Mechanics' Institutes are educational establishments formed to provide adult education in technical subjects, to working men. Similar organisation are sometimes called Institutes; as such, they were funded by local industrialists on the grounds that they would benefit from having more knowledgeable and skilled employees. The Mechanics' Institutes were used as'libraries' for the adult working class, provided them with an alternative pastime to gambling and drinking in pubs; the world's first Mechanics' Institute was established in Edinburgh, Scotland in October 1821 as the School of Arts of Edinburgh, with the provision of technical education for working people and professionals. Its purpose was to "address societal needs by incorporating fundamental scientific thinking and research into engineering solutions"; the school revolutionised access to education in technology for ordinary people. The second Institute in Scotland was incorporated in Glasgow in November 1823, built on the foundations of a group started at the turn of the previous century by George Birkbeck.
Under the auspices of the Andersonian University, Birkbeck had first instituted free lectures on arts and technical subjects in 1800. This mechanics' class continued to meet after he moved to London in 1804, in 1823 they decided to formalise their organisation by incorporating themselves as the Mechanics' Institute; the first Mechanics' Institute in England was opened at Liverpool in July 1823. The London Mechanics' Institute followed in December 1823, the Mechanics' Institutes in Ipswich and Manchester in 1824. By the mid-19th century, there were over 700 institutes in towns and cities across the UK and overseas, some of which became the early roots of other colleges and universities. See for example the University of Gloucestershire, which has the Cheltenham Mechanics' Institute and Gloucester Mechanics' Institute within its history timeline, it was as a result of delivering a lecture series at the Cheltenham Mechanics' Institute that the famous radical George Holyoake was arrested and convicted on a charge of blasphemy.
In Australia, the first Mechanics' Institute was established in Hobart in 1827, followed by the Sydney Mechanics' School of Arts in 1833, Newcastle School of Arts in 1835 the Melbourne Mechanics' Institute established in 1839. From the 1850s, Mechanics' Institutes spread throughout Victoria wherever a hall, library or school was needed. Over 1200 Mechanics' Institutes were built in Victoria but just over 500 remain today, only six still operate their lending library services; the Industrial Revolution created a new class of reader in Britain by the end of the 18th century,'mechanics,' who were civil and mechanical engineers in reality. The Birmingham Brotherly Society was founded in 1796 by local mechanics to fill this need, was the forerunner of Mechanics' Institutes, which grew in England to over seven hundred in number by 1850. G. Jefferson explains that: The first phase, the Mechanics Institute movement, grew in an atmosphere of interest by a greater proportion of the population in scientific matters revealed in the public lectures of famous scientists such as Faraday.
More as a consequence of the introduction of machinery a class workmen emerged to build and repair, the machines on which the blessing of progress depended, at a time when population shifts and the dissolving influences of industrialization in the new urban areas, where these were concentrated, destroyed the inadequate old apprentice system and threw into relief the connection between material advancement and the necessity of education to take part in its advantages. Small tradesmen and workers could not afford subscription libraries, so for their benefit, benevolent groups and individuals created "Mechanics' Institutes" that contained inspirational and vocational reading matter, for a small rental fee. Popular non-fiction and fiction books were added to these collections; the first known library of this type was the Birmingham Artisans' Library, formed in 1823. Some mechanics' libraries only lasted a decade or two, many became public libraries or were given to local public libraries after the Public Libraries Act 1850 passed.
Though use of the mechanics' library was limited, the majority of the users were favourable towards the idea of free library use and service, were a ready to read public when the establishment of free libraries occurred. Beyond a lending library, Mechanics' Institutes provided lecture courses, in some cases contained a museum for the member's entertainment and education; the Glasgow Institute, founded in 1823, not only had all three, it was provided free light on two evenings a week from the local Gas Light Company. The London Mechanics' Institute installed gas illumination by 1825, revealing the demand and need for members to use the books. Thousands of Mechanics' Institutes still operate throughout the world—some as libraries, parts of universities, adult education facilities, cinemas, recreational facilities, or community halls. Ballarat Mechanics' Institute, Ballarat Berwick Mechanics' Institute, Berwick Briagolong Mechanics' Institute, Briagolong Footscray Mechanics' Institute Inc. Library Kilmore Mechanics' Institute & Free Library Kyneton Mechanics' Institute Lancefield Mechanics' Institute & Free Library Little River Mechanics' Institute, Little River Maldon Athenaeum, Maldon Melbourne Athenaeum Narre Warren Mechanics Institute Prahran M
Andrew Carnegie was a Scottish-American industrialist, business magnate, philanthropist. Carnegie led the expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century and is identified as one of the richest people in history, he became a leading philanthropist in the British Empire. During the last 18 years of his life, he gave away about $350 million to charities and universities – 90 percent of his fortune, his 1889 article proclaiming "The Gospel of Wealth" called on the rich to use their wealth to improve society, stimulated a wave of philanthropy. Carnegie was born in Dunfermline and immigrated to the United States with his parents in 1848. Carnegie started work as a telegrapher, by the 1860s had investments in railroads, railroad sleeping cars and oil derricks, he accumulated further wealth as a bond salesman. He built Pittsburgh's Carnegie Steel Company, which he sold to J. P. Morgan in 1901 for $303,450,000, it became the U. S. Steel Corporation. After selling Carnegie Steel, he surpassed John D. Rockefeller as the richest American for the next couple of years.
Carnegie devoted the remainder of his life to large-scale philanthropy, with special emphasis on local libraries, world peace and scientific research. With the fortune he made from business, he built Carnegie Hall in New York, NY, the Peace Palace and founded the Carnegie Corporation of New York, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland, Carnegie Hero Fund, Carnegie Mellon University, the Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh, among others. Andrew Carnegie was born to Margaret Morrison Carnegie and William Carnegie in Dunfermline, Scotland in 1835, in a typical weaver's cottage with only one main room, consisting of half the ground floor, shared with the neighboring weaver's family; the main room served as a living room, dining bedroom. He was named after his legal grandfather. In 1836, the family moved to a larger house in Edgar Street, following the demand for more heavy damask, from which his father benefited, he was educated at the Free School in Dunfermline, a gift to the town by the philanthropist Adam Rolland of Gask.
Carnegie's uncle, George Lauder, Sr. a Scottish political leader influenced him as a boy by introducing him to the writings of Robert Burns and historical Scottish heroes such as Robert the Bruce, William Wallace, Rob Roy. Lauder's son named George Lauder, grew up with Carnegie and would become his business partner; when Carnegie was thirteen, his father had fallen on hard times as a handloom weaver. His mother helped support the family by assisting her brother, by selling potted meats at her "sweetie shop", leaving her as the primary breadwinner. Struggling to make ends meet, the Carnegies decided to borrow money from George Lauder, Sr. and move to Allegheny, Pennsylvania, in the United States in 1848 for the prospect of a better life. Carnegie's migration to America would be his second journey outside Dunfermline – the first being an outing to Edinburgh to see Queen Victoria. In September 1848, Carnegie arrived with his family at their new prosperous home. Allegheny was populating in the 1840s, growing from around 10,000 to 21,262 residents.
The city was industrial and produced many products including wool and cotton cloth. The "Made in Allegheny" label used on these and other diversified products was becoming more and more popular. For his father, the promising circumstances still did not provide him any good fortune. Dealers were not interested in selling his product, he himself struggled to sell it on his own; the father and son both received job offers at the same Scottish-owned cotton mill, Anchor Cotton Mills. Carnegie's first job in 1848 was as a bobbin boy, changing spools of thread in a cotton mill 12 hours a day, 6 days a week in a Pittsburgh cotton factory, his starting wage was $1.20 per week. His father quit his position at the cotton mill soon after, returning to his loom and removing him as breadwinner once again, but Carnegie attracted the attention of John Hay, a Scottish manufacturer of bobbins, who offered him a job for $2.00 per week. In his autobiography, Carnegie speaks of his past hardships. Soon after this Mr. John Hay, a fellow Scotch manufacturer of bobbins in Allegheny City, needed a boy, asked whether I would not go into his service.
I went, received two dollars per week. I had to fire the boiler in the cellar of the bobbin factory, it was too much for me. I found myself night after night, sitting up in bed trying the steam gauges, fearing at one time that the steam was too low and that the workers above would complain that they had not power enough, at another time that the steam was too high and that the boiler might burst. In 1849, Carnegie became a telegraph messenger boy in the Pittsburgh Office of the Ohio Telegraph Company, at $2.50 per week following the recommendation of his uncle. He was a hard worker and would memorize all of the locations of Pittsburgh's businesses and the faces of important men, he made many connections this way. He paid close attention to his work, learned to distinguish the differing sounds the incoming telegraph signals produced, he developed the ability to translate signals by ear, withou
James Bain (librarian)
James Bain was a Scottish-Canadian bookseller and librarian. Born in London, his family emigrated to Toronto when he was 6 years old. After completing his education at the Toronto Grammar School, he went to work for his father, a stationer and bookseller, he was active in the publishing industry both in England and in Canada, joining the firm John Nimmo & Son which became Nimmo & Bain. He returned to Canada in 1882. After managing the fledgling Canada Publishing Company, Bain was selected in 1883 to become the first chief librarian of the Toronto Public Library, he held this position until his death in 1908. As chief librarian, he was occupied with building both the library's collection and new branches. Acquiring the library's first collection took some diplomacy on his part, since in the 1880s fiction was controversial. In the campaign to establish a free library, some of the opposition had argued against it on the grounds that taxes shouldn't be used to circulate novels. While the library did acquire novels, the bulk of the collection was more serious.
He was concerned with ensuring that the library's collection include "every work of any consequence" in the fields of Canadian history and literature. The first building space and book collection for the library came from the Toronto Mechanics' Institute, who had opened a subscription library in 1833; the collection was supplemented by $15,000 worth of books that Bain acquired on a trip to England in late 1883. Bain welcomed patrons to the first Toronto Public Library in the Mechanics' Institute in 1884. Two branches and Western opened that year, with Eastern following in 1888, Dundas in 1889 and College in 1900. In 1903, Bain secured Carnegie funding to build a new central library and three branches, Yorkville and Lisgar, Riverdale. After his death, the library received a second Carnegie grant to build more branches. Seven of the ten Carnegie libraries are still open as branches of the Toronto Public Library, he helped found the Ontario Library Association, serving as president of the preliminary committee for 1900 and as its president for 1901 and 1902.
He was a founding member of the Champlain Society and held the role of Treasurer and was the president of the Royal Canadian Institute from 1900 to 1902. James Bain is buried in Mount Pleasant Cemetery, along with his wife, Jessie Mary Paterson, their children. List of Carnegie libraries in Canada Edith G Firth, "James Bain" Dictionary of Canadian Biography online, 2000 Toronto Public Library, A Passion for History: The Legacy of James Bain, a virtual exhibit honouring James Bain Archival papers held at University of Toronto Archives and Records Management Services
Koffler Student Centre
The Koffler Student Centre is the main student centre at the University of Toronto, located at 214 College Street. The centre houses a number of different student services, including the main campus bookstore, career centre, health clinic; the ornate building is located at the northwest corner of St. George and College Street streets in a building, the home of the Toronto Reference Library; the building was opened in 1909 as the Toronto Public Library's Central Reference Library, Ontario's largest Carnegie library. It remained the home of the reference library until 1977, when it relocated to its current home at Bloor and Yonge; the building was acquired by the University of Toronto, converted into the student services centre, renamed after university supporter Murray Koffler of Shoppers Drug Mart. Designed by Alfred Chapman, the Beaux Arts building features a grand entrance fronting College Street by St. George Street, with stairs rising to the former library's piano nobile. A second, less prominent ground level entrance, located towards the western part of the College Street façade, balances the composition.
This main façade fronting College Street is characterized by a sequence of lower paired windows set in a smooth grey stone wall. Its contrasting yellow brick upper section features six two-storey windows set between Corinthian columns; the original library's reading and reference room overlooked College Street through the large front windows. An addition by Chapman and Oxley in association with Wickson and Gregg was completed along St. George Street in 1930, the theatre was renovated in 1961 by Irving Grossman, 1985 marked the renovation and restoration of the building headed by Howard D. Chapman and Howard V. Walker; the building was listed a heritage structure in Toronto's inventory of heritage properties in 1973. Toronto Public Library page about the building
A Carnegie library is a library built with money donated by Scottish-American businessman and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. A total of 2,509 Carnegie libraries were built between 1883 and 1929, including some belonging to public and university library systems. 1,689 were built in the United States, 660 in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 125 in Canada, others in Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, Belgium, the Caribbean, Mauritius and Fiji. At first, Carnegie libraries were exclusively in places where he had a personal connection - namely his birthplace in Scotland and the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area, his adopted home-town. Yet, beginning in the middle of 1899, Carnegie increased funding to libraries outside these areas. In years few towns that requested a grant and agreed to his terms were refused. By the time the last grant was made in 1919, there were 3,500 libraries in the United States, nearly half of them built with construction grants paid by Carnegie; the first of Carnegie's public libraries, Dunfermline Carnegie Library was in his birthplace, Scotland.
It was first commissioned or granted by Carnegie in 1880 to James Campbell Walker and would open in 1883. The locally quarried sandstone building displays a stylized sun with the carved motto "Let there be light" at the front entrance; the first library in the United States to be commissioned by Carnegie was in 1886 in his adopted hometown of Allegheny, Pennsylvania. In 1890, it became the second of his libraries to open in the USA; the building contained the first Carnegie Music Hall in the World. The first Carnegie library to open in the United States was in Braddock, about 9 miles up the Monongahela river from Pittsburgh, home to one of the Carnegie Steel Company's mills in 1889, it was the second Carnegie Library in the United States to be commissioned, 1887, was the first of just four libraries that he endowed. An 1893 addition doubled the size of the building and included the third Carnegie Music Hall in the United States. Carnegie limited his support to a few towns in which he had an interest.
These would be in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area. In America, 6 out of the first 7, 7 of the first 10, 9 of the first 13 libraries he commissioned are all found in Southwestern Pennsylvania. Architectural critic Patricia Lowry wrote "to this day, Carnegie's free-to-the-people libraries remain Pittsburgh's most significant cultural export, a gift that has shaped the minds and lives of millions."Until 1898, only one library was commissioned in America outside Southwestern Pennsylvania—a library in Fairfield, commissioned in 1892. As the first time that Carnegie had funded a library in which he had no personal ties, it helped initiate the funding model that would be used by Carnegie for thousands of additional libraries. Beginning in 1899, his foundation funded a dramatic increase in the number of libraries; this coincided with the rise of women's clubs in the post-Civil War period, which were most responsible for organizing efforts to establish libraries, including long-term fundraising and lobbying within their communities to support operations and collections.
They led the establishment of 75–80 percent of the libraries in communities across the country. Carnegie believed in giving to ambitious. Under segregation black people were denied access to public libraries in the Southern United States. Rather than insisting on his libraries being racially integrated, Carnegie funded separate libraries for African Americans. For example, in Houston he funded a separate Colored Carnegie Library; the Carnegie Library in Savannah, opened in 1914 to serve black residents, excluded from the public library. The organized Colored Library Association of Savannah had raised money and collected books to establish a small Library for Colored Citizens. Having demonstrated their willingness to support a library, the group petitioned for and received funds from Carnegie. Future U. S. Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas wrote in his memoirs that he used it as a boy, before the library system was desegregated. Most of the library buildings were unique, constructed in a number of styles, including Beaux-Arts, Italian Renaissance, Classical Revival, Spanish Colonial.
Scottish Baronial was one of the styles used in Carnegie's native Scotland. Each style was chosen by the community, although as the years went by James Bertram, Carnegie's secretary, became less tolerant of designs which were not to his taste. Edward Lippincott Tilton, a friend recommended by Bertram, designed many of the buildings; the architecture was simple and formal, welcoming patrons to enter through a prominent doorway, nearly always accessed via a staircase. The entry staircase symbolized a person's elevation by learning. Outside every library was a lamppost or lantern, meant as a symbol of enlightenment. Carnegie’s grants were large for the era and his library philanthropy is one of the largest philanthropic activities, by value, in history. Small towns received grants of $10,000 that enabled them to build large libraries that were among the most significant town amenities in hundreds of communities. Books and libraries were important to Carnegie, beginning with his early childhood in Scotland and his teen years in Allegheny/Pittsburgh.
There he listened to readings and discussions of books from the Tradesman's Subscription Library, which his father helped create. In Pennsylvania, while working for the l
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa