The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval and early modern Catholic military order. It was headquartered in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, on the island of Rhodes, in Malta and St Petersburg; the Hospitallers arose in the early 11th century, at the time of the great monastic reformation, as a group of individuals associated with an Amalfitan hospital in the Muristan district of Jerusalem, dedicated to John the Baptist and founded around 1023 by Gerard Thom to provide care for sick, poor or injured pilgrims coming to the Holy Land. Some scholars, consider that the Amalfitan order and hospital were different from Gerard Thom's order and its hospital. After the conquest of Jerusalem in 1099 during the First Crusade, the organisation became a military religious order under its own Papal charter, charged with the care and defence of the Holy Land. Following the conquest of the Holy Land by Islamic forces, the knights operated from Rhodes, over which they were sovereign, from Malta, where they administered a vassal state under the Spanish viceroy of Sicily.
The Hospitallers were the smallest group to colonise parts of the Americas: they acquired four Caribbean islands in the mid-17th century, which they turned over to France in the 1660s. The knights were weakened in the Protestant Reformation, when rich commanderies of the order in northern Germany and the Netherlands became Protestant and separated from the Roman Catholic main stem, remaining separate to this day, although ecumenical relations between the descendant chivalric orders are amicable; the order was disestablished in England, Denmark, as well as in some other parts of northern Europe, it was further damaged by Napoleon's capture of Malta in 1798, following which it became dispersed throughout Europe. In 603, Pope Gregory I commissioned the Ravennate Abbot Probus, Gregory's emissary at the Lombard court, to build a hospital in Jerusalem to treat and care for Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land. In 800, Emperor Charlemagne added a library to it. About 200 years in 1005, Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah destroyed the hospital and three thousand other buildings in Jerusalem.
In 1023, merchants from Amalfi and Salerno in Italy were given permission by the Caliph Ali az-Zahir of Egypt to rebuild the hospital in Jerusalem. The hospital, built on the site of the monastery of Saint John the Baptist, took in Christian pilgrims travelling to visit the Christian holy sites, it was served by the Order of Saint Benedict. The monastic hospitaller order was founded following the First Crusade by Gerard Thom, whose role as founder was confirmed by the papal bull Pie Postulatio Voluntatis issued by Pope Paschal II in 1113. Gerard acquired territory and revenues for his order throughout the Kingdom of Jerusalem and beyond. Under his successor, Raymond du Puy, the original hospice was expanded to an infirmary near the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem; the group cared for pilgrims in Jerusalem, but the order soon extended to providing pilgrims with an armed escort, which soon grew into a substantial force. Thus the Order of St. John imperceptibly became military without losing its charitable character.
Raymond du Puy, who succeeded Gerard as Master of the Hospital in 1118, organised a militia from the order's members, dividing the order into three ranks: knights, men at arms, chaplains. Raymond offered the service of his armed troops to Baldwin II of Jerusalem, the order from this time participated in the crusades as a military order, in particular distinguishing itself in the Siege of Ascalon of 1153. In 1130, Pope Innocent II gave the order a silver cross in a field of red; the Hospitallers and the Knights Templar became the most formidable military orders in the Holy Land. Frederick Barbarossa, the Holy Roman Emperor, pledged his protection to the Knights of St. John in a charter of privileges granted in 1185; the statutes of Roger de Moulins deal only with the service of the sick. In the latter a marked distinction is made between secular knights, externs to the order, who served only for a time, the professed knights, attached to the order by a perpetual vow, who alone enjoyed the same spiritual privileges as the other religious.
The order numbered three distinct classes of membership: the military brothers, the brothers infirmarians, the brothers chaplains, to whom was entrusted the divine service. In 1248 Pope Innocent IV approved a standard military dress for the Hospitallers to be worn during battle. Instead of a closed cape over their armour, they wore a red surcoat with a white cross emblazoned on it. Many of the more substantial Christian fortifications in the Holy Land were built by the Templars and the Hospitallers. At the height of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Hospitallers held seven great forts and 140 other estates in the area; the two largest of these, their bases of power in the Kingdom and in the Principality of Antioch, were the Krak des Chevaliers and Margat in Syria. The property of the Order was divided into priories, subdivided into bailiwicks, which in turn were divided into commanderies; as early as the late 12th century the order had begun to achieve recognition in the Kingdom of England and Duchy of Normandy.
As a result, buildings such as St John's Jerusalem and the Knights Gate, Quenington i
Montserrat is a British Overseas Territory in the Caribbean. The island in the Leeward Islands, part of the chain known as the Lesser Antilles, in the West Indies. Montserrat measures 16 km in length and 11 km in width, with 40 km of coastline. Montserrat is nicknamed "The Emerald Isle of the Caribbean" both for its resemblance to coastal Ireland and for the Irish ancestry of many of its inhabitants. On 18 July 1995, the dormant Soufrière Hills volcano, in the southern part of the island, became active. Eruptions destroyed Montserrat's Georgian era capital city of Plymouth. Between 1995 and 2000, two-thirds of the island's population was forced to flee to the United Kingdom, leaving fewer than 1,200 people on the island as of 1997; the volcanic activity continues affecting the vicinity of Plymouth, including its docking facilities, the eastern side of the island around the former W. H. Bramble Airport, the remnants of which were buried by flows from volcanic activity on 11 February 2010. An exclusion zone, encompassing the southern half of the island to as far north as parts of the Belham Valley, was imposed because of the size of the existing volcanic dome and the resulting potential for pyroclastic activity.
Visitors are not permitted entry into the exclusion zone, but a view of the destruction of Plymouth can be seen from the top of Garibaldi Hill in Isles Bay. Quiet since early 2010, the volcano continues to be monitored by the Montserrat Volcano Observatory. A new town and port are being developed at Little Bay, on the northwest coast of the island. While this construction proceeds, the centre of government and businesses is at Brades. In 1493, Christopher Columbus named the island Santa María de Montserrate, after the Virgin of Montserrat in the Monastery of Montserrat, on Montserrat mountain, near Barcelona in Catalonia, Spain. "Montserrat" means "serrated mountain" in Catalan. Archaeological field work in 2012, in Montserrat's Centre Hills indicated there was an Archaic occupation between 4000 and 2500 BP. Coastal sites show the presence of the Saladoid culture. In November 1493, Christopher Columbus passed Montserrat in his second voyage, after being told that the island was unoccupied due to raids by the Caribs.
A number of Irishmen settled in Montserrat in 1632. The preponderance of Irish in the first wave of European settlers led a leading legal scholar to remark that a "nice question" is whether the original settlers took with them the law of the Kingdom of Ireland insofar as it differed from the law of the Kingdom of England; the Irish being historical allies of the French in their dislike of the English, invited the French to claim the island in 1666, although no troops were sent by France to maintain control. It was captured shortly afterwards by the English and English control of the island was confirmed under the Treaty of Breda the following year. Despite the seizing by force of the island by the English, the island's legal status is that of a "colony acquired by settlement". A neo-feudal colony developed amongst the "redlegs"; the colonists began to transport Sub-Saharan African slaves for labour, as was common to most Caribbean islands. The colonists built an economy based on the production of sugar, rum and sea island cotton, cultivated on large plantations manned by slave labour.
By the late 18th century, numerous plantations had been developed on the island. Many Irish continued to work as indentured servants. On 17 March 1768, slaves failed to achieve freedom; the people of Montserrat celebrate St Patrick's Day as a public holiday due to the slave revolt. Festivities held that week commemorate the culture of Montserrat in song, dance and traditional costumes. In 1782, during the American Revolutionary War, as America's first ally, France captured Montserrat in their war of support of the Americans; the French, not intent on colonizing the island agreed to return the island to Great Britain under the 1783 Treaty of Paris. The Irish constituted the largest proportion of the white population from the founding of the colony in 1628. Many were indentured labourers; the geographer Thomas Jeffrey claimed in The West India Atlas that the majority of those on Montserrat were either Irish or of Irish descent, "so that the use of the Irish language is preserved on the island among the Negroes".
African slaves and Irish colonists of all classes were in constant contact, with sexual relationships being common and a population of mixed descent appearing as a consequence. The Irish were prominent in Caribbean commerce, with their merchants importing Irish goods such as beef, pork and herring, importing slaves. There is indirect evidence that the use of the Irish language continued in Montserrat until at least the middle of the nineteenth century; the Kilkenny diarist and Irish scholar Amhlaoibh Ó Súilleabháin noted in 1831 that he had heard that Irish was still spoken in Montserrat by both black and white inhabitants. A letter by W. F. Butler in The Atheneum quotes an account by a Cork civil servant, C. Cremen, of what he had heard from a retired sailor called John O'Donovan, a fluent Irish speaker: He told me that in the year 1852, when mate of the brig Kaloolah, he went ashore on the island of Montserrat, out of the usual track of shipping, he said he was much surprised to hear the negroes talking Irish among themselves, that he joined in the conversation… The British phonetici
Province of Valencia
Valencia or València is a province of Spain, in the central part of the Valencian Community. Of the province's 2,547,986 people, one-third live in the capital, the capital of the autonomous community and the 3rd biggest city in Spain, with a metropolitan area of 2,522,383 it's one of the most populated cities of Southern Europe. There are 265 municipalities in the province. Although the Spanish Constitution of 1812 loosely created the province of València, a stable administrative entity does not arise until the territorial division of Spain in 1833, remaining today without major changes; the Provincial Council of Valencia dates from that period. After the Valencian Statute of Autonomy of 1982, the province became part of the Valencian Community. Together with Spanish, Valencian is the co-official language, it is bordered by the provinces of Alicante, Cuenca, Castellón, the Mediterranean Sea. The northwestern side of the province is in the mountainous Sistema Ibérico area. Part of its territory, the Rincón de Ademuz, is an exclave sandwiched between the provinces of Cuenca and Teruel.
The province is subdivided into the comarques of Camp de Túria, Camp de Morvedre, Canal de Navarrés, Hoya de Buñol, Horta de València, Horta Nord, Horta Oest, Horta Sud, Requena-Utiel, Rincón de Ademuz, Ribera Alta, Ribera Baixa, Los Serranos, Vall d'Albaida and Valle de Cofrentes. The province of Valencia, like the rest of the region, is mountainous in the interior in the north and west, with the Sistema Central running from north to south and the foothills of Andalusia from west to east; this mountainous interior features deep and steep valleys formed by the major rivers running through it. The plain of Valencia, is the second largest coastal plain of the country, located in the low region between the Júcar and Turia river valleys, it is twenty wide. In 1843 it was cited as "one of the most fertile and best cultivated spots in Europe"; the other main rivers include the Serpis. The Altiplano de Requena-Utiel range, in the interior of the Valencia region, has an average height of about 750 m.
The principal mountains in the province are Cerro Calderón, Sierra del Caroche, Sierra del Benicadell, Serra Calderona, Sierra Martés, Sierra de Utiel, Sierra de Enguera, the Sierra de Mondúver. The València plains are known for their olive, ilex, algaroba and palm trees, with the appearance of an "immense garden"; such is the fertility of the soil, that two and three crops in the year are obtained, the greater part of the land returns eight per cent. The rice crops are the most valuable, are chiefly produced in the tract, irrigated by the Albufera, a large lake in the neighbourhood of València. Rice being the principal food of the lower classes, the crop is consumed in the province, with the exception of a small quantity which finds its way into Castile and Andalusia; the other chief product is the white mulberry, once the source of great wealth: it was worked in the silk-factories of València. In 1828, the produce of silk from the vega of València amounted to one million of pounds yearly, the greater part of, exported in its raw state, but the produce has increased since, owing to demands from the manufacturers of Lyon and other towns in the south of France.
The province of València is a notable producer of satins, silk ribbons, velvets. The export of fruit from Valencia is considerable of raisins; the raisins are of two kinds, the muscatel, an inferior and smaller raisin, called pasa de legia. The export of figs and wine from the province and ports of València is considerable, with a wine known as Beni Carlo, which as of 1843 was shipped to Cette. Mercury, sulphur, argentiferous lead, coal, etc. are among the mineral products, but they are procured only in small quantities. Today, tourism is a major source of income, with the city of Valencia and the resort towns along the coast being the primary earners during the summer months; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, by C. Knight
Pedro López Muñoz
Pedro López Muñoz is a Spanish professional footballer who plays for Levante UD as a right back. Born in Torrent, Valencian Community, López was a product of Valencia CF's youth system, he never made it past their reserves, would go on to make his La Liga debut for Racing de Santander during the 2004–05 season. López joined Real Valladolid in summer 2005, playing 36 matches for a side that achieved top flight promotion two years later, he scored his first goal for the club the following campaign, a brilliant long-range strike during the 1–1 home draw against Real Madrid on 23 September 2007. On 14 December 2008 established as first-choice right-back, López netted from his half in a 3–0 home win over Deportivo de La Coruña, he continued to start in the following seasons, suffering top division relegation in 2009–10. Wishing to return to the top flight, López joined Levante UD of his native region on 19 July 2011, on a three-year contract; the team finished a best-ever sixth in his debut season, subsequently qualifying for the UEFA Europa League in which he played eight matches to help them reach the quarter-finals.
He scored his first goal for the club on 31 March 2014, to confirm a 2–0 win at Granada CF. Levante official profile Pedro López at BDFutbol Pedro López at Futbolme Pedro López at Soccerway
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
Aldaia is a municipality in the comarca of Horta Oest in the Valencian Community, Spain. Voltor — ska/rock band
Godelleta is a municipality in the comarca of Hoya de Buñol in the Valencian Community, Spain. Fermín Zanón, zoologist