Postmodern architecture is a style or movement which emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the austerity and lack of variety of modern architecture in the international style advocated by Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. The movement was introduced by the architect and urban planner Denise Scott Brown and architectural theorist Robert Venturi in their book Learning from Las Vegas; the style flourished from the 1980s through the 1990s in the work of Scott Brown & Venturi, Philip Johnson, Charles Moore and Michael Graves. In the late 1990s it divided into a multitude of new tendencies, including high-tech architecture, modern classicism and deconstructivism. Postmodern architecture emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the perceived shortcomings of modern architecture its rigid doctrines, its uniformity, its lack of ornament, its habit of ignoring the history and culture of the cities where it appeared. In 1966, Venturi formalized the movement in his book and Contradiction in Architecture.
Venturi summarized the kind of architecture he wanted to see replace modernism: I speak of a complex and contradictory architecture based on the richness and ambiguity of modern experience, including that experience, inherent in art... I welcome the problems and exploit the uncertainties... I like elements which are hybrid rather than "pure", compromising rather than "clean"...accommodating rather than excluding... I am for messy vitality over obvious unity... I prefer "both-and" to "either-or", black and white, sometimes gray, to black or white... An architecture of complexity and contradiction must embody the difficult unity of inclusion rather than the easy unity of exclusion. In place of the functional doctrines of modernism, Venturi proposed giving primary emphasis to the façade, incorporating historical elements, a subtle use of unusual materials and historical allusions, the use of fragmentation and modulations to make the building interesting. Venturi's wife, accomplished architect and urban planner Denise Scott Brown, Venturi wrote Learning from Las Vegas, co-authored with Steven Izenour, in which they further developed their joint argument against modernism.
They urged architects take into consideration and to celebrate the existing architecture in a place, rather than to try to impose a visionary utopia from their own fantasies. This was in line with Scott Brown’s belief that buildings should be built for people, that architecture should listen to them. Scott Brown and Venturi argued that ornamental and decorative elements "accommodate existing needs for variety and communication"; the book was instrumental in opening readers' eyes to new ways of thinking about buildings, as it drew from the entire history of architecture—both high-style and vernacular, both historic and modern—and In response to Mies van der Rohe's famous maxim "Less is more", Venturi responded, to "Less is a bore." Venturi cited the examples of his wife’s and his own buildings, Guild House, in Philadelphia, as examples of a new style that welcomed variety and historical references, without returning to academic revival of old styles. In Italy at about the same time, a similar revolt against strict modernism was being launched by the architect Aldo Rossi, who criticized the rebuilding of Italian cities and buildings destroyed during the war in the modernist style, which had had no relation to the architectural history, original street plans, or culture of the cities.
Rossi insisted that cities be rebuilt in ways that preserved their historical fabric and local traditions. Similar ideas were and projects were put forward at the Venice Biennale in 1980; the call for a post-modern style was joined by Christian de Portzamparc in France and Ricardo Bofill in Spain, in Japan by Arata Isozaki. Robert Venturi was both a prominent theorist of postmodernism and an architect whose buildings illustrated his ideas. After studying at the American Academy in Rome, he worked in the offices of the modernists Eero Saarinen and Louis Kahn until 1958, became a professor of architecture at Yale University. One of his first buildings was the Guild House in Philadelphia, built between 1960 and 1963, a house for his mother in Chestnut Hill, in Philadelphia; these two houses became symbols of the postmodern movement. He went on to design, in the 1960s and 1970s, a series of buildings which took into account both historic precedents, the ideas and forms existing in the real life of the cities around them.
Michael Graves designed two of the most prominent buildings in the postmodern style, the Portland Building and the Denver Public Library. He followed up his landmark buildings by designing large, low-cost retail stores for chains such as Target and J. C. Penney in the United States, which had a major influence on the design of retail stores in city centers and shopping malls. In his early career, he, along with the Peter Eisenman, Charles Gwathmey, John Hejduk and Richard Meier, was considered one of the New York Five, a group of advocates of pure modern architecture, but in 1982 he turned toward postmodernism with the Portland Building, one of the first major structures in the style; the building has since been added to the National Register of Historic Places. The most famous work of architect Charles Moore is the Piazza d'Italia in New Orleans, a public square composed of an exuberant collection of pieces of famous Italian Renaissance architecture. Drawing upon the Spanish Revival architecture of the city hall, Moore designed the Beverly Hills Civic Center in a mixture of Spanish Revival, Art Deco and Post-Modern styles.
It includes courtyards, colonnades and buildings, with both open and semi-enclosed spaces and balconies. The Haas School of Bu
Imperial Oil Building
The Imperial Oil Building, now known as Imperial Plaza, is a skyscraper located at 111 St. Clair Avenue West in Toronto, Canada; the 21-storey building was completed in 1957 as the headquarters of Imperial Oil, Canada's largest oil company. The building's design had been rejected for a proposed new Toronto City Hall. After several decades of use as the head office of Imperial Oil, the building was sold in 2010 and converted into a condominium apartment building; the building sits atop a high escarpment with a commanding view to the south, before the construction of the downtown banking towers in the late 1960s, the top floor observation deck was, at 800 feet above sea level, the highest point in Toronto. The interior layout in its office days was based on the'core' concept, with most offices having windows and with the various service elements clustered in the center. With its thick walls small windows, a built-in cafeteria, a location separated from major targets, large offices that could be converted to wards, the IOB was designed to be used, in the event of nuclear attack, as an alternative hospital.
The ground floor lobby features a famous mural, "The Story of Oil", executed by York Wilson in 1957. Three years in the planning and construction, the two panels of the diptych are each 25 feet by 32 feet; the mural is made of vinyl acetate and is mounted to the wall in such a way that vibrations in the building will not be transmitted to the artwork causing it to crack. In addition, a ventilation system behind the same wall prevents moisture collecting on the material. Crawley Films of Ottawa was engaged to document the artwork's realization. A three-part mural by Oscar Cahén was completed in 1956, for the building's staff lounge and dining facility on the eighth floor; these were abstract compositions in bright colours, one with a sun motif. Painted on canvas, two sections were de-installed in 1979 and are now owned by the Robert McLaughlin Gallery in Oshawa, Ontario; as of 2014, they await a permanent home. The third section was lost; the architectural model for this building was a proposed design for a new Toronto City Hall.
However, Nathan Phillips, Toronto's mayor in 1955, rejected the Mathers and Haldenby design for city hall and opened the commission to an international competition, won by Finnish architect Viljo Revell. Imperial Oil, in search of a design for their Toronto head office, bought the design from Mathers and Haldenby. During construction, catering to the wealthy local residents, welding was used, rather than the then-customary and much noisier riveting technique; the building, on completion, was the largest all-welded steel frame building in the world. When Imperial Oil assembled the residential properties for the site, Isabel Massie, owner of a house at 59 Foxbar Road, on a long angular lot at the rear of the site, refused to sell, despite being offered up to $100,000 for her house, at the time a princely sum; as a result, Imperial Oil had to move its building closer to St. Clair Avenue than planned; until she died in 1964, her property jutted into the Imperial Oil parking lot, an icon of a citizen's refusal to give in to a corporation.
Her heirs sold the house for $70,000 to Imperial Oil. The last traces of Isabel Massie's house across the street from 38 Foxbar Road, were dug up in 2012 when the subsequent owner excavated for an underground parking garage; as announced in a press conference on September 29, 2004, Imperial Oil re-located to Calgary, Alberta. Thereafter, the building was unoccupied for several years. Soil testing before the property was listed for sale found that sand about 40 feet below the eastern part of the parking lot was contaminated with heating oil that had leaked from an underground storage tank; the soil was excavated and replaced. In preparation for the sale, Imperial Oil told Deer Park United Church next door that they would no longer supply building heat to the church, effective July 2008; this led the dwindling congregation to vacate the church building and share space with a nearby Presbyterian congregation which had split off from the original Deer Park congregation in the mid 1920s. The church building remains vacant as of late 2016, but it is slated for incorporation into a new condominium development, named "Blue Diamond".
The Imperial Oil building was sold in the summer of 2010 to condominium developer Camrost-Felcorp, which began converting it into a condominium apartment building. At the same time, the church building next door was sold to a related developer, who subsequently sold a major interest to Camrost-Felcorp; the Imperial Oil building is now known as "Imperial Plaza". In addition to residential condominium units, the building includes an LCBO store and an upscale grocery store on the main floor; the developers secured the City of Toronto's approval for a second tower near the southeast corner of the site, a third tower replacing most but not all of the former Deer Park United Church building, a number of townhouses along the Foxbar Road frontage. As of February 2017, the tower near the southeast corner is under construction, its street address is 101 St. Clair Avenue West, it is planned as a 26-storey building. Fifth Avenue Place, Imperial Oil's current
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
St. Lawrence Market
St. Lawrence Market is a major public market in Toronto, Canada, it is located at Front St. East and Jarvis St in the Old Town district of Toronto; until 2015 there were two buildings in the complex, with different purposes. Until it was demolished to make way for redevelopment, St. Lawrence Market North, on the north side of Front St, hosted weekly farmer's markets and antique markets. A public market had been held on the north building site since 1803. Several buildings housed the market, the most recent built in 1968. Starting in 2015, the North building has shut to allow for redevelopment. While the North site is redeveloped, its market functions have moved to south of the South building in a temporary building. St. Lawrence Market South, on the south side of Front St, is open Tuesday to Saturday, featuring food stalls and the St. Lawrence Market Gallery; the South building dates to 1845, has been rebuilt twice, still incorporates a section of its original building, used as Toronto City Hall from 1845.
St. Lawrence Hall is an event and office building on King at Jarvis, built in 1850. St. Lawrence Market was named the world's best food market by National Geographic in April 2012. By 1803, the population in York, Upper Canada had increased to the point where a public market was needed. Upper Canada Lt. Governor Peter Hunter established a weekly market day and designated an area, his proclamation appeared in the November 3, 1803 issue of The Upper Canada Gazette saying, “Whereas great prejudice hath arisen to the inhabitants of the town and township of York and of other adjoining townships from no place or day having been set apart for exposing publicly for sale, sheep and other provisions and merchandise brought by merchants and others for the necessary supply of the town of York and whereas great benefit and advantage might be derived to the inhabitants and others by establishing a weekly market at a place and on a day certain for the purpose aforesaid. The market square was the center of the city's social life where auctions took place and public punishments were carried out.
In the earliest days of the town, when slavery was still legal, this included auctions of black slaves. Town bylaws prohibited the selling of butter, fish, meat and vegetables between the hours of 6am and 4pm on Saturdays, except at the market; the first market building, a temporary shelter, 24 feet by 36 feet was built in 1814. The first permanent structure was built in 1820. In 1823, the town's first public well was dug on the property. In 1831, the wooden market building was torn down and a quadrangular brick building with arched entrances at the sides was built; the building's office space served as temporary home to City Council until 1845. This building was used until the 1849 Toronto Great Fire destroyed the northern side of the building and it was torn down. After the fire, St. Lawrence Hall was built, along with a new market building between Front; the market building was replaced in 1904 and 1968. The present St. Lawrence Market South building was built in 1845 as Toronto City Hall and was rebuilt in 1850 and 1904 and renovated in 1972.
A canopy was built between the north and south buildings and this was torn down in the 1950s. The most recent St. Lawrence Market North was a single floor building built in 1968, replacing the 1904 complex, designed to mimic the South Market, it was demolished in 2015 and a new building will be built at the same site. A temporary farmer's market is located in the parking lot south of the South Market. In the nineteenth century, Toronto had three public markets named after the wards within which they were located. St. Lawrence Market, founded in 1803, was the first, St. Patrick's Market at 238 Queen Street West was the second, created in 1836, still exists in the form of an organic food court within its current building, constructed in 1912, St. Andrew's Market on the block between Richmond, Adelaide and Maud streets was built in 1850 and is now a park; the City of Toronto is now proceeding with another market building on the site of the North building. A new four-storey building with atrium is to replace the 1968 North building.
The farmer's market has relocated to 125 The Esplanade, just south of the South building. Foundations of the 1831, 1851 and 1904 North Market buildings were found below the floor of the 1968 building. St. Lawrence, Toronto Hounsom, Eric Wilfrid. Toronto in 1810. Toronto: Ryerson Press. ISBN 978-0770003111. Notes Photo Essay from St. Lawrence Market Toronto's Marvellous Markets, ca. 1970s, Archives of Ontario YouTube Channel
Toronto Police Service
The Toronto Police Service is the police agency servicing Toronto, Canada. Established in 1834, it was the first municipal police service created in North America and is one of the oldest police services in the English-speaking world, it is the largest municipal police service in Canada and third largest police force in Canada after the Ontario Provincial Police and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. With a budget of over $1 billion, it ranks second to the Toronto Transit Commission in the budgetary expenses of the municipal government of Toronto; the Toronto Police Service was founded in 1834, when the city of Toronto was first created from the town of York. Prior to that, local able-bodied male citizens were required to report for night duty as special constables for a fixed number of nights per year on pain of fine or imprisonment, in a system known as "watch and ward"; the Toronto Police is one of the English-speaking world's oldest modern municipal police departments. The London Metropolitan Police of 1829 is recognized as the first modern municipal police department.
In 1835, Toronto retained five full-time constables—a ratio of about one officer for every 1,850 citizens. Their daily pay was set at 7 shillings, 6 pence, for night duty. In 1837, the constables’ annual pay was fixed at £75 per annum, a lucrative city position when compared to the mayor's annual pay of £250 at the time. From 1834 to 1859, the Toronto Police was a corrupt and notoriously political force, with its constables loyal to the local aldermen who appointed police officers in their own wards for the duration of their incumbency. Toronto constables on numerous occasions suppressed opposition candidate meetings and took sides during bitter sectarian violence between Orange Order and Irish Catholic radical factions in the city. A provincial government report in 1841 described the Toronto Police as "formidable engines of oppression". Although constables were issued uniforms in 1837, one contemporary recalled that the Toronto Police was "without uniformity, except in one respect—they were uniformly slovenly."
After an excessive outbreak of street violence involving Toronto Police misconduct, including an episode where constables brawled with Toronto's firemen in one incident, stood by doing nothing in another incident while enraged firemen burned down a visiting circus when its clowns jumped a lineup at a local brothel, the entire Toronto Police force, along with its chief, were fired in 1859. The new force was removed from Toronto City Council jurisdiction and placed under the control of a provincially mandated Board of Police Commissioners. Under its new Chief, William Stratton Prince, a former infantry captain, standardized training, hiring practices and new strict rules of discipline and professional conduct were introduced. Today's Toronto Police Service directly traces its ethos, constitutional lineage and Police Commission regulatory structure to the 1859 reforms. In the 19th century, the Toronto Police focused on the suppression of rebellion in the city—particularly during the Fenian threats of 1860 to 1870.
The Toronto Police were Canada's first security intelligence agency when they established a network of spies and informants throughout Canada West in 1864 to combat US Army recruiting agents attempting to induce British Army soldiers stationed in Canada to desert to serve in the Union Army in the Civil War. The Toronto Police operatives turned to spying on the activities of the Fenians and filed reports to the Chief Constable from as far as Buffalo, Detroit and New York City; when in December 1864, the Canada West secret frontier police was established under Stipendiary Magistrate Gilbert McMicken, some of the Toronto Police agents were reassigned to this new agency. In 1863, Toronto Police officers were used as "Indian fighters" during the Manitoulin Island Incident, when some fifty natives armed with knives forced the fishery inspector William Gibbard and a fishery operation to withdraw from unceded tribal lands on Lake Huron. Thirteen armed Toronto Police officers, along with constables from Barrie, were dispatched to Manitoulin Island to assist the government in retaking the fishery operation, but were forced back when the natives advanced now armed with rifles.
The police withdrew but were reinforced and arrested the entire band, but not before William Gibbard was killed by unknown parties. In the 1870s, as the Fenian threat began to wane and the Victorian moral reform movement gained momentum, Toronto police functioned in the role of "urban missionaries" whose function it was to regulate unruly and immoral behaviour among the "lower classes", they were entirely focused on arresting drunks, prostitutes and violators of Toronto's ultra-strict Sunday "blue law"In the days before public social services, the force functioned as a social services mega-agency. Prior the creation of the Toronto Humane Society in 1887 and the Children's Aid Society in 1891, the police oversaw animal and child welfare, including the enforcement of child support payments, they acted as the Board of Health. Police stations at the time were designed with space for the housing of homeless, as no other public agency in Toronto dealt with this problem. Shortly before the Great Depression, in 1925, the Toronto Police housed 16,500 homeless people.
The Toronto Police regulated street-level business: cab drivers, street vendors, corner grocers, rag men, junk dealers, laundry operators. Under
Guild Park and Gardens
Guild Park and Gardens is a public park in the Scarborough district of Toronto, Canada. The park was the site of an artist colony and is notable for its collection of relics saved from the demolition of buildings in downtown Toronto arranged akin to ancient ruins. Located on the Scarborough Bluffs, Guild Park and Gardens has an outdoor Greek stage and a 19th-century log cabin among the oldest in Toronto; the principal building in the park is a former inn and estate mansion. The park is located on Guildwood Parkway, east of Eglinton Avenue Kingston Road, its 50 acres is accessed from the parking lots of the Guild Inn itself and from a parking lot for the Lake Ontario access trail, just to the east. The park is forested. South of the Inn is a large area of open space. To the east, a ravine leads down from Guildwood Parkway to Lake Ontario. Along the bluffs, an east–west trail connects to Livingston Road to the west, with several points for viewing the lake; the edges of the bluffs are roped off for safety, as the bluffs are tall and composed of soft, unstable material.
The park is managed by Toronto Parks, on land, the property of the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority. It was known as Guildwood Park, it became a park after the Guild Inn and its property was bought by Metropolitan Toronto and the Government of Ontario in 1978 from Rosa Hewetson Clark and Spencer Clark. The Inn continued to operate until it closed in 2001, it was managed by various hotel management companies, including Delta Hotels, Canadian National Railway and others. It was first the "Ranelagh Park" estate of Col. Harold Bickford it became the China Mission Seminary, the "Cliff Acres" estate of Richard Look, before it was bought in 1932 by Rosa Hewetson, along with her husband Spencer Clark converted it to "The Guild of all Arts" artists' colony and inn. During World War II and for a period afterward, it was used by the Government of Canada. From the 1990s onwards, the property was the subject of several redevelopment proposals, which failed or were rejected; the City of Toronto developed a management plan in 2014 for gardens.
The plan intends to preserve the park, protect the forest and lakeshore, maintain the heritage buildings. The inn was restored, part of a new facility for weddings and gatherings. One new wing is a banquet hall. Another new wing includes meeting rooms. In the late 1950s and older buildings in downtown Toronto were being torn down and replaced. Many of these had been standing for many decades and had been well-constructed, with stonework of a high quality and were considered historic to many. A movement to support the preservation of older buildings began in response to the amount of demolition, but it would not be until the 1970s that governments would pass laws that protected buildings considered to have'heritage' status. Rosa and Spencer Clark responded to this wholesale demolition by taking away remnants of the buildings from the demolition sites, they enlisted engineers and hired stonemason Arthur Hibberd, erected the remnants in the Guild gardens. Remnants of over 60 buildings from Toronto and elsewhere in Ontario exist in the Guild gardens, the front gate of the Guild Inn, the front gate of the Guildwood Village neighbourhood.
To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Guild Inn, the Clarks built an open-air theatre from remnants of the Bank of Toronto building, at a cost of CA$300,000 to Spencer Clark. The Bank of Toronto building had stood at Bay and King Streets in downtown Toronto since 1912, until 1966, when the Toronto–Dominion Centre was built. Eight marble columns, plus Corinthian capitals and arches were repurposed along with a concrete stage and steps to form an open-air theatre under the supervision of Hibberd. There were plans to build an amphitheatre in front of the stage, but it has not been built. Seating is either on the grass; the theatre hosted its first performance in 1984 of folk music by the Good Time Rolling Folk Music Medicine Show. From 1998 to 2003, The Gardens and Greek Theatre at The Guild Inn was home to Cliffhanger Productions theatre company, which specialized in adaptations of world mythology for family audiences; the Greek Stage at Guild Park hosts Guild Festival Theatre's annual productions of classic stage plays.
Eaton Co. Ltd College Street store was saved and taken to the Guild in 1976. Various other pieces of stone and terra-cotta were taken to the Guild by Clark. However, they remain un-erected. Source: Lidgold To the west of the Guild Inn property exists an 1800s-era log cabin, known as the Osterhout Log Cabin; the actual date of its construction is unknown. In 1795, surveyor Augustus Jones and his surveying team camped in the area and could have built a log cabin on the property while he surveyed Scarborough. However, Jones' accounts stated. In 1805, the property was granted to William Osterhout, but there is no record of a log cabin during the time Osterhout lived on the property; the property was owned by Alexander McDonnell, Duncan Cameron, John Ewart. James Humphreys bought the property in 1845, his son and family are the first recorded residents in the cabin, in 1861; the property was bought by the Clarks in 1934. As part of the 1978 sale of the Guild property, the land around the cabin came under the administration of the Conservation Authority.
In 1980, Scarborough designated the cabin as the Osterhout Cabin, granted it protected heritage status. Some test pits were dug around the cabin in 1994 to determine its age. Artist Elizabeth Fraser Williamson used the cabin as a studio from 1970 to 1995
Bay Street is a major thoroughfare in Downtown Toronto, Canada. It is the centre of Toronto's Financial District and is used by metonymy to refer to Canada's financial services industry since succeeding Montreal's St. James Street in that role in the 1970s. Bay Street ends at Davenport Road in the north; the original section of Bay Street ran only as far north as Queen Street West. Sections north of Queen Street were renamed Bay Street as several other streets were consolidated and several gaps filled in to create a new thoroughfare in the 1920s; the largest of these streets, Terauley Street, ran from Queen Street West to Grenville Street. At these two points, there is a curve in Bay Street. "Bay Street" is used as a metonym to refer to Toronto's Financial District and the Canadian financial sector as a whole, similar to Wall Street in the United States. "Bay Street banker", as in the phrase "cold as a Bay Street banker's heart", was a term of opprobrium among Prairie farmers who feared that Toronto-based financial interests were hurting them.
Within the legal profession, the term Bay Street is used colloquially to refer to the large, full-service business law firms of Toronto. The street was known as Bear Street because of frequent bear sightings in the early history of Toronto, it was renamed Bay Street in 1797 from the fact that it connected Lot Street to a bay at the Toronto Harbour. In the 19th century the intersection of Bay and King Street was home to Toronto's major newspapers: the Mail Building, the old Toronto Star Building, the William H. Wright Building were all located near the intersection; until 1922, the section of Bay running north from Queen Street and ending at College Street was known as Terauley Street. Several discontinuous streets existed north of College Street to Davenport Road. By-Law 9316 joined these streets together as far north as Scollard Street in 1922. By-Law 9884, enacted on January 28, 1924, changed the name of Ketchum Avenue to Bay Street, extending it to Davenport Road. There is a short street called Terauley Lane running west of Bay from Grenville Street to Grosvenor Street.
The intersection of Bay and King Street is seen as the centre of Canadian banking and finance. Four of Canada's five major banks have office towers at the intersection — the Bank of Montreal at First Canadian Place, Scotiabank at Scotia Plaza, the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce at Commerce Court, Toronto-Dominion Bank at the Toronto-Dominion Centre — and the fifth, the Royal Bank at Royal Bank Plaza, is one block south. Bay and King was known as the "MINT Corner" from Montreal, Nova Scotia, Toronto, but since 1961 the Imperial Bank has been part of CIBC and the Bank of Nova Scotia has rebranded itself, so this nickname is no longer used; the core cluster of towers has crept north with the addition of the 50-storey Bay Adelaide Centre and The Adelaide Hotel Toronto. Significant condominium development on Bay, north of the financial district, boomed during the 1990s and construction continues on large, 40-plus storey condominiums and multi-use buildings today; the area is defined by Dundas Street to the south and Bloor/Yorkville to the north and crosses through Toronto's Discovery District and Mink Mile.
The area attracts many who work in the financial district and those who work in the Discovery District, nearby hospitals and schools. More than 67% of residents in this area are in the working ages of 25-64 higher than the City of Toronto's average of 58%. Notable buildings include: Toronto Coach Terminal Residences of College Park 777 Bay Murano Ontario Government Buildings Sutton Place Hotel Manulife Centre Nathan Phillips Square Flagship store of Hudson's Bay CompanyAnother prominent intersection is the one nearest Yorkville at Bay and Bloor, the centre of an expensive shopping district; the intersection of Bay and Bloor is the location of the Toronto Transit Commission's Bay subway station. Bay Street is served by the route 6 Bay bus, one of the few downtown bus routes; the street used to be served by streetcars lines, which were phased out after the north-south Yonge and University subway lines opened in 1954 and 1963 respectively. The remaining streetcar tracks between Dundas and College Streets are now used for short turns and diversions.
City of London Financial district Wall Street Bay Street at Google Maps Bay Street Corridor neighbourhood profile