A janitor, custodian, cleaner or caretaker is a person who cleans and maintains buildings such as hospitals and residential accommodation. Janitors' primary responsibility is as a cleaner. In some cases, they will carry out maintenance and security duties. A similar position, but with more managerial duties and not including cleaning, is occupied by building superintendents in the United States. Cleaning is one of the most outsourced services. Although most of the work performed by janitors and building cleaners is indoors, sometimes it can be outdoors. Outdoors work include sweeping walkways, mowing lawns, or shoveling snow. In some facilities or buildings, a separate company may be hired to do outdoor work. Office buildings are cleaned when they are vacant, so most of the office janitorial staff work during the evening; the work can be sometimes dirty and unpleasant. General janitor duties include the following tasks: Cleaning and restocking bathrooms Sinks Toilets Urinals Floor cleaning and polishing Clearing garbage bins Restocking restroom paper products and other supplies such as feminine products and air fresheners Cleaning mirrors Cleaning floors Carpet cleaning Cleaning carpeting Cleaning stainless steel and other special surfaces Clearing lunch room/kitchen Cleaning tables in cubicles, meeting rooms, etc...
Emptying trash and recycling bin Unlocking and locking buildings at the beginning and end of the day Stripping and waxing floors using Floor buffer Cleaning air-conditioner vents Crime scene cleaning Litter picking Spot cleaning Sanitization Room setups Porterage Removing vomit and feces from public areas Raising and lowering flags In 2010, the median pay of a janitor working in the US was $10.68 per hour. The yearly salary could grow by 11% according to the statistics of 2010. Office cleaning staff perform many of the same duties as janitors; however the tasks are divided among different members. Additional tasks include: watering plants cleaning sinks, refrigerators and toasters in office kitchens; some of the reasons for this include: Basic cleaning tasks are standardised, with little variation among different enterprises. The nature of the job and required standard of performance can be defined and specified in a contract, unlike more technical or professional jobs for which such specification is harder to develop.
Some organizations prefer to outsource work unrelated to their core business in order to save additional salaries and benefits required to manage the work. Some organizations may feel uncomfortable dealing with labour relations related to low wage employees. If a janitor is unavailable due to sickness or leave, a contractor which employs many janitors can assign a substitute. A small organisation which employs one or a few janitors directly will have much more trouble with this. Between 17% to 23% of the total undocumented immigrant population living in the United States work in the cleaning industry. In addition to this population offering an abundant source of inexpensive labor, janitorial work is undertaken at night, making it an appealing option for janitorial companies to employ undocumented workers seeking clandestine employment. Many such immigrants have started their own janitorial companies using fictitious business licenses and false identication information. In the Netherlands, the number of cleaning companies grew from 5,000 in 2003 to 8,000 in 2008.
Building superintendent Housekeeping Property caretaker Wedgwood, Hensleigh. "On False Etymologies". Transactions of the Philological Society; the dictionary definition of janitor at Wiktionary Media related to Janitors at Wikimedia Commons
PortsToronto known as the Toronto Port Authority, is responsible for the management of the harbour of Toronto, Ontario and the Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport. It is a federally-incorporated agency, with directors appointed by three levels of government: the Government of Canada, through the Minister of Transport, Government of Ontario and the City of Toronto; the agency changed its name in 2015 to PortsToronto. The organization is the successor to the Toronto Harbour Commission which had managed Toronto Harbour since 1911, paid for through government transfers and airport fees; as part of a Canada-wide plan of the Government of Canada to turn government commissions into self-sufficient agencies, the TPA was set up in 1999 to take over the harbour and airport functions of the THC. This was done against the wishes of the City of Toronto, transferring THC harbour lands to City agencies for redevelopment; the City had planned to take over the harbour administration as a direct city function. The new mission, to be self-sufficient, led the agency to pursue opportunities to increase its revenues, including expansion of the island airport, the building of a cruise ship terminal.
The agency built a working relationship with startup airline Porter Airlines and, despite the 2003 cancelling of a permanent bridge to the airport, has been successful in increasing air traffic at the airport to the point where it turned a profit in 2008. It has since built a pedestrian tunnel to the airport. In contrast, the cruise ship facility has been little-used after the failure of a ferry to Rochester, New York; the TPA's efforts in partnership with Porter to expand the airport has placed it in opposition to various communities in Toronto and Toronto City Council, which in 2003 cancelled a TPA-planned bridge to the airport. Additionally, the agency has been involved in several disputes, including a land dispute, harbour fees and property taxes with the City, lawsuits over the operation of the airport with Air Canada. In 2013, Porter proposed an expansion of the airport to support the introduction of jet airplanes to the airport. Toronto City Council sent it to the TPA for study; the jet proposal was cancelled in December 2015 after the newly elected Liberal federal government announced it would not renegotiate the operating agreement of the airport to allow jets.
PortsToronto operates the Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport, Billy Bishop Toronto City Water Aerodrome, Marine Terminals 51 and 52, the Passenger Cruise Ship Facility and the Outer Harbour Marina. PT provides regulatory controls and public works for marine and air navigation in the port and harbour of Toronto. PT grants operator's permits to recreational boaters in the harbour of Toronto, oversees land development, engages in trade development for its terminals, appoints the Harbour Master. PT has a staff of 110 full-time employees and 25 seasonal and part-time workers; as of December 2008, the agency had $46 million CAD in capital assets. Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport, or Toronto Island Airport, is located at the western end of Toronto Islands. Operation of the airport is governed by a 1983 tripartite agreement between the Toronto Harbour Commission, the Government of Canada and the City of Toronto; the majority of the airport land is owned by PortsToronto with two small sections owned by the Government of Canada and a small section owned by the city.
The small portion of city-owned land is leased to PortsToronto for a nominal amount until 2033 under the 1983 agreement. Access to the airport is by ferry services operated by a pedestrian tunnel. Built in 1939 on land dredged from the harbour, it has three runways which can accommodate the smaller planes of regional scheduled airlines and general aviation aircraft; the 1983 agreement prohibits jet airplanes except in emergencies. In 2007, the number of landings and take-offs at the airport was 90,199; because of its location near downtown and its tall buildings, industrial smokestacks and a wind turbine, air traffic into and out of the airport is controlled with approaches and departures routed over the lake. A seaplane base is located just east of the main apron; the airport is used for medical flights. The airport has been the site of operations of several regional airlines since the 1980s; the first airline was City Express, until 1990. This was followed by Air Canada Jazz. Since 2006, Porter Airlines has operated out of the airport.
The airline flies to more than 20 regional destinations including Ottawa and Newark, Boston and Quebec City. The airport handled 2.5 million passengers in 2015. Toronto Harbour is 3.2 kilometres by 1.6 kilometres and is sheltered by a string of offshore islands. PortsToronto operates a 20-hectare paved facility consisting of Marine Terminal 51 and Warehouse 52 on the east side of the harbour. There are 3 miles of deep-water wharfage for the unloading of bulk products. Marine terminals include inside and outside storage, some 6,000 square feet of berthing space for ships carrying general cargo; the port facilities include the Cruise Ship Facility, or International Marine Passenger Terminal, built as a passenger terminal for a ferry to Rochester, New York. It was used as the main setting for the CBC crime drama The Border; the lands of the Port of Toronto used to be larger. The Port Lands surrounding the facility were created by infilling the delta of the Don River by the Toronto Harbour Commission in the 1910s, were owned and controlled by the Harbour Commission until the 1990s, when they were transferred to the City of Toronto.
The lands are expected to be rede
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
In folklore, a ghost is the soul or spirit of a dead person or animal that can appear to the living. In ghostlore, descriptions of ghosts vary from an invisible presence to translucent or visible wispy shapes, to realistic, lifelike visions; the deliberate attempt to contact the spirit of a deceased person is known as necromancy, or in spiritism as a séance. The belief in the existence of an afterlife, as well as manifestations of the spirits of the dead, is widespread, dating back to animism or ancestor worship in pre-literate cultures. Certain religious practices—funeral rites and some practices of spiritualism and ritual magic—are designed to rest the spirits of the dead. Ghosts are described as solitary, human-like essences, though stories of ghostly armies and the ghosts of animals rather than humans have been recounted, they are believed to haunt particular locations, objects, or people they were associated with in life. According to a 2009 study by the Pew Research Center, 18 % of Americans say.
The overwhelming consensus of science is. Their existence is impossible to falsify, ghost hunting has been classified as pseudoscience. Despite centuries of investigation, there is no scientific evidence that any location is inhabited by spirits of the dead. Research has indicated that ghost sightings may be related to degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Older reports linked carbon monoxide poisoning to ghost-like hallucinations; the English word ghost continues Old English gāst, from Proto-Germanic *gaistaz. It is common to West Germanic; the prior Proto-Indo-European form was *ǵʰéysd-os, from the root *ǵʰéysd- denoting "fury, anger" reflected in Old Norse geisa "to rage". The Germanic word is recorded as masculine only, but continues a neuter s-stem; the original meaning of the Germanic word would thus have been an animating principle of the mind, in particular capable of excitation and fury. In Germanic paganism, "Germanic Mercury", the Odin, was at the same time the conductor of the dead and the "lord of fury" leading the Wild Hunt.
Besides denoting the human spirit or soul, both of the living and the deceased, the Old English word is used as a synonym of Latin spiritus in the meaning of "breath" or "blast" from the earliest attestations. It could denote any good or evil spirit, such as angels and demons. From the Old English period, the word could denote the spirit of God, viz. the "Holy Ghost". The now-prevailing sense of "the soul of a deceased person, spoken of as appearing in a visible form" only emerges in Middle English; the modern noun does, retain a wider field of application, extending on one hand to "soul", "spirit", "vital principle", "mind", or "psyche", the seat of feeling and moral judgement. The synonym spook is a Dutch loanword, akin to Low German spôk. Alternative words in modern usage include spectre, the Scottish wraith and apparition; the term shade in classical mythology translates Greek σκιά, or Latin umbra, in reference to the notion of spirits in the Greek underworld. "Haint" is a synonym for ghost used in regional English of the southern United States, the "haint tale" is a common feature of southern oral and literary tradition.
The term poltergeist is a German word a "noisy ghost", for a spirit said to manifest itself by invisibly moving and influencing objects. Wraith is a Scots word for spectre, or apparition, it appeared in Scottish Romanticist literature, acquired the more general or figurative sense of portent or omen. In 18th- to 19th-century Scottish literature, it applied to aquatic spirits; the word has no accepted etymology. An association with the verb writhe was the etymology favored by J. R. R. Tolkien. Tolkien's use of the word in the naming of the creatures known as the Ringwraiths has influenced usage in fantasy literature. Bogey or bogy/bogie is a term for a ghost, appears in Scottish poet John Mayne's Hallowe'en in 1780. A revenant is a deceased person returning from the dead to haunt the living, either as a disembodied ghost or alternatively as an animated corpse. Related is the concept of a fetch, the visible ghost or spirit of a person yet alive. A notion of the transcendent, supernatural, or numinous involving entities like ghosts, demons, or deities, is a cultural universal.
In pre-literate folk religions, these beliefs are summarized under animism and ancestor worship. Some people believe the ghost or spirit never leaves Earth until there is no-one left to remember the one who died. In many cultures, restless ghosts are distinguished from the more benign spirits involved in ancestor worship. Ancestor worship involves rites intended to prevent revenants, vengeful spirits of the dead, imagined as starving and envious of the living. Strategies for preventing revenants may either include sacrifice, i.e. giving the dead food and drink to pacify them
A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes and functions, have been adapted throughout history for a wide number of factors, from building materials available, to weather conditions, land prices, ground conditions, specific uses, aesthetic reasons. To better understand the term building compare the list of nonbuilding structures. Buildings serve several societal needs – as shelter from weather, living space, privacy, to store belongings, to comfortably live and work. A building as a shelter represents a physical division of the outside. Since the first cave paintings, buildings have become objects or canvasses of much artistic expression. In recent years, interest in sustainable planning and building practices has become an intentional part of the design process of many new buildings; the word building is the act of making it. As a noun, a building is'a structure that has a roof and walls and stands more or less permanently in one place'.
In the broadest interpretation a fence or wall is a building. However, the word structure is used more broadly than building including natural and man-made formations and does not have walls. Structure is more to be used for a fence. Sturgis' Dictionary included that " differs from architecture in excluding all idea of artistic treatment; as a verb, building is the act of construction. Structural height in technical usage is the height to the highest architectural detail on building from street-level. Depending on how they are classified and masts may or may not be included in this height. Spires and masts used as antennas are not included; the definition of a low-rise vs. a high-rise building is a matter of debate, but three storeys or less is considered low-rise. A report by Shinichi Fujimura of a shelter built 500 000 years ago is doubtful since Fujimura was found to have faked many of his findings. Supposed remains of huts found at the Terra Amata site in Nice purportedly dating from 200 000 to 400 000 years ago have been called into question.
There is clear evidence of homebuilding from around 18 000 BC. Buildings became common during the Neolithic. Single-family residential buildings are most called houses or homes. Multi-family residential buildings containing more than one dwelling unit are called a duplex or an apartment building. A condominium is an apartment rather than rents. Houses may be built in pairs, in terraces where all but two of the houses have others either side. Houses which were built as a single dwelling may be divided into apartments or bedsitters. Building types may range from huts to multimillion-dollar high-rise apartment blocks able to house thousands of people. Increasing settlement density in buildings is a response to high ground prices resulting from many people wanting to live close to work or similar attractors. Other common building materials are concrete or combinations of either of these with stone. Residential buildings have different names for their use depending if they are seasonal include holiday cottage or timeshare.
If the residents are in need of special care such as a nursing home, orphanage or prison. Many people lived in communal buildings called longhouses, smaller dwellings called pit-houses and houses combined with barns sometimes called housebarns. Buildings are defined to be substantial, permanent structures so other dwelling forms such as houseboats and motorhomes are dwellings but not buildings. Sometimes a group of inter-related builds are referred to as a complex – for example a housing complex, educational complex, hospital complex, etc; the practice of designing and operating buildings is most a collective effort of different groups of professionals and trades. Depending on the size and purpose of a particular building project, the project team may include: A real estate developer who secures funding for the project. Other possible design Engineer specialists may be involved such as Fire, facade engineers, building physics, Telecomms, AV (Audio V