Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams now play in the National League and American League, the NL and AL operated as separate legal entities from 1876 and 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining legally separate entities since 1903, the merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000. The organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises about 240 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs, with the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseballs first professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869,30 years after Abner Doubleday supposedly invented the game of baseball, the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who often jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era, Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, and survived potential downturns during the Great Depression, shortly after the war, baseballs color barrier was broken by Jackie Robinson. The 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL, new stadiums, Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, and media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, today, MLB is composed of thirty teams, twenty-nine in the United States and one in Canada. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America, MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution and this document has undergone several incarnations since 1875, with the most recent revisions being made in 2012.
Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sports umpiring crews, and negotiates marketing, labor, MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball. This ruling has been weakened only slightly in subsequent years, the weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLBs primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916, the last attempt at a new league was the aborted Continental League in 1960. The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner, Rob Manfred, the chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives, chief officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer. The multimedia branch of MLB, which is based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media and this branch oversees MLB. com and each of the 30 teams websites. Its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, MLB Productions is a similarly structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media
The Montreal Alouettes are a Canadian football team based in Montreal, Quebec. Founded in 1946, the team has folded and been revived twice, the Alouettes compete in the East Division of the Canadian Football League and last won the Grey Cup championship in 2010. Their home field is Percival Molson Memorial Stadium for the regular season, the original Alouettes team won four Grey Cups and were particularly dominant in the 1970s. After their collapse in 1982, they were immediately reconstituted under new ownership as the Montreal Concordes, after playing for four years as the Concordes, they revived the Alouettes name for the 1986 season. A second folding in 1987 led to a hiatus of CFL football in the city. The current Alouettes franchise was established in 1996 by the owners of the Baltimore Stallions, many players from the Stallions 1995 roster signed with the Alouettes and formed the core of the teams 1996 roster. The CFL considers all clubs that have played in Montreal as one franchise dating to 1946, the Alouettes had from 1996 to 2014 the CFLs longest active playoff streak, having missed the playoffs twice since returning to the league.
The streak came to an end in 2015 and they have hosted a playoff game every year except 2001,2007,2013,2015 and 2016 and have never finished with fewer than six wins. Their only four losing seasons came in 2007,2013 and 2015 and 2016,2015 and 2016 marked the first time the team missed the playoffs in consecutive years since their re-activation. Major stars of the recent era include Mike Pringle, the CFL career leader in rushing yards, and quarterback Anthony Calvillo, the Alouettes are owned by American investment banker Robert Wetenhall. It is currently the only CFL team to have non-Canadian ownership, Jim Popp served as the teams general manager, his tenure with the franchise, which extended back to the Baltimore era, ended on November 7,2016. Founded, The original Montreal club was founded on April 8,1872, the original club was renamed as the Montreal Alouettes in 1946. However, the original Alouettes club ceased operations following the 1981 season and was replaced by a new team, the Montreal Concordes, the Concordes were rechristened the new Alouettes for the 1986 season, but ceased operations the day before the 1987 season was due to start.
The current Montreal Alouettes franchise commenced play in 1996, uniform Colours, red, silver and black Home Stadium, The Alouettes play at Percival Molson Memorial Stadium for the regular season, while they play at Olympic Stadium for playoff games. The Alouettes were first formed in 1946 by CFL hall of famer Lew Hayman along with businessmen Eric Cradock and they named themselves after Alouette, a work song about plucking the feathers from a skylark, which had become a symbol of the Québécois. They won their first Grey Cup championship in 1949, beating Calgary 28–15 led by quarterback Frank Filchock, from 1954 to 1956, they reached the Grey Cup in three straight years, but questionable defensive units led the Alouettes to defeat against the Edmonton Eskimos all three times. The team was purchased in 1954 by Ted Workman – and while the team continued to enjoy success, that all changed at the end of the 1960 season. To be more specific, the team was shaken by an announcement on November 10 – namely the trade of Hal Patterson and Sam Etcheverry to the Hamilton Tiger-Cats for Bernie Faloney, Workman had concluded the deal without consulting with general manager Perry Moss
Maple Leaf Gardens
Maple Leaf Gardens is a historic building located at the northwest corner of Carlton Street and Church Street in Toronto, Canada. The building was constructed as an arena to host ice hockey games. Considered one of the cathedrals of ice hockey, it was home to the Toronto Maple Leafs of the National Hockey League from 1931 to 1999, the Leafs won the Stanley Cup 11 times from 1932 to 1967 while playing at the Gardens. The first NHL All-Star Game, albeit an unofficial one, was held at the Gardens in 1934 as a benefit for Leafs forward Ace Bailey, the first official annual National Hockey League All-Star Game was held at Maple Leaf Gardens in 1947. The NBAs Buffalo Braves played a total of 16 regular season games at Maple Leaf Gardens from 1971 to 1975, the NBAs Toronto Raptors played six games at the Gardens from 1997 to 1999, mostly when SkyDome was unavailable. It was one of the few venues outside of the United States where Elvis Presley performed in concert, in 1972, Maple Leaf Gardens hosted game 2 of the famous Summit Series between Team Canada and the USSR.
Team Canada won the game 4–1, the Toronto Maple Leafs had been playing in the Arena Gardens on Mutual Street. It was built in 1912 and held 7,500 for ice hockey, by 1930, Leafs managing director Conn Smythe decided the Arena was too small and he wanted to build a new arena and more impressive. After considering various sites, the site at the corner of Carlton, Eaton Co. Ltd. for $350,000, a price said to be $150,000 below market value. The new 12,473 seat arena was designed by the firm of Ross. To finance the construction, Smythe launched Maple Leaf Gardens Limited, a management company that would own the arena, a public offering of shares in MLGL was made at C$10 each, with a free common share for each five preferred shares purchased. Ownership of the team was transferred to MLGL in return for shares. His son, Foster Hewitt, was hired to run the radio broadcasts, the contract to construct the building was awarded to Thomson Brothers Construction of Port Credit in Toronto Township. That price did not include work, which was estimated at an additional $100,000.
Additional savings were made through deals with unions, in exchange for shares in MLGL. Construction began at midnight on June 1,1931, in what is to this day considered to be a remarkable accomplishment, the Gardens was constructed in five months and two weeks at a cost of C$1.5 million. Team owner Ballard lived in the owners suite built into the arenas top northeast corner, the Gardens opened on November 12,1931, with the Maple Leafs losing 2–1 to the Chicago Blackhawks. Reported attendance on opening night was 13,542, the Leafs would go on to win their first Stanley Cup as the Maple Leafs that season
Weimar Republic is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state between 1919 and 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar, where its constitutional assembly first took place, the official name of the state was still Deutsches Reich, it had remained unchanged since 1871. In English the country was known simply as Germany. A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for the Deutsches Reich was written, in its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism, and contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War. The people of Germany blamed the Weimar Republic rather than their leaders for the countrys defeat. However, the Weimar Republic government successfully reformed the currency, unified tax policies, Weimar Germany eliminated most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles, it never completely met its disarmament requirements, and eventually paid only a small portion of the war reparations.
Under the Locarno Treaties, Germany accepted the borders of the republic. From 1930 onwards President Hindenburg used emergency powers to back Chancellors Heinrich Brüning, Franz von Papen, the Great Depression, exacerbated by Brünings policy of deflation, led to a surge in unemployment. In 1933, Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as Chancellor with the Nazi Party being part of a coalition government, the Nazis held two out of the remaining ten cabinet seats. Von Papen as Vice Chancellor was intended to be the éminence grise who would keep Hitler under control, within months the Reichstag Fire Decree and the Enabling Act of 1933 had brought about a state of emergency, it wiped out constitutional governance and civil liberties. Hitlers seizure of power was permissive of government by decree without legislative participation and these events brought the republic to an end, as democracy collapsed, a single-party state founded the Nazi era. The Weimar Republic is so called because the assembly that adopted its constitution met at Weimar, Germany from 6 February 1919 to 11 August 1919, but this name only became mainstream after 1933.
To the right of the spectrum the politically engaged rejected the new democratic model, the Catholic Centre party, Zentrum favoured the term Deutscher Volksstaat while on the moderate left the Chancellors SPD preferred Deutsche Republik. Only during the 1930s did the term become mainstream, both within and outside Germany, after the introduction of the republic, the flag and coat of arms of Germany were officially altered to reflect the political changes. The Weimar Republic retained the Reichsadler, but without the symbols of the former Monarchy and this left the black eagle with one head, facing to the right, with open wings but closed feathers, with a red beak and claws and white highlighting. If the Reichs Eagle is shown without a frame, the charge and colors as those of the eagle of the Reichs coat of arms are to be used. The patterns kept by the Federal Ministry of the Interior are decisive for the heraldic design, the artistic design may be varied for each special purpose. The achievements and signs of movement were mostly done away with after its downfall
National Hockey League
Headquartered in New York City, the NHL is considered to be the premier professional ice hockey league in the world, and one of the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. The Stanley Cup, the oldest professional sports trophy in North America, is awarded annually to the playoff champion at the end of each season. At its inception, the NHL had four teams—all in Canada, the league expanded to the United States in 1924, when the Boston Bruins joined, and has since consisted of American and Canadian teams. After a labour-management dispute that led to the cancellation of the entire 2004–05 season, in 2009, the NHL enjoyed record highs in terms of sponsorships and television audiences. The league draws many highly skilled players from all over the world, canadians have historically constituted the majority of the players in the league, with an increasing percentage of American and European players in recent seasons. The National Hockey League was established in 1917 as the successor to the National Hockey Association, founded in 1909, the NHA began play one year with seven teams in Ontario and Quebec, and was one of the first major leagues in professional ice hockey.
Realizing the NHA constitution left them unable to force Livingstone out, the four teams voted instead to suspend the NHA, frank Calder was chosen as its first president, serving until his death in 1943. The Bulldogs were unable to play, and the remaining owners created a new team in Toronto, the first games were played on December 19,1917. The Montreal Arena burned down in January 1918, causing the Wanderers to cease operations, the NHL replaced the NHA as one of the leagues that competed for the Stanley Cup, which was an interleague competition back then. Toronto won the first NHL title, and defeated the Vancouver Millionaires of the Pacific Coast Hockey Association for the 1918 Stanley Cup. The Canadiens won the title in 1919, however their Stanley Cup Final against the PCHAs Seattle Metropolitans was abandoned as a result of the Spanish Flu epidemic. Montreal in 1924 won their first Stanley Cup as a member of the NHL, the Hamilton Tigers, won the regular season title in 1924–25 but refused to play in the championship series unless they were given a C$200 bonus.
The league refused and declared the Canadiens the league champion after defeated the Toronto St. Patricks in the semi-final. Montreal was defeated by the Victoria Cougars of the Western Canada Hockey League for the 1925 Stanley Cup and it was the last time a non-NHL team won the trophy, as the Stanley Cup became the de facto NHL championship in 1926 after the WCHL ceased operation. The National Hockey League embarked on rapid expansion in the 1920s, adding the Montreal Maroons, the Bruins were the first American team in the league. The New York Americans began play in 1925 after purchasing the assets of the Hamilton Tigers, the New York Rangers were added in 1926. The Chicago Black Hawks and Detroit Cougars were added after the league purchased the assets of the defunct WCHL, a group purchased the Toronto St. Patricks in 1927 and immediately renamed them the Maple Leafs. The first NHL All-Star Game was held in 1934 to benefit Ace Bailey, the second was held in 1937 in support of Howie Morenzs family when he died of a coronary embolism after breaking his leg during a game
Bay Street is a major thoroughfare in Downtown Toronto, Canada. It is the centre of Torontos Financial District and is used by metonymy to refer to Canadas financial services industry since succeeding Montreals St. James Street in that role in the 1970s. Bay Street begins at Queens Quay in the south and ends at Davenport Road in the north, the original section of Bay Street ran only as far north as Queen Street West. Sections north of Queen Street were renamed Bay Street as several streets were consolidated. The largest of these streets, Terauley Street, ran from Queen Street West to Grenville Street, at these two points, there is a curve in Bay Street. Bay Street is frequently used as a metonym to refer to Torontos Financial District, Bay Street banker, as in the phrase cold as a Bay Street bankers heart, was a term of opprobrium especially among Prairie farmers who feared that Toronto-based financial interests were hurting them. Within the legal profession, the term Bay Street is used colloquially to refer to the large, the street was originally known as Bear Street because of frequent bear sightings in the early history of Toronto.
It was renamed Bay Street in 1797 from the fact that it connected Lot Street to a bay at the Toronto Harbour, until 1922, the section of Bay running north from Queen Street and ending at College Street was known as Terauley Street. Several discontinuous streets existed north of College Street to Davenport Road, By-Law 9316 joined these streets together as far north as Scollard Street in 1922. Finally, By-Law 9884, enacted on January 28,1924, changed the name of Ketchum Avenue to Bay Street, there is a short street called Terauley Lane running west of Bay from Grenville Street to Grosvenor Street. The intersection of Bay and King Street is often seen as the centre of Canadian banking, the core cluster of towers has crept north with the addition of the 50-storey Bay Adelaide Centre and the Trump Tower Toronto. Significant condominium development on Bay, north of the district, boomed during the 1990s and construction continues on large, 40-plus storey condominiums. The area is defined by Dundas Street to the south and Bloor/Yorkville to the north and crosses through Torontos Discovery District, the area attracts many who work in the financial district and those who work in the Discovery District, nearby hospitals and schools.
More than 67% of residents in this area are in the ages of 25-64. The intersection of Bay and Bloor is the location of the Toronto Transit Commissions Bay subway station, Bay Street is served by the route 6 Bay bus, which is one of the few downtown bus routes. The street used to be served by lines, which were gradually phased out after the north-south Yonge. The remaining streetcar tracks between Dundas and College Streets are now used for turns and diversions. City of London Financial district Wall Street Bay Street at Google Maps Bay Street Corridor neighbourhood profile
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Robert Abial Red Rolfe was an American third baseman and front-office executive in Major League Baseball. During his playing career, Rolfe was the third baseman on the New York Yankees of the late 1930s. Rolfe played 10 major league seasons, all with New York and his finest season came in 1939, when he amassed 213 hits,139 runs scored, and 46 doubles while hitting.329 with 14 home runs and 80 runs batted in. He retired following the 1942 season, after his four-year coaching stint at Yale, Rolfe coached the Toronto Huskies of the BAA in 1946–1947 and returned to the Yankees as a coach. After the 1947 season, Rolfe joined the Detroit Tigers as director of their farm system, but he returned to the field after only one season, when he succeeded Steve ONeill as Tiger manager after the 1948 campaign. In 1949, Rolfes first season as manager, the Tigers improved by nine games, then, in 1950, they nearly upset the Yankees, winning 95 games and finishing second, three games behind. A fluke botched double play was the teams undoing, late in September at Cleveland, the Indians had the bases loaded in the tenth inning with one out and the score tied.
Visibility was poor because smoke from Canadian forest fires was blowing across Lake Erie, but in the smoky conditions Robinson had not seen that a putout had already been made at first base, necessitating that the catcher tag the runner, not the plate, to record an out. Robinson mistakenly tagged the plate, the run counted and Cleveland won the game and it was the turning point in the pennant race, for the postwar Tigers, and for Rolfes managerial career. Beset by a starting rotation, the Tigers faltered in 1951, slipping to 73 wins. Then Detroit completely unraveled in 1952, winning only 23 of 72 games under Rolfe, on July 5, he was fired and replaced by one of his pitchers, Fred Hutchinson. The 1952 club won only 50 games, losing 104 – the first time ever that the Tigers lost 100 or more games, Rolfe returned to Dartmouth as the athletic director of his alma mater from 1954 to 1967. The colleges baseball diamond is named in his honor, Rolfe died in Gilford, New Hampshire, in 1969 at age 60 of chronic kidney disease
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701 in Saybrook Colony to train Congregationalist ministers, it is the third-oldest institution of education in the United States. The Collegiate School moved to New Haven in 1716, and shortly after was renamed Yale College in recognition of a gift from British East India Company governor Elihu Yale. Originally restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century the school introduced graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first Ph. D. in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools, the undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each schools faculty oversees its curriculum, the universitys assets include an endowment valued at $25.4 billion as of June 2016, the second largest of any U. S. educational institution.
The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States, Yale College undergraduates follow a liberal arts curriculum with departmental majors and are organized into a social system of residential colleges. Almost all faculty teach courses, more than 2,000 of which are offered annually. Students compete intercollegiately as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U. S. Presidents,19 U. S. Supreme Court Justices,20 living billionaires, and many heads of state. In addition, Yale has graduated hundreds of members of Congress,57 Nobel laureates,5 Fields Medalists,247 Rhodes Scholars, and 119 Marshall Scholars have been affiliated with the University. Yale traces its beginnings to An Act for Liberty to Erect a Collegiate School, passed by the General Court of the Colony of Connecticut on October 9,1701, the Act was an effort to create an institution to train ministers and lay leadership for Connecticut.
Soon thereafter, a group of ten Congregationalist ministers, Samuel Andrew, Thomas Buckingham, Israel Chauncy, Samuel Mather, the group, led by James Pierpont, is now known as The Founders. Originally known as the Collegiate School, the institution opened in the home of its first rector, Abraham Pierson, the school moved to Saybrook, and Wethersfield. In 1716 the college moved to New Haven, the feud caused the Mathers to champion the success of the Collegiate School in the hope that it would maintain the Puritan religious orthodoxy in a way that Harvard had not. Cotton Mather suggested that the school change its name to Yale College, meanwhile, a Harvard graduate working in England convinced some 180 prominent intellectuals that they should donate books to Yale. The 1714 shipment of 500 books represented the best of modern English literature, philosophy and it had a profound effect on intellectuals at Yale. Undergraduate Jonathan Edwards discovered John Lockes works and developed his original theology known as the new divinity
Syracuse University, commonly referred to as Syracuse, Cuse, or SU, is a private research university in Syracuse, New York, United States. The institutions roots can be traced to the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary, founded in 1831 by the Methodist Episcopal Church in Lima, after several years of debate over relocating the college to Syracuse, the university was established in 1870, independent of the college. Since 1920, the university has identified itself as nonsectarian, although it maintains a relationship with The United Methodist Church, the campus is in the University Hill neighborhood of Syracuse and southeast of downtown, on one of the larger hills. Its large campus features a mix of buildings, ranging from nineteenth-century Romanesque Revival structures to contemporary buildings. Syracuse University athletic teams, known as the Orange, participate in 20 intercollegiate sports, SU is a member of the Atlantic Coast Conference for all NCAA Division I athletics, except for the mens rowing and womens ice hockey teams.
SU is a member of the Eastern College Athletic Conference, the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary was founded in 1831 by the Genesee Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Lima, New York, south of Rochester. In 1850, it was resolved to enlarge the institution from a seminary into a college, or to connect a college with the seminary, the location was soon thought by many to be insufficiently central. Its difficulties were compounded by the set of technological changes. The trustees of the college decided to seek a locale whose economic. Meanwhile, there were years of dispute between the Methodist ministers and contending cities across the state, over proposals to move Genesee College to Syracuse. At the time, the ministers wanted a share of the funds from the Morrill Land Grant Act for Genesee College and they agreed to a quid pro quo donation of $25,000 from Senator Cornell in exchange for their support for his bill. Cornell insisted the bargain be written into the bill and Cornell became New York States Land Grant University in 1865.
In 1869, Genesee College obtained New York State approval to move to Syracuse, but Lima got an injunction to block the move. By that time, the injunction had been made moot by the founding of a new university on March 24,1870. On that date the State of New York granted the new Syracuse University its own charter, the City of Syracuse had offered $100,000 to establish the school. Bishop Jesse Truesdell Peck had donated $25,000 to the school and was elected the first president of the Board of Trustees. Rev. Daniel Steele, a former Genesee College president, served as the first administrative leader of Syracuse until its Chancellor was appointed, the university opened in September 1871 in rented space downtown. George F. Comstock, a member of the new Universitys Board of Trustees, had offered the school 50 acres of farmland on a hillside to the southeast of the city center
Basketball Association of America
The Basketball Association of America was a professional basketball league in North America, founded in 1946. Following its third season, 1948–49, the BAA and the National Basketball League merged to create the National Basketball Association, the Philadelphia Warriors won the inaugural BAA championship in 1947, followed by the Baltimore Bullets and the Minneapolis Lakers in 1948 and 1949, respectively. Six teams from the BAA remain in operation in the NBA as of the 2012–13 season, the inaugural BAA season began with 11 teams, of which four dropped before the second season. One ABL team joined to provide 8 teams for 1947–48 and four NBL teams joined to provide 12 for 1948–49, the NBA generally claims the BAAs history as its own. For example, at NBA History online its table of one-line NBA Season Recaps begins 1946–47 without comment and it celebrated NBA at 50 in 1996, with announcement of its 50 Greatest Players among other things. However, most of the ABL and NBL teams played in small arenas, to put this theory into practice, the BAA was founded in New York City on June 6,1946.
Maurice Podoloff, who was serving as president of the American Hockey League, was appointed president of the BAA. The owners of the BAA, while experienced businessmen, had little practice at owning basketball teams, the league started with 11 teams, which played a 60-game regular season. This was followed by the playoffs and the series to determine the league winner. Similar to Major League Baseball, nobody expected signing or drafting black players, at its inception, the quality of play in the BAA was not significantly better than in competing leagues, or among leading independent clubs such as the Harlem Globetrotters. For instance, both the 1948 and 1949 titles were won by teams that had played in other leagues during the year, the Baltimore Bullets in 1948. The league started with 11 teams, which were divided into two divisions, the Eastern Division and the Western Division, each team played 60 or 61 regular season games. The best three teams from each advanced to the playoffs. The final series was played in a best-of-7 format.
On November 1,1946, at Maple Leaf Gardens in Toronto, the Toronto Huskies hosted the New York Knickerbockers, in the opening game of the BAA, Ossie Schectman scored the opening basket for the Knickerbockers. The Eastern Division winner, the Washington Capitols, who had the best record with 49 wins, were defeated in the semifinal by the Western Division winner. The Stags advanced to the finals along with the Philadelphia Warriors who defeated the New York Knickerbockers in the other semifinal, the Warriors won the inaugural BAA championship by winning the series 4–1. The first year had many problems, in arenas shared with hockey teams, some arena owners simply put a wooden basketball floor over the ice
New York Knicks
The New York Knickerbockers, commonly referred to as the Knicks, are an American professional basketball team based in New York City. The Knicks compete in the National Basketball Association as a club of the Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference. The team plays its games at Madison Square Garden, located in the borough of Manhattan. They are one of two NBA teams located in New York City, the other is the Brooklyn Nets, along with the Boston Celtics, the Knicks are one of only two original NBA teams still located in its original city. The Knicks were successful during their years and were constant playoff contenders under the franchises first head coach Joe Lapchick. Beginning in 1950, the Knicks made three appearances in the NBA Finals, all of which were losing efforts. Lapchick resigned in 1956 and the team began to falter. It was not until the late 1960s when Red Holzman became head coach that the Knicks began to regain their former dominance, Holzman successfully guided the Knicks to two NBA championships, in 1970 and 1973.
The Knicks of the 1980s had mixed success that included six playoff appearances, the playoff-level Knicks of the 1990s were led by future Hall of Fame center Patrick Ewing, this era was marked by passionate rivalries with the Chicago Bulls, Indiana Pacers, and Miami Heat. During this time, they were known for playing tough defense under head coaches Pat Riley, during this era, the Knicks made two appearances in the NBA Finals, in 1994 and 1999, though they were unable to win an NBA championship. Since 2000, the Knicks have struggled to regain their former glory, in 2012–13, the franchise won its first division title in 19 years, but was eliminated in the second round of the playoffs by the Indiana Pacers. According to a 2016 Forbes report, the Knicks were the most-valuable NBA franchise, in 1946, particularly college basketball, was a growing and increasingly profitable sport in New York City. Hockey was another sport at the time and generated considerable profits, however. Max Kase, a New York sportswriter, became the editor at the Boston American in the 1930s.
Kase developed the idea of a professional league to showcase college players upon their graduation. Brown, intrigued by the opportunity to attain additional income when the teams were not playing or on the road. Ned Irish, a college basketball promoter, retired sportswriter and president of Madison Square Garden, was in attendance, Kase originally planned to own and operate the New York franchise himself and approached Irish with a proposal to lease the Garden. Irish explained that the rules of the Arena Managers Association of America stated that Madison Square Garden was required to own any professional teams played in the arena