Limestone is a carbonate sedimentary rock, composed of the skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate. A related rock is dolostone, which contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg2. In fact, in old USGS publications, dolostone was referred to as magnesian limestone, a term now reserved for magnesium-deficient dolostones or magnesium-rich limestones. About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones; the solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material, an essential component of concrete, as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints, as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime, as a soil conditioner, or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens.
Like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as foraminifera; these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, leave these shells behind when they die. Other carbonate grains composing limestones are ooids, peloids and extraclasts. Limestone contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, varying amounts of clay and sand carried in by rivers; some limestones do not consist of grains, are formed by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i.e. travertine. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters; this produces speleothems, such as stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance; the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock building upon past generations. Below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone does not form in deeper waters.
Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. Calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors with weathered surfaces. Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation. Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock; when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams where there are waterfalls and around hot or cold springs. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite.
Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. Two major classification schemes, the Folk and the Dunham, are used for identifying the types of carbonate rocks collectively known as limestone. Robert L. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. Based on composition, there are three main components: allochems and cement; the Folk system uses two-part names. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme, because it is easier to determine the components present in each sample; the Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains. Robert J. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962.
Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. Dunham names are for rock families, his efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were in mutual contact, therefore self-supporting, or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. Unlike the Folk scheme, Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock; the Dunham scheme is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture, not the grains in the sample. A revised classification was proposed by Wright, it adds some diagenetic patterns and can be summarized as follows: See: Carbonate platform About 10% of all sedimentary rocks are limestones. Limestone is soluble in acid, therefore forms many erosional landforms; these include limestone pavements, pot holes, cenotes and gorges. Such erosion landscapes are known
Osgoode Hall is a landmark building in downtown Toronto, Canada. The original 2 1⁄2-storey building was started in 1829 and finished in 1832 from a design by John Ewart and W. W. Baldwin; the structure was named after the first Chief Justice of Upper Canada. It served to house the regulatory body for lawyers in Ontario along with its law school, the only recognized professional law school for the province at the time, it was constructed between 1832 in the late Georgian Palladian and Neoclassical styles. It houses the Ontario Court of Appeal, the Divisional Court of the Superior Court of Justice, the offices of the Law Society of Ontario and the Great Law Library; the six-acre site at the corner of Lot Street and College Avenue was acquired by the Law Society in 1828. At the time, the location was on the northwest edge of the city, which has since grown around the building, it was bounded on its north side by Osgoode Street, on its east side by a street that would be known as Chestnut Street.
The former no longer exists, the latter now stops at Armoury Street as Nathan Phillips Square now lies to the east. The portico of Osgoode Hall's east wing was built at the head of Toronto's York Street to serve as a terminating vista, though it is now obscured by trees planted on the building's lawn. Osgoode Hall, together from which the Osgoode Hall Law School, received its name in honour of William Osgoode, lent in turn to the adjacent Osgoode subway station. Between the rebellions taking place in 1837-8 until 1843, the hall was used as troop barracks; when the Law Society regained possession in 1844, an expansion was designed by Henry Bowyer Lane. In 1846 the Law Society entered into an agreement with the government to house the province's Superior Court at the hall. Today, the building is jointly owned by the Government of Ontario. From 1855 to 1857 the building was refurbished and enlarged again, according to a design by the firm Cumberland and Storm, to accommodate courts with the original 1829 building becoming the east wing.
From 1880 to 1891 the building was again expanded twice in order to accommodate its law school. The building was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1979, by the City of Toronto under the Ontario Heritage Act in 1990. Despite the expansions, the hall presents a unified design in the late Palladian style; the iron fence surrounding the lawns of Osgoode Hall has become a landmark in itself. Its distinctive iron gates are restrictive. Despite this, an incident in the 1950s occurred in which students unsuccessfully attempted to pass a cow through one of the gates; the gates were due to Victorian architectural fashion, rather than wandering cattle. Two libraries are housed within Osgoode Hall: the Great Library of the Law Society of Upper Canada and a smaller library for judges; the Great Library was designed by Cumberland and Storm and features an ornate plaster ceiling, cork floors, iron spiral staircase and etched glass windows. A War Memorial by Frances Norma Loring, sculpted in 1928, was added to the Library in honor of Ontario lawyers and law students killed during the First World War.
Behind the Great Library is the American Room, designed by Burke and Horwood in 1895, a more intimate room with a spiral staircase. The Toronto Courthouse at 361 University Avenue directly to the north is accessible through a connecting tunnel. List of oldest buildings and structures in Toronto Osgoode Hall Turns 175 - Documenting a Landmark Web exhibit at the Archives of Ontario Susan Law's personal Osgoode Hall main site Audio Tours of Osgoode Hall from the Law Society of Upper Canada website. Visual Tour of Osgoode Hall from the Law Society of Upper Canada website. Osgoode Hall National Historic Site of Canada. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Information on Osgoode Hall tours and other heritage programs on the Discover Ontario Museums website
Queen Street (Toronto)
Queen Street is a major east-west thoroughfare in Toronto, Canada. It extends from King Street in the west to Victoria Park Avenue in the east. Queen Street was the cartographic baseline for the original east-west avenues of Toronto's and York County's grid pattern of major roads; the western section of Queen is a centre for Canadian broadcasting, fashion and the visual arts. Over the past twenty-five years, Queen West has become an international arts centre and a tourist attraction in Toronto. Since the original survey in 1793 by Sir Alexander Aitkin, commissioned by Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe, Queen Street has had many names. For its first sixty years, many sections were referred to as Lot Street, section west of Spadina was named Egremont Street until about 1837. East of the Don River to near Coxwell Avenue it was called Kingston Road, but not be mistaken for Kingston Road, a continuation of King Street and Eastern Avenue; the first park lots laid out in the new city of York were given to loyal officials who were willing to give up the amenities of modern cities such as Kingston to take up residence in the forests north of Lot Street.
These 40 hectares lots were placed along the south side of the first east–west road laid in York, Lot Street. In 1837 Lot Street was renamed in honour of Queen Victoria."Queen West" is local vernacular which refers to the collection of neighbourhoods that have developed along and around the thoroughfare. Many of these were ethnically-based neighbourhoods; the earliest example from the mid-19th century was Claretown, an Irish immigrant enclave in the area of Queen Street West and Bathurst Street. From the 1890s to the 1930s, Jewish immigrants coalesced in the neighbourhood known as "the Ward", for which Queen Street between Yonge and University served as the southern boundary; the intersection of Queen and Bay Streets served as the southern end of a thriving Chinatown in the 1930s. From the 1920s to the 1950s, the area was the heart of Toronto's Polish and Ukrainian communities. From the 1950s through the 1970s, many immigrants from Portugal settled in the area. Gentrification over the past twenty years has caused most recent immigrants to move to more affordable areas of the city as desirability of the area drives up prices.
Like other gentrified areas of Toronto, the original "Queen West" —the stretch between University Avenue and Spadina Avenue — is now lined with upscale boutiques, chain stores, tattoo parlours and hair salons. The best-known landmark on this section of Queen West is the broadcast hub at 299 Queen Street West the headquarters of Citytv and MuchMusic and earlier the site of the Ryerson Press, now housing the broadcast operations of a number of television outlets owned by Bell Media. Queen Street East, though not as famous as Queen Street West, is known for its shopping in nearby neighbourhoods; until the 1940s and 50's Queen Street extended west along what is today The Queensway, with the name changed through the westernmost segment though the former Etobicoke in 1947 to avoid confusion due to the break. The other sections were a stub of the street continuing west of Roncesvalles and ending at Colborne Lodge Drive by High Park, a short side street in Swansea running west from Ellis Avenue; when The Queensway was extended east in the 1950s, the latter two section where absorbed into it, rather than having the name "Queen Street" restored to the now-continuous street due to the Borough of Etobicoke desiring a counterpart to another street called The Kingsway.
The commercial district of Queen Street East lies at the heart of The Beaches community. It is characterized by a large number of independent specialty stores; the stores along Queen are known to change tenants quite causing the streetscape to change from year to year, sometimes drastically. Before Woodbine, Queen street has less traffic and is reduced to one lane each way; the centre lanes are used by the 501 streetcar, causing slight delays at streetcar stops and traffic lights. From Fallingbrook to Victoria Park Avenue, Queen Street East is located in Scarborough, the easternmost part of Toronto. Around the intersection with Vicotoria Park, the south side of the street is beside the R. C. Harris Water Treatment Plant, a crucial water treatment plant for both Toronto and York Region. From Woodbine to Coxwell, the queen is in parts of two neighbourhoods, Upper Beaches and The Beaches. From Woodbine to Kingston Road, there's a mix of newer commercial/residential buildings; the northern half is coved with various modern looking stores, with the southern half covered by retail development by The Behar Group, consist of 5 residential condos, with ground floor retail spaces.
The section of Kingston to Coxwell is similar in design, but without the retail development on the southern side, there is the Alliance Cinemas The Beach location. A little to east of the Queen/Eastern/Kingston intersection there is the northern border of Woodbine Park, a park used for outdoor events; the area from Greenwood to Logan is known as Leslieville. Queen passes underneath the elevated CN railway tracks, this marks the border of Leslieville. Queen Street East is the commercial hub Leslieville. In Leslieville, Queen is home to restaurants. From Greenwood to Woodfield, the northern side of the street is beside the Ashbridge Estate, a large historic estate; the Russell Carhouse is on this stretch of Queen Street. The place between Logan and the Don River is c
York County, Ontario
York County is a historic county in Upper Canada, Canada West, the Canadian province of Ontario. It was organized by the Upper Canada administration from the lands of the Toronto Purchase and others. Created in 1792, at its largest size, it encompassed the area that presently comprises the City of Toronto, the regional municipalities of Halton and York as well as portions of Regional Municipality of Durham and the City of Hamilton; however by 1851, York County only consisted of the areas presently comprising Toronto and Regional Municipality of York. In 1953, York County was split again, with the area south of Steeles Avenue forming the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto. York County was formally dissolved in 1971, with its remaining municipalities forming the Regional Municipality of York. York County was created on 16 June 1792 and was part of the jurisdiction of the Home District of Upper Canada, it comprised all of what is now the City of Toronto, the regional municipalities of Halton and York as well as portions of Regional Municipality of Durham and the City of Hamilton.
The Town of York/the City of Toronto served as the initial seat for the county. In 1816, Wentworth and Halton counties were created, with portions of York County transferred to the new counties. In 1851, the western portions of York County was separated to form Peel County. In the same year, the eastern portions of York County was separated forming Ontario County. In April 1953 the Metropolitan Toronto Act, 1953 was passed in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario; the Metropolitan Toronto Act saw municipalities south of Steeles Avenue severed from York County, with the severed counties reforming the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto. As a result of this separation, the county offices for the County was moved from Toronto to Newmarket. At a meeting in Richmond Hill on 6 May 1970, officials representing the municipalities of York County approved plans for the creation of a regional government entity to replace York County. In 1971, the remaining portion of York County was dissolved, replaced by the Regional Municipality of York.
The following table is a list of historic municipalities that were at one point situated within York County. The seat of government for York County was situated in Toronto from 1792 to 1953. After the creation of Metropolitan Toronto in 1953, the seat of government for York County was moved to Newmarket. Offices used by York County included: List of Ontario census divisions Middleton, Jesse Edgar. Province of Ontario — A History 1615 to 1927. Toronto: Dominion Publishing Company. Boylen, J. C.. York Township: An Historical Summary 1850-1954. Toronto: Municipal Corporation of the Township of York and the Board of Education of the Township of York. Sawdon, Herb H.. The Woodbridge Story. Pp. 13–14
Queenston is a compact rural community and unincorporated place 5 kilometres north of Niagara Falls in the Town of Niagara-on-the-Lake, Canada. It is bordered by Highway 405 to the Niagara River to the east. Across the river and the Canada -- US border is the village of New York; the Lewiston-Queenston Bridge links the two communities. This village is at the point. During the ensuing 12,000 years the Falls cut an 11 kilometres long gorge in the Escarpment southward to its present-day position. In the early 19th century, the community's name was spelled as Queenstown. Queenston marks the southern terminus of the Bruce Trail; the cairn marking the trail's terminus is in a parking lot, about 160 metres from General Brock's Monument on the easterly side of the monument's park grounds. Queenston was first settled in the 1770s by Loyalist immigrants from the United States. By 1807, the village had 100 homes and a population of 300. A new portage around Niagara Falls was developed in the 1780s' with Queenston at its north end.
Wharves, storehouses and a block-house were built. Called "Lower Landing" it was named "Queenston" by Lieut.-Governor Simcoe. A great deal of fighting occurred here during the War of 1812, in the settlement and at nearby Fort George. In that era, Laura Secord lived in this area. Rebel William Lyon MacKenzie lived in Queenston in the 1820s and operated his publishing operation here. On 13 October 1812, American troops took possession of Queenston Heights. Major-General Sir Isaac Brock arrived from Fort George, Ontario with a small force and was killed while trying to regain the heights; the British and militia troops under Major-General Roger Hale Sheaffe, with reinforcements from Chippawa, Ontario were able to take the hill and captured nearly 1000 prisoners. The victory and Brock's death are commemorated by Brock's Monument atop the Niagara Escarpment with a large stone statue of Brock overlooking the village below. Nearby is a smaller monument to Brock's gray horse, which may, or may not, have been at Queenston during the battle.
Queenston Heights is one of the National Historic Sites of Canada, so recognized in June 1968. The settlement of Queenston was destroyed on December 10, 1813. British Captain William Hamilton Merritt said that he saw "nothing but heaps of coals, the streets full of furniture". In the 1830s, Queenston was terminus for the Erie and Ontario; the subsequent steam railroad that started in around 1854 bypassed Queenston. Located in nearby St. David's, the Queenston Quarry was founded in 1837 and for 150 years, stone was shipped here to help build many of Ontario's cities. Toronto buildings that benefitted from the supply of stone included Queen’s Park, the Royal Ontario Museum, Union Station and the Gibraltar Point Lighthouse. By the mid-1800s, the Welland Canal became the primary method of shipping goods and the village of Queenston received little trade. Queenston became part of the town of Niagara-on-the-Lake in 1970. RiverBrink Art Museum is located in Queenston, it is home to a unique collection of over 1,400 artworks and artefacts by Canadian and international artists, assembled by Samuel E. Weir.
Completed in 1970, the building features Georgian-style architecture, including a mansard roof and gabled windows. It served as Weir's country residence, was converted into an art museum following his death in 1981. Joint Support Ship Project will be named Queenston-Class and one ship as HMCS Queenston to commemorate the site of the battle at Queenston. Location of Queenston with photos and links to web sites related to the area Images of Queenston Niagara Falls Public Library Images of Queenston Dock Niagara Falls Public Library Images of Queenston Heights Niagara Falls Public Library
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
Thomas Fuller was an English churchman and historian. He is now remembered for his writings his Worthies of England, published in 1662 after his death, he was a prolific author, one of the first English writers able to live by his pen. Fuller was the eldest son of rector of Aldwinkle St Peter's, Northamptonshire, he was born at his father's rectory and was baptised on 19 June 1608. Dr John Davenant, bishop of Salisbury, was his godfather. According to John Aubrey, Fuller was "a boy of pregnant wit". At thirteen he was admitted to Queens' College, Cambridge presided over by John Davenant, his cousin, Edward Davenant, was a tutor there. He did well academically. A. and in July 1628, at only 20 years of age, received his M. A. After being overlooked in an election of fellows of his college, he moved to Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge in November 1628. In 1630 he received from Corpus Christi College. Fuller's oratory soon attracted attention. In June 1631 his uncle gave him a prebend in Salisbury, where his father, who would die in the following year held a canonry.
The rectory of Broadwindsor, Dorset in the diocese of Bristol, was his next preferment. In 1640, he was elected proctor for Bristol in the memorable convocation of Canterbury, which assembled with the Short Parliament. On the sudden dissolution of the latter he joined those who urged that convocation should dissolve; that opinion was overruled. Fuller wrote a valuable account of the proceedings of this synod in his Church History, although he was fined £200 for remaining. At Broadwindsor, early in 1641, Thomas Fuller, his curate Henry Sanders, the churchwardens, five others certified that their parish, represented by 242 adult males, had taken the Protestation ordered by the speaker of the Long Parliament. Fuller was not formally dispossessed of his living and prebend on the triumph of the Presbyterian party, but he relinquished both preferments about this time. For a short time he preached with success at the Inns of Court, at the invitation of the master of the Savoy, Walter Balcanqual, the brotherhood of that foundation, became lecturer at their chapel of St Mary Savoy.
Some of the best discourses of the witty preacher were delivered at the Savoy to audiences which extended into the chapel-yard. In one he set forth with searching and truthful minuteness the hindrances to peace, urged the signing of petitions to the king at Oxford, to the parliament, to continue their care in advancing an accommodation. In his Appeal of Injured Innocence Fuller says that he was once deputed to carry a petition to the king at Oxford; this has been identified with a petition entrusted to Sir Edward Wardour, clerk of the pells, Dr Dukeson, "Dr Fuller," and four or five others from the city of Westminster and the parishes contiguous to the Savoy. A pass was granted by the House of Lords, on 2 January 1643, for an equipage of two coaches, four or six horses and eight or ten attendants. On the arrival of the deputation at the Treaty of Uxbridge, on 4 January, officers of the Parliamentary army stopped the coaches and searched the gentlemen. A joint order of both Houses remanded the party.
The Westminster Petition reached the king's hands. When it was expected, three months that a favourable result would attend the negotiations at Oxford, Fuller preached a sermon at Westminster Abbey, on 27 March 1643, on the anniversary of Charles I's accession, on the text, "Yea, let him take all, so my Lord the King return in peace." On Wednesday 26 July, he preached on church reformation, satirizing the religious reformers, maintaining that only the Supreme Power could initiate reforms. He was now obliged to leave London, in August 1643 he joined the king at Oxford, where he lodged in a chamber at Lincoln College. Thence he put forth a witty and effective reply to John Saltmarsh, who had attacked his views on ecclesiastical reform. Fuller subsequently published by royal request a sermon preached on 10 May 1644, at St Mary's, before the king and Prince Charles, called Jacob's Vow; the spirit of Fuller's preaching, characterized by calmness and moderation, offended the high royalists. To silence unjust censures he became chaplain to the regiment of Sir Ralph Hopton.
For the first five years of the war, he "had little list or leisure to write, fearing to be made a history, shifting daily for my safety. All that time I could not live to study, who did only study to live." After the defeat of Hopton at Cheriton Down, Fuller retreated to Basing House. He took an active part in its defence, his life with the troops caused him to be afterwards regarded as one of "the great cavalier parsons." He compiled in 1645 a small volume of prayers and meditations—the Good Thoughts in Bad Times—which, set up and printed in the besieged city of Exeter, where he had retired, was called by himself "the first fruits of Exeter press." It was inscribed to Lady Dalkeith, governess to the infant princess, Henrietta Anne, to whose household he was attached as chaplain. The corporation gave him the Bodleian lectureship on 21 March 1646, he held it until 17 June following, soon after the surrender of the city to the parliament; the Fear of losing life Old Light was his farewell discourse to his Exet