An ellipsoid is a surface that may be obtained from a sphere by deforming it by means of directional scalings, or more of an affine transformation. An ellipsoid is a quadric surface. Among quadric surfaces, an ellipsoid is characterized by either of the two following properties; every planar cross section is empty, or is reduced to a single point. It is bounded. An ellipsoid has three pairwise perpendicular axes of symmetry which intersect at a center of symmetry, called the center of the ellipsoid; the line segments that are delimited on the axes of symmetry by the ellipsoid are called the principal axes, or axes of the ellipsoid. If the three axes have different lengths, the ellipsoid is said to be tri-axial or scalene, the axes are uniquely defined. If two of the axes have the same length the ellipsoid is an "ellipsoid of revolution" called a spheroid. In this case, the ellipsoid is invariant under a rotation around the third axis, there are thus infinitely many ways of choosing the two perpendicular axes of the same length.
If the third axis is shorter, the ellipsoid is an oblate spheroid. If the three axes have the same length, the ellipsoid is a sphere. Using a Cartesian coordinate system in which the origin is the center of the ellipsoid and the coordinate axes are axes of the ellipsoid, the implicit equation of the ellipsoid has the standard form x 2 a 2 + y 2 b 2 + z 2 c 2 = 1, where a, b, c are positive real numbers; the points, lie on the surface. The line segments from the origin to these points are called the principal semi-axes of the ellipsoid, because a, b, c are half the length of the principal axes, they correspond to semi-minor axis of an ellipse. If a = b > c, one has an oblate spheroid. The ellipsoid may be parameterized in several ways, which are simpler to express when the ellipsoid axes coincide with coordinate axes. A common choice is x = a cos cos , y = b cos sin , z = c sin , where − π 2 ≤ θ ≤ π 2, − π ≤ φ ≤ π; these parameters may be interpreted as spherical coordinates, where π / 2 − θ is the polar angle, φ is the azimuth angle of the point of the ellipsoid.
The volume bounded by the ellipsoid is V = 4 3 π a b c. Alternatively expressed, where A, B and C are the lengths of the principal semi-axes: V = π 6 A B C ≈ 0.523 A B C. Note that this equation reduces to that of the volume of a sphere when all three elliptic radii are equal, to that of an oblate or prolate spheroid when two of them are equal; the volume of an ellipsoid is 2 3 the volume of a circumscribed elliptic cylinder, π 6 the volume of the circumscribed box. The volumes of the inscribed and circumscribed boxes are respectively: V inscribed = 8 3 3 a b c, V circumscribed = 8 a b c; the surface area of a general ellipsoid is S = 2 π c 2 + 2 π a b sin ( E ( φ
Glossary of Australian rules football
This list is an alphabetical glossary of Australian rules football terms and slang. While some of these entries are shared with other sports, Australian rules football has developed a unique and rich terminology. Where words in a sentence are defined elsewhere in this article, they appear in italics. 1-2: an action where a player handpasses to a teammate, who handpasses back. 12-10 Rule: A rule in the VFL concerning the selection of AFL-listed players in teams with an AFL affiliate team. When a team, affiliated with an AFL team plays against a team, not affiliated with an AFL team, the affiliated team must play at least 12 VFL-listed players and no more than 10 AFL-listed players; the 12-10 rule does not apply when two AFL-affiliated teams play each other, in those games, teams may play as many AFL-listed players as they wish. This rule has since been abolished. 19th man: at a time in the game before the substitute bench was introduced in 1930, one reserve player was named in addition to the 18 players who started the game on the ground.
These players could enter the game only if one of the original 18 did not return. This was extended to the 20th man when a second reserve was introduced in 1946. Free interchange of the 19th and 20th players has been allowed in the VFL since 1978; this can refer to the philosophy of the South Australian crowd being the 19th man for the Adelaide Crows, who have retired the number 19 guernsey, sell sporting merchandise with the number 19 on it. Advantage paid: umpiring decision in which play continues after an infringement if the team with the ball is infringed upon. AFL: Australian Football League; this acronym is used colloquially as an alternative name for the sport when distinguishing it from other football codes in Queensland and New South Wales. After the siren: a set shot for goal. All-Australian: a player, chosen in the best team of the AFL competition each year, the All-Australian Team. Angle: the geometric angle formed by an imaginary line between a player taking a set shot and the centre of the goals, another imaginary line perpendicular to the goal line.
So, a player with "no angle" is taking a kick from directly in front. Arena: the playing surface. Assist: to kick or handpass to a player who scores either a goal or a behind; the term is common across many world sports. Australian football: name used by the AFL for the sport. Bag: colloquialism for five or more goals scored by one player. Ball!: yelled by spectators when an opposition player is tackled in possession of the ball. Short for "holding the ball". Ball burster: colloquialism for a massive kick a torpedo punt which travels over 70 metres. Ball-up: the act of a field umpire putting the ball back into play, either by throwing it vertically upwards into the air, or by bouncing the ball in such a way that it mimics the throwing action. See bounce-down. A ball-up is required at the start of each quarter, after a goal is scored or to restart the game from neutral situations in the field of play. Banana: see checkside. Banner: a large crêpe paper and sticky-tape banner that players run through prior to a match.
Barrack: to cheer for a team. A fan is known as a "barracker", while to ask someone who they barrack for is to ask which team they support. Barrel: see torpedo. Baulk: a manoeuvre where a player holds the ball out to the side in one hand runs in the other direction to evade a defender. Behind: a score worth one point, earned by putting the ball between a goal post and a behind post, or by the ball hitting a goal post, or by the ball being touched prior to passing between the goalposts. Behind posts: two shorter vertical posts 19.2m apart on the goal line at each end of the ground, centred about the taller goal posts. Bench: the interchange area; the "bench" refers to the seat used by the players in this area. Best on ground: player judged the best player taking part in any game. Sometimes referred to as BOG, pronounced "bee-oh-gee". Big dance: colloquial term for a grand final. Blinder: an exceptional performance by a player or team. Bounce-down: the act of a field umpire putting the ball back into play by bouncing the ball in such a way that it mimics a vertical throw.
See ball-up. Boundary line: the line drawn on the ground to delimit the field of play. Boundary throw-in: the act of throwing the ball back into play by the boundary umpire; the boundary umpire throws the ball backwards over their head. This is used to restart play from neutral situations. Boundary umpire: an official who patrols the boundary line, indicating when it has crossed the line, who executes boundary throw-in to return the ball to play. There are two of these umpires per game, one on each side of the oval, but there will be four in top grade games. Break: short for "break in play". Brownlow: the Brownlow Medal is awarded the week of the Grand Final to the player judged to be the fairest and best player in the league for the season, based on accumulated votes awarded by the field umpires at the conclusion of each match during the season. Bump: a contact
Rugby union known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand. In its most common form, a game is between two teams of 15 players using an oval-shaped ball on a rectangular field with H-shaped goalposts at each end. Rugby union is a popular sport around the world, played by male and female players of all ages. In 2014, there were more than 6 million people playing worldwide, of whom 2.36 million were registered players. World Rugby called the International Rugby Football Board and the International Rugby Board, has been the governing body for rugby union since 1886, has 101 countries as full members and 18 associate members. In 1845, the first football laws were written by Rugby School pupils. An amateur sport, in 1995 restrictions on payments to players were removed, making the game professional at the highest level for the first time.
Rugby union spread from the Home Nations of Great Britain and Ireland and was absorbed by many of the countries associated with the British Empire. Early exponents of the sport included New Zealand, South Africa and France. Countries that have adopted rugby union as their de facto national sport include Fiji, Madagascar, New Zealand and Tonga. International matches have taken place since 1871 when the first game took place between Scotland and England at Raeburn Place in Edinburgh; the Rugby World Cup, first held in 1987, takes place every four years. The Six Nations Championship in Europe and The Rugby Championship in the Southern Hemisphere are other major international competitions, held annually. National club or provincial competitions include the Premiership in England, the Top 14 in France, the Mitre 10 Cup in New Zealand, the National Rugby Championship in Australia, the Currie Cup in South Africa. Other transnational club competitions include the Pro14 in Europe and South Africa, the European Rugby Champions Cup in Europe, Super Rugby, in the Southern Hemisphere and Japan.
The origin of rugby football is reputed to be an incident during a game of English school football at Rugby School in 1823, when William Webb Ellis is said to have picked up the ball and run with it. Although the evidence for the story is doubtful, it was immortalised at the school with a plaque unveiled in 1895. Despite the doubtful evidence, the Rugby World Cup trophy is named after Webb Ellis. Rugby football stems from the form of game played at Rugby School, which former pupils introduced to their university. Old Rugbeian Albert Pell, a student at Cambridge, is credited with having formed the first "football" team. During this early period different schools used different rules, with former pupils from Rugby and Eton attempting to carry their preferred rules through to their universities. A significant event in the early development of rugby football was the production of the first written laws of the game at Rugby School in 1845, followed by the Cambridge Rules drawn up in 1848. Other important events include the Blackheath Club's decision to leave the Football Association in 1863 and the formation of the Rugby Football Union in 1871.
The code was known as "rugby football". Despite the sport's full name of rugby union, it is known as rugby throughout most of the world; the first rugby football international was played on 27 March 1871 between Scotland and England in Edinburgh. Scotland won the game 1-0. By 1881 both Ireland and Wales had representative teams, in 1883 the first international competition, the Home Nations Championship had begun. 1883 is the year of the first rugby sevens tournament, the Melrose Sevens, still held annually. Two important overseas tours took place in 1888: a British Isles team visited Australia and New Zealand—although a private venture, it laid the foundations for future British and Irish Lions tours. During the early history of rugby union, a time before commercial air travel, teams from different continents met; the first two notable tours both took place in 1888—the British Isles team touring New Zealand and Australia, followed by the New Zealand team touring Europe. Traditionally the most prestigious tours were the Southern Hemisphere countries of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa making a tour of a Northern Hemisphere, the return tours made by a joint British and Irish team.
Tours would last for months, due to the number of games undertaken. Touring international sides would play Test matches against international opponents, including national and county sides in the case of Northern Hemisphere rugby, or provincial/state sides in the case of Southern Hemisphere rugby. Between 1905 and 1908, all three major Southern Hemisphere rugby countries sent their first touring teams to the Northern Hemisphere: New Zealand in 1905, followed by South Africa in 1906 and Australia in 1908. All three teams brought new styles of play, fitness levels and tactics, were far more successful than critics had expected; the New Zealand 1905 touri
Names of Australian rules football
The sport of Australian football has been called by a number of different names throughout its history. The sport has been called "Victorian rules", the "Victorian game", the "bouncing game", "Australasian rules", the "Australian game" and "national football", as well as several other names. Today, the common names for the sport are "Australian rules football" or "football", common nicknames for the sport are "footy", "Aussie rules" or sometimes "AFL"; the first "Laws of Australian football" were established in Melbourne in 1859 by Tom Wills of the Melbourne Football Club. This led to the development of the terms "the Victorian Game" or "Victorian Rules", although in Victoria, the general term was just "football" as early as 1860; as late as 1954, the term "Melbourne Rules" was being used by newspapers in New South Wales and Queensland to differentiate the game from other football codes. Another term was "the bouncing game", used in Western Australia in the 1880s and 1890s to differentiate from the other codes, where bouncing was not permitted.
The name "Australian football" was in use outside of Victoria by the late 19th century. A variant of this, acknowledging the popularity of the sport in New Zealand, was "Australasian football"; the 1908 Jubilee Australasian Football Carnival featured a team from New Zealand, but the popularity of the sport declined there after World War I. In 1927, the Australasian Football Council changed its name to the Australian National Football Council, to acknowledge that the sport was no longer being played competitively in New Zealand. State leagues were encouraged to include the term "Australian National" in their title, with the South Australian Football League becoming the South Australian National Football League in 1927, the Tasmanian Football League becoming the Tasmanian Australian National Football League in 1928, the West Australian Football League becoming the Western Australian National Football League in 1931, it was proposed that the Victorian Football League become the Victorian Australian National Football League.
Several distinctions were made in the three major footballing states regarding the quality of play across different leagues. In Victoria, the League football was considered superior to Association football. In Western Australia, this distinction was made between the West Australian Football League and the West Australian Football Association, though the latter integrated into the WAFL reserves in 1921. There was a distinction made in WA between the "coastal" and "'fields" leagues, who played each other in the state premiership. In the 19th century, there was a distinction made in most leagues between "senior" and "junior" football. In December 1948, a controversy occurred when Dame Enid Lyons, the Member for Darwin, referred to Australian football as "our national game" in Parliament; this was rebuffed by the Prime Minister at the time, Ben Chifley, a New South Welshman, who suggested Lyons was "treading on dangerous ground". The secretary of the ANFC, Percy Page, sent a telegram reading: "Congratulations on your stand.
The Prime Minister's obvious lack of knowledge of Australian sport is most regrettable." The most common nicknames for the sport are "footy" and "Aussie rules". For much of the middle part of the 20th century in Canberra, the latter was shortened further to "Rules", but this usage is now obsolete; the term "AFL" is sometimes used in areas where the game is not played and thus no one particular name for the sport is ingrained in the local population. The Australian Football League has encouraged competitions to include the term "AFL" in their name: the Queensland Football League changed its name to AFL Queensland in 1999, the New South Wales Australian Rules Football League changed its name to Sydney AFL in 1998, the Australian Capital Territory Football League changed its name to AFL Canberra in 1999. Leagues outside of Australia make use of this term. Most major newspapers in Australia use either "AFL" or "football" to refer to the sport; the derogatory term "aerial ping-pong" is sometimes used mockingly by fans of other codes to refer to the sport
Free kick (Australian rules football)
A free kick in Australian rules football is a penalty awarded by a field umpire to a player, infringed by an opponent or is the nearest player to a player from the opposite team who has broken a rule. When a free kick is paid, the player's opponent stands the mark, by standing on the spot where the umpire indicates that the free kick was paid or mark was taken; the player with the ball retreats backwards so that the ball can be kicked over the player standing the mark. A player receiving a free kick is not restricted to kicking the ball. Free kicks are paid for: Holding the ball: when the player with the ball is tackled and cannot dispose of the ball despite having had a prior opportunity to do so. Running too far: when the player runs with the ball for more than 15 metres but does not bounce it or touch it on the ground, or dispose of it. High tackle/high contact:. Holding the man: holding or tackling a player who doesn't have the ball. Tripping: when the player is tackled below the knees. Push in the back: pushing a player in the back is not allowed.
Taking or chopping the arms: attempting to spoil a mark by pulling away one's opponent's arm. Out on the full: when the ball is kicked and travels over the boundary line before bouncing or being touched by another player. Deliberate out of bounds/deliberate rushed behind: when the ball is forced out of bounds in a blatantly deliberate act. Throwing the ball/illegal disposal: when the ball is thrown or otherwise incorrectly disposed of, rather than handballed. Illegal shepherd: when a player is illegally bumped by a player in a marking or ruck contest who makes no legitimate effort to contest the ball. Kicking/Kicking in danger: kicking an opponent or near an opponent in a manner to cause injury while attempting to kick the football off the ground. Centre square infringement: any player other than the four midfielders entering the centre square before the centre bounce. Interchange infringement: when a player enters the arena without following interchange protocol. Runner interference: paid against a runner, trainer or other club official who impedes the play as part of his or her normal on-ground duties.
A player taking a free kick is allowed to take his kick or handpass unimpeded unless the umpire calls play on. Play on will be called if: the player runs off his line; the player runs over his mark. This happens deliberately if the player is pressing an advantage; the player takes too long to take his kick or handpass. This is after ten seconds for any free kick around the ground, thirty seconds for a set shot at goals inside the 50 metre line; some players abuse this disparity in their forward lines by taking thirty seconds to take a set shot playing on or passing short anyway. The umpire has sole discretion over. Once a player plays on, he can be pursued by any opposition players. While the man on the mark can advance to hurry his disposal, he is most vulnerable to being tackled from a player pursuing from behind. Players may ignore the whistle that indicates a free kick has been awarded and play on, if play is continuous. If stopping play is disadvantageous to the team receiving the free kick advantage is paid to that team, if that team elects to take the advantage.
The umpire does not decide on advantage. An example of this is when a player tackles his opponent, the ball spills free and is collected by a player on the tackler's team and the ball is moved downfield. In this case, stopping the game for the free kick would penalise the team that earns the free kick, hence advantage is paid. A player can not change his mind. Advantage cannot be paid from a mark; this rule was first applied in 2010. Free kicks are paid at the spot of the foul or mark, but the spot of the free kick can be shifted under the following four circumstances; because players are lined up on an angle with the centre of the goals, free kicks taken close to goal were forced around to wide angles. Starting in 2006, the spot of any free kick paid in the goal square was moved so that the kick was taken from directly in front. If a free kick is awarded for a rules infringement which does not involve the ball-carrier or a contest for the ball, it is said to be off-the-ball. An off-the-ball free kick will be paid either to the infringed player at the spot of the infringement, or to the closest player at the spot of the ball at the time of the infringement, depending upon, the bigger penalty for the team that infringed.
If a rules infringement occurs against a player after he has disposed of the football but before another player receives it, the umpire pays a downfield free kick. The free kick is awarded at the spot where the kick or handpass lands or is first possessed, to the nearest player to the spot (unless the disposal is backwards, or the ball lands out of bounds or through for a behind, in which case the free kick is awarded to the infringed player at the spot of the infringement.
A drop kick is a type of kick in various codes of football. It involves a player dropping the ball and kicking it when it bounces off the ground. Drop kicks are most used as a method of restarting play and scoring points in rugby union and rugby league. Association football goalkeepers often return the ball to play with drop kicks; the kick was once in wide use in both Australian rules football and gridiron football, but is today seen in either sport. The drop kick technique in rugby codes is to hold the ball with one end pointing downwards in two hands above the kicking leg; the ball is dropped onto the ground in front of the kicking foot, which makes contact at the moment or fractionally after the ball touches the ground, called the half-volley. The kicking foot makes contact with the ball on the instep. In a rugby union kick-off, or drop out, the kicker aims to kick the ball high but not a great distance, so strikes the ball after it has started to bounce off the ground, so the contact is made close to the bottom of the ball.
In rugby league, drop kicks are mandatory to restart play from the goal line after the defending team is tackled or knocks on in the in-goal area or the defending team causes the ball to go dead or into touch-in-goal. Drop kicks are mandatory to restart play from the 20 metre line after an unsuccessful penalty goal attempt goes dead or into touch-in-goal and to score a drop goal in open play, worth one point. Drop kicks are optional for a penalty kick to score a penalty goal and when kicking for touch from a penalty, although the option of a punt kick is taken instead. In rugby union, a drop kick is used to score a drop goal, it was one of only two ways to score points, along with the place kick. Drop kicks are mandatory from the centre spot to start a half, from the centre spot to restart the game after points have been scored, to restart play from the 22-metre line after the ball is touched down or made dead in the in-goal area by the defending team when the attacking team kicked or took the ball into the in-goal area, to score a drop goal in open play, worth three points.
Drop kicks are optional. The usage of drop kicks in rugby sevens is the same as in rugby union, except that drop kicks are used for all conversion attempts and for penalty kicks, both of which must be taken within 40 seconds of the try being scored or the award of the penalty. In both American and Canadian football, one method of scoring a field goal or extra point is by drop-kicking the football through the goal, it contrasts with the punt, wherein the player kicks the ball without letting it hit the ground first. A drop kick is more difficult; the drop kick was used in early football as a surprise tactic. The ball would be snapped or lateraled to a back, who would fake a run or pass, but would kick the field goal instead; this method of scoring worked well in the 1920s and early 1930s, when the football was rounder at the ends. Early football stars such as Charles Brickley, Frank Hudson, Jim Thorpe, Paddy Driscoll, Al Bloodgood were skilled drop-kickers. Driscoll's 55 yard drop kick in 1924 stood as the unofficial record for field goal range until Bert Rechichar kicked a 56-yard field goal in 1953.
In 1934, the ball was made more pointed at the ends. The creation of the pointed football is credited to Shorty Ray, at the time a college football official and the NFL's head of officiating; this made passing the ball easier, as was its intent, but made the drop kick obsolete, as the more pointed ball did not bounce up from the ground reliably. The drop kick was supplanted by the place kick, which cannot be attempted out of a formation used as a running or passing set; the drop kick remains in the rules, but is seen, effective when attempted. In Canadian football the drop kick can be taken from any point on the field, unlike placekicks which must be attempted behind the line of scrimmage. Before the NFL–AFL merger, the last successful drop kick in the NFL was executed by Scooter McLean of the Chicago Bears in their 37–9 victory over the New York Giants on December 21, 1941, in the NFL Championship game at Chicago's Wrigley Field. Though it was not part of the NFL at the time, the All-America Football Conference saw its last drop kick November 28, 1948, when Joe Vetrano of the San Francisco 49ers drop kicked an extra point after a muffed snap against the Cleveland Browns.
The only successful drop kick in the NFL since the 1940s was by Doug Flutie, the backup quarterback of the New England Patriots, against the Miami Dolphins on January 1, 2006, for an extra point after a touchdown. Flutie had estimated "an 80 percent chance" of making the drop kick, called to give Flutie, 43 at the time, the opportunity to make a historic kick in his final NFL game. After the game, New England coach Bill Belichick said, "I think Doug deserves it," and Flutie said, "I just thanked him for the opportunity."Dallas Cowboys punter Mat McBriar attempted a maneuver similar to a
Laws of Australian rules football
The rules of Australian rules football were first formed by the Melbourne Football Club in 1859, been refined over the years as the game evolved into its modern form. The laws predate the advent of a governing body for the sport; the first national and international body, the Australasian Football Council, was formed in 1905 to govern Australian Football. Since 1994, the rules for the game known as Australian football have been governed by the AFL and the organisation's Laws of the Game committee. Australian rules football is a contact sport played between two teams of eighteen players on an oval-shaped field a modified cricket ground. Points are scored by kicking the oval-shaped ball between behind posts. During general play, players may position themselves anywhere on the field and use any part of their bodies to move the ball; the primary methods are kicking and running with the ball. There are rules on how the ball can be handled: including rules against running too far with the ball, throwing the ball and holding the ball.
Players can use their whole body to obstruct opponents. Dangerous physical contact, interference when marking and deliberately slowing the play are discouraged with free kicks, distance penalties or suspension for a certain number of matches, depending on the seriousness of the infringement. If a player marks the ball, they are allowed a free kick; this encourages marking contests. 18 players are permitted to be on the field per team at any one time, with an additional 4 players on an interchange bench. The equipment needed to play the game is minimal; as in other kinds of football, players wear boots with stops in the soles, a thick, strong shirt or jumper known as a guernsey sleeveless, although long sleeve jumpers are sometimes worn in cold weather by some players. Protective gear is minimal. Most players wear a mouthguard but only a few wear a helmet a bicycle style helmet with a soft outer covering, only after medical advice, such as if they have been concussed numerous times; some players, predominantly ruckmen, wear shin guards.
All protective equipment must be approved by the umpires to ensure that it can not injure other players. The game is played on a grassed oval. Four posts, aligned in a straight line, 6.4 metres apart from each other, are erected at either end of the oval. The size of the ground is not fixed, but is between 135-185m long and 110-155m wide. Lines are drawn on the field to mark the boundary, a 50m-wide centre square a diamond shape, two concentric circles in the centre with diameters 3m and 10m, both bisected by one line, a 9×6.4m goal square at each end of the ground, a 15m-wide "interchange area" on one flank of the oval. A curved line at each end, 50 metres from the goal line Prior to a ground redevelopment at the Sydney Cricket Ground, the "Fifty Metre Lines" were replaced by 45m lines due to the ground's short length, to avoid overlapping with the centre square. In the 1980s, 25m lines were used in Western Australia; the game is a fast-paced combination of speed, athleticism and physical toughness.
Players are allowed to tackle the player with the ball and impede opposition players from tackling their teammates, but not to deliberately strike an opponent. Like most team sports, tactics are based around trying to get the ball – through a combination of running with the ball, hand-passing and kicking – to deliver it to a player, within range of goal; because taking a mark entitles the player to a free kick, a common tactic is to attempt to kick the ball on the full to a teammate, within kicking range of goal. In this situation, packs of players form around the goal square, the opportunity arises for spectacular marks in which players launch themselves off opponents' backs to mark the ball, high in the air; this particular skill is regarded as a spectacle, an annual "Mark of the Year" is awarded at the end of a season. There are no set positions in the rules of the game, but traditionally the field was divided into three major sections: the forward line, back line, midfield; the forward and back lines consisted of six players, arranged into two lines of three players each.
The midfield consists of the designated ruckman and players who either stay in the centre area of the ground or follow the ball and are not confined to a particular area. The modern game, has discarded positional play in favour of a free flowing running game and attempting to have loose men in various positions on the ground; the rise in popularity of the hand-pass since the 1970s has influenced this style of play, with players more willing to follow the ball and move it amongst themselves rather than kicking long to a one-on-one marking contest. In the late 1990s a tactic known as flooding was devised and shifted focus away from set positions; when a team "plays a flood", they direct two or more of their midfield or forward line players into their defence, thus out-numbering their opponent and making it difficult for any opposing forward to take an uncon