunday from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m. throughout the summer, two blocks of Church Street, from Wellesley south to Alexander, were closed to traffic to encourage more pedestrian activity.
However, this proved controversial when some business owners accused other businesses of "stealing" customers by providing street entertainment, ended three weeks earlier than planned due to a lack of money. The business association sponsored the Church Street Fetish Fair in August. In 2003, San Francisco's Folsom Street Fair had licensed a consortium of Toronto community groups to use the name Folsom Fair North for a similar fetish fair; that fair was held in a large parking lot near the corner of Wellesley and Yonge in 2003 and 2004, in Allan Gardens in 2005, the "Church Street Fetish Fair" was perceived as retaliation for the Folsom fair not being held on Church Street itself. Folsom Fair North, which changed its name to FFN in 2006, was last held in 2007; the portion of the neighbourhood bounded by Yonge, Jarvis and Carlton Streets was once the estate of Alexander Wood, a merchant and magistrate in Upper Canada, at the centre of a strange sexually related scandal in 1810. His lands were derisively known as "Molly Wood's Bush" in the early nineteenth century — "molly" being a contemporaneous slang term for "homosexual".
In the spring of 2005, a statue of Wood was erected at the corner of Church and Alexander Streets, honouring him as a forefather of Toronto's modern gay community. Church Street and the area around it has been familiar to the Toronto gay community for many decades. Prior to the 1970s there had been an underground gay scene centred on various bathhouses and bars around the city that were not gay establishments but were known to be frequented by homosexuals. Allan Gardens, just east of Church Street on Carlton, was a well-known cruising area for gay men. From the late 1960s through the early 1980s the focus of Toronto's gay subculture was the Yonge and Wellesley area; the most notable bars for the gay subculture were the Parkside Tavern and the St. Charles Tavern on Yonge Street just south of Wellesley. During the 1970s, the St. Charles in particular was the focus of many attacks by homophobes on Halloween when the tavern held an annual drag contest, proceeded by an outdoor promenade until attacks by homophobes hurling eggs and rotten fruit made that impossible.
The Glad Day Bookshop, for many years the city's only gay oriented bookstore, opened on Yonge Street near Wellesley in the mid-1970s. There were a number of gay-oriented businesses and clubs on the side streets runnin
Cabbagetown is a neighbourhood in central Toronto, Canada. Administratively, it is defined as part of the Cabbagetown-South St. Jamestown neighbourhood, it features semi-detached Victorian houses and is recognized as "the largest continuous area of preserved Victorian housing in all of North America", according to the Cabbagetown Preservation Association. Cabbagetown's name derives from the Irish immigrants who moved to the neighbourhood beginning in the late 1840s, said to have been so poor that they grew cabbage in their front yards. Canadian writer Hugh Garner's novel, depicted life in the neighbourhood during the Great Depression; the area today known as Cabbagetown was first known as the village of Don Vale, just outside Toronto. Before the 1850s it consisted of farmland dotted with cottages and vegetable plots, it grew up in the 1840s around the Winchester Street Bridge, which before the construction of the Prince Edward Viaduct was the main northern bridge over the Don River. This was near the site.
By the bridge the Don Vale Tavern and Fox's Inn were established to cater to travellers. In 1850 the Toronto Necropolis was established in the area as the city's main cemetery. In the late 19th century the area was absorbed into the city, it became home to the working class Irish inhabitants who were employed in the industries along the lake shore to the south in Corktown. Brick Victorian style houses were built throughout the area; the name Cabbagetown purportedly came from stories of new Irish immigrants digging up their front lawns and planting cabbage. In this era the Cabbagetown name most applied to the area south of Gerrard Street, with the part to the north still being called Don Vale, it was a working-class neighbourhood, but reached its peak of prosperity just before the First World War, from when many of the brick homes in the area date. After the war the area became impoverished. A large number of poorer residents moved in, many resorting to share one house among multiple families; the nineteenth century brick houses began deteriorating, as landlords saw less value in the neighbourhood, they were not maintained.
It became known as one of Toronto's largest slums and much of the original Cabbagetown was razed in the late 1940s to make room for the Regent Park housing project. A new immigrant influx lead to the beginning of ethnic diversity in the neighbourhood; the remaining section to the north still known as Don Vale, was slated to be cleared and replaced by housing projects. In 1964 a Toronto Star writer wrote that "Cabbagetown has become a downhill ride and if you're on way up, you don't dare stay there for long unless you live in Regent Park."The construction of new housing projects was halted in the 1970s. In Don Mount this effort was led by Karl Jaffary, elected to city council in the 1969 municipal election along with a group of like minded councilors who opposed sweeping urban renewal plans. John Sewell led the effort to preserve Trefann Court, that covered the southern section of the original Cabbagetown. A bylaw was approved in the 1970s to ban any building higher than four storeys, in reaction to the high density high rises being built in neighbouring St. James Town.
Cabbagetown was gentrified beginning in the 1970s. Many residents became community activists. Darrell Kent, a resident and local businessman, is recognized by the community as having been the driving force behind the restoration of many of the area’s beautiful and unique Victorian houses; as Kent was a gay real estate agent, gay men and some lesbians made up the earliest gentrifying groups of Cabbagetown. They are still a significant part of the population today, the area is considered queer friendly. In 1983 the Globe and Mail wrote that "Cabbagetown is the epitome of successful labelling; the core of the area—generally defined as being bounded by Parliament and Dundas Streets and the Don Valley—was once Toronto's skid row. Today, about a decade after the area was invaded by young professionals and real estate agents, there are still a few derelicts around to give the area colour; the houses, sell for upward of $200,000." 25 years after that article was written, some homes in the area have sold for more than $1 million.
Vestiges of a 1960s, counter-culture ambiance remain at vintage clothing stores, health food stores and a gestalt therapy clinic. A Victorian farm, once the site of a zoo, is located adjacent to Riverdale Park West, where a weekly farmer's market is held. A short distance away is the Cabbagetown Youth Centre, home of the Cabbagetown Boxing Club, a reminder of an earlier, rougher, past. In recent years, some businesses from the nearby "gay village" of Church and Wellesley, have relocated to the area, attracted by cheaper commercial rents. Despite gentrification, residents from public housing projects and affluent home owners mingle at a discount supermarket and a community medical clinic. Panhandling and drug-dealing are part of the urban landscape. Paradoxically, "The Gerrard and Parliament neighbourhood, located near Dundas and Sherbourne Streets, has the largest concentration of homeless shelters and drop-in centres in Canada; the area is distinguished by a large number of rooming houses and other forms of low income housing."
The neighbourhood is home to many artists, musicians and writers. Other residents include professors and social workers, many affiliated with the nearby University of Toronto. Proximity to the financial district and downtown core have made the area popular with other
House of Commons of Canada
The House of Commons of Canada is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign and the Senate. The House of Commons meets in a temporary Commons chamber in the West Block of the parliament buildings on Parliament Hill in Ottawa, while the Centre Block, which houses the traditional Commons chamber, undergoes a ten-year renovation; the House of Commons is a democratically elected body whose members are known as Members of Parliament. There were 308 members in the last parliament, but that number has risen to 338 following the election on Monday October 19, 2015. Members are elected by simple plurality in each of the country's electoral districts, which are colloquially known as ridings. MPs may hold office until Parliament is dissolved and serve for constitutionally limited terms of up to five years after an election. However, terms have ended before their expiry and the sitting government has dissolved parliament within four years of an election according to a long-standing convention.
In any case, an Act of Parliament now limits each term to four years. Seats in the House of Commons are distributed in proportion to the population of each province and territory. However, some ridings are more populous than others, the Canadian constitution contains some special provisions regarding provincial representation; as a result, there is some regional malapportionment relative to population. The House of Commons was established in 1867, when the British North America Act—now called the Constitution Act, 1867—created the Dominion of Canada, was modelled on the British House of Commons; the lower of the two houses making up the parliament, the House of Commons in practice holds far more power than the upper house, the Senate. Although the approval of both Houses is necessary for legislation, the Senate rarely rejects bills passed by the commons. Moreover, the Cabinet is responsible to the House of Commons; the prime minister stays in office only as long as they retain the support, or "confidence", of the lower house.
The term derives from the Anglo-Norman word communes, referring to the geographic and collective "communities" of their parliamentary representatives and not the third estate, the commonality. This distinction is made clear in the official French name of the body, Chambre des communes. Canada and the United Kingdom remain the only countries to use the name "House of Commons" for a lower house of parliament; the House of Commons came into existence in 1867, when the British Parliament passed the British North America Act, uniting the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick into a single federation called the Dominion of Canada. The new Parliament of Canada consisted of the Senate and the House of Commons; the Parliament of Canada was based on the Westminster model. Unlike the UK Parliament, the powers of the Parliament of Canada were limited in that other powers were assigned to the provincial legislatures; the Parliament of Canada remained subordinate to the British Parliament, the supreme legislative authority for the entire British Empire.
Greater autonomy was granted by the Statute of Westminster 1931, after which new acts of the British Parliament did not apply to Canada, with some exceptions. These exceptions were removed by the Canada Act 1982. From 1867, the Commons met in the chamber used by the Legislative Assembly of Canada until the building was destroyed by fire in 1916, it relocated to the amphitheatre of the Victoria Memorial Museum—what is today the Canadian Museum of Nature, where it met until 1922. Until the end of 2018, the Commons sat in Centre Block chamber. Starting with the final sitting before the 2019 federal election, the Commons sits in a temporary chamber in the West Block until at least 2028, while renovations are undertaken in the Centre Block of Parliament; the House of Commons comprises 338 members. The constitution specifies a basic minimum of 295 electoral districts, but additional seats are allocated according to various clauses. Seats are distributed among the provinces in proportion to population, as determined by each decennial census, subject to the following exceptions made by the constitution.
Firstly, the "senatorial clause" guarantees that each province will have at least as many MPs as Senators. Secondly, the "grandfather clause" guarantees each province has at least as many Members of Parliament now as it had in 1985; as a result of these clauses, smaller provinces and provinces that have experienced a relative decline in population have become over-represented in the House. Ontario, British Columbia, Alberta are under-represented in proportion to their populations, while the other seven provinces are over-represented. Boundary commissions, appointed by the federal government for each province, have the task of drawing the boundaries of the electoral districts in each province. Territorial representation is independent of population; the calculation for the provinces is done with a base of 279 seats. The total population of the provinces is divided by 279 to equal the electoral quotient; the population of the province is divided by the electoral q
Rosedale is a neighbourhood in Toronto, Canada, the estate of William Botsford Jarvis, so named by his wife, granddaughter of William Dummer Powell, for the wild roses that grew there in abundance. It is one of its oldest suburbs, it is one of the wealthiest and most priced neighbourhoods in Canada. Rosedale has been ranked the best neighbourhood in Toronto to live in by Toronto Life, it is known as the area where the city's'old money' lives, is home to some of Canada's richest and most famous citizens including Gerry Schwartz, founder of Onex Corporation, Ken Thomson of Thomson Corporation, the latter of whom was the richest man in Canada at the time of his death in 2006. Rosedale's boundaries consist of the CPR railway tracks to the north, Yonge Street to the west, Aylmer Avenue and Rosedale Valley Road to the south, Bayview Avenue to the east; the neighbourhood is within the City of Toronto's Rosedale-Moore Park neighbourhood. The neighbourhood is divided into a south portion by the Park Drive Ravine.
South Rosedale was first settled by Sheriff William Jarvis and his wife, Mary, in 1826 after Jarvis inherited his father's home there two years earlier. Mary Jarvis, the granddaughter of chief justice and loyalist William Drummer Powell walked and rode on horseback around the trails for that formed Rosedale's meandering streets, she named the estate "Rosedale" as a tribute to the abundance of wild roses that graced the hillsides of their estate. The Jarvis estate was subdivided in 1854 and became Toronto's first "garden suburb"; the Jarvis Family sold the Rosedale homestead in 1864, which led to the residential development of the area soon after, including the extension of Cluny Drive. A noteworthy piece of Rosedale's History, is; the house was called Chorley Park, it was built for the Lieutenant Governor in 1915. It was demolished in 1960 by the city of Toronto to save money, it is now a public park of the same name. Rosedale is built among three ravines, preserved as parkland. Rosedale is full of cul de sacs and convoluted routes through the neighbourhood, which coupled with other physical boundaries lead to low levels of vehicular traffic.
Though Rosedale is located in the middle of Toronto no vehicular traffic can be heard with the abundance of trees and foliage that surround the community. The homes are single family detached dwellings, many of which are at least 100 years old including some former farmhouses that are closer to 200. Houses range from Tudor in style to the more common Victorian and Georgian. Rosedale Park is home to Mayfair; the event consists of rides, flea market and other such carnival-like activities. The event is run and funded by Mooredale House. According to Census tracts 0086.00 and 0087.00 of the 2006 Canadian census, Rosedale has 7,672 residents, up 4.8% from the 2001 census. The median income in this Census Tract in the 2006 Canadian Census was $55,906, while the average total income in this Census was $165,827, one of the highest incomes of all Toronto neighbourhoods; the median income level was double that of Canada and Ontario, while the average total income levels were 4.5 to 5 times larger than that of Ontario and Canada.
The total income levels reflected in the 2011 National Household Survey were exceedingly high with the total income median at $61,284, more than double that of Ontario and Canada, the total income average at $210,484, more than 5 times that of Ontario and Canada. In 2015 the average Rosedale house sold for over $1,800,000. Additionally, Rosedale possesses a large population of people of English and Irish ethnic origin. Integral House The Studio Building North Toronto station University of Toronto President's Estate Rosedale Public School Rosedale Heights School of the Arts Branksome Hall - an all-girls school. Rosedale is represented in the House of Commons by Chrystia Freeland and is a part of the Toronto's central district, renamed to University-Rosedale in 2015 and known as Toronto Centre. In Provincial Parliament, Rosedale is a part of the University-Rosedale electoral district, is represented by Jessica Bell. Japanese composer Toru Takemitsu wrote a three movement piece for solo guitar called "Into the Woods" in 1995 whose second movement "Rosedale" was inspired in this area of Toronto.
Media related to Rosedale, Toronto at Wikimedia Commons
Toronto Centre (provincial electoral district)
Toronto Centre is a provincial electoral district in Toronto, Canada. It elects one member to the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, it was created in 1999 as Toronto Centre—Rosedale from most of St. George—St. David and parts of St. Andrew—St. Patrick, Fort York, when ridings were redistributed to match their federal counterparts. From 1999 to 2007 the riding included the area of Toronto from Avenue Road/University Avenue in the west to the Don River and the city limits in the east and the Mount Pleasant Cemetery and the CPR in the north. In 2007, the riding was abolished and redistributed into Toronto Centre, it lost the area west of Yonge Street and south of College Street plus Toronto Island to Trinity—Spadina. It gained some parts of Toronto—Danforth as the riding's east border was altered to continue along the Don River past the former city limits to Pottery Road to Bayview Avenue to the CPR. Another boundary change altered the borders around the Rosehill Reservoir; the Ontario Legislative Building was located within this district until the 2015 electoral redistribution.
The Liberal incumbent Glen Murray resigned his seat effective 1 September 2017 to accept a position with the Pembina Institute, the seat remained vacant until this election. In April 2018, PC candidate Meredith Cartwright hired actors to pretend to be Doug Ford supporters at the first provincial leader's debate. On January 6, 2010, a provincial by-election was called in Toronto Centre to replace George Smitherman, who had resigned as MPP to run for mayor of Toronto; the by-election took place on February 4, 2010. Elections Ontario Past Election Results Map of riding for 2018 election
Bay Street is a major thoroughfare in Downtown Toronto, Canada. It is the centre of Toronto's Financial District and is used by metonymy to refer to Canada's financial services industry since succeeding Montreal's St. James Street in that role in the 1970s. Bay Street ends at Davenport Road in the north; the original section of Bay Street ran only as far north as Queen Street West. Sections north of Queen Street were renamed Bay Street as several other streets were consolidated and several gaps filled in to create a new thoroughfare in the 1920s; the largest of these streets, Terauley Street, ran from Queen Street West to Grenville Street. At these two points, there is a curve in Bay Street. "Bay Street" is used as a metonym to refer to Toronto's Financial District and the Canadian financial sector as a whole, similar to Wall Street in the United States. "Bay Street banker", as in the phrase "cold as a Bay Street banker's heart", was a term of opprobrium among Prairie farmers who feared that Toronto-based financial interests were hurting them.
Within the legal profession, the term Bay Street is used colloquially to refer to the large, full-service business law firms of Toronto. The street was known as Bear Street because of frequent bear sightings in the early history of Toronto, it was renamed Bay Street in 1797 from the fact that it connected Lot Street to a bay at the Toronto Harbour. In the 19th century the intersection of Bay and King Street was home to Toronto's major newspapers: the Mail Building, the old Toronto Star Building, the William H. Wright Building were all located near the intersection; until 1922, the section of Bay running north from Queen Street and ending at College Street was known as Terauley Street. Several discontinuous streets existed north of College Street to Davenport Road. By-Law 9316 joined these streets together as far north as Scollard Street in 1922. By-Law 9884, enacted on January 28, 1924, changed the name of Ketchum Avenue to Bay Street, extending it to Davenport Road. There is a short street called Terauley Lane running west of Bay from Grenville Street to Grosvenor Street.
The intersection of Bay and King Street is seen as the centre of Canadian banking and finance. Four of Canada's five major banks have office towers at the intersection — the Bank of Montreal at First Canadian Place, Scotiabank at Scotia Plaza, the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce at Commerce Court, Toronto-Dominion Bank at the Toronto-Dominion Centre — and the fifth, the Royal Bank at Royal Bank Plaza, is one block south. Bay and King was known as the "MINT Corner" from Montreal, Nova Scotia, Toronto, but since 1961 the Imperial Bank has been part of CIBC and the Bank of Nova Scotia has rebranded itself, so this nickname is no longer used; the core cluster of towers has crept north with the addition of the 50-storey Bay Adelaide Centre and The Adelaide Hotel Toronto. Significant condominium development on Bay, north of the financial district, boomed during the 1990s and construction continues on large, 40-plus storey condominiums and multi-use buildings today; the area is defined by Dundas Street to the south and Bloor/Yorkville to the north and crosses through Toronto's Discovery District and Mink Mile.
The area attracts many who work in the financial district and those who work in the Discovery District, nearby hospitals and schools. More than 67% of residents in this area are in the working ages of 25-64 higher than the City of Toronto's average of 58%. Notable buildings include: Toronto Coach Terminal Residences of College Park 777 Bay Murano Ontario Government Buildings Sutton Place Hotel Manulife Centre Nathan Phillips Square Flagship store of Hudson's Bay CompanyAnother prominent intersection is the one nearest Yorkville at Bay and Bloor, the centre of an expensive shopping district; the intersection of Bay and Bloor is the location of the Toronto Transit Commission's Bay subway station. Bay Street is served by the route 6 Bay bus, one of the few downtown bus routes; the street used to be served by streetcars lines, which were phased out after the north-south Yonge and University subway lines opened in 1954 and 1963 respectively. The remaining streetcar tracks between Dundas and College Streets are now used for short turns and diversions.
City of London Financial district Wall Street Bay Street at Google Maps Bay Street Corridor neighbourhood profile
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h