Marinduque Airport is the only airport located on and serving the island province of Marinduque in the Philippines. It is in Barangay Masiga in the town of Gasan, near the border with the provincial capital, Boac, it is classified as a Class 2 principal airport by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines, an attached agency of the Department of Transportation, responsible for the operations of airports in the Philippines. Marinduque Airport had been served by several airlines. Zest Airways was the last airline to serve the airport, ceasing service in 2013 after retiring their fleet of turboprop aircraft. Philippine Airlines meanwhile used to serve the airport with its fleet of NAMC YS-11 and Fokker 50 aircraft before canceling service during the 1997 Asian financial crisis. In 2010, the Department of Transportation and Communications commenced a ₱40 million airport development project meant for repaving the airport's runway; the next year, an additional ₱5 million was allocated for the repaving of the runway's extension, constructed, in October 2014, the DOTC announced a ₱8.45 million development project for the airport, leading to the construction of a new administration building and other improvements to the facility.
In 2017, the CAAP allocated ₱15 million to complete construction work. Airport construction was delayed for years due to bureaucratic delays on the part of the DOTC, but on due to political differences, with Governor Carmencita Reyes and her administration standing accused of withholding permits from the winning contractor, who happened to be her political rival, so that the project could be rebid to a contractor more favorable to her; the Office of the Ombudsman subsequently filed graft charges against Reyes and other provincial officials in light of the controversy. Despite additional construction delays caused by a lack of materials and equipment, runway construction work was completed on November 9, 2018 at a cost of ₱12.8 million, while terminal renovation work worth ₱9 million was completed on March 4, 2019. Cebu Pacific's regional subsidiary, subsequently began service to the airport on April 1, 2019, a formal inauguration of the airport's renovated facilities took place ten days later.
Marinduque Airport is equipped with a 1,534-meter concrete-paved runway. Extended from its previous length of 1,400 meters, it is capable of supporting turboprop aircraft like the ATR 72 and the Bombardier Dash 8; the airport's terminal building has an area of 560 square meters. Renovation work on the terminal entailed dropping the building's ceiling, installing the building with air conditioning and X-ray machines, replacing the building's old accordion walls with glass walls. A closed-circuit television system was installed. Additional renovation work, scheduled for completion in 2020, will include the construction of a drainage canal, a power house, new communal toilets, a covered pathway and waiting areas. In 2015, the Sangguniang Panlalawigan of Marinduque passed an ordinance banning stray domesticated animals from the airport property and its perimeter
Cebu Air, Inc. operating as Cebu Pacific and informally known as Cebu Pac, is a Philippine low-cost airline based on the grounds of Ninoy Aquino International Airport, Pasay City, Metro Manila, in the Philippines. It is Asia's oldest budget or low-cost carrier airline, founded in 1988, it offers scheduled flights to both international destinations. Its main base is Ninoy Aquino International Airport, with other hubs at Mactan-Cebu International Airport, Clark International Airport, Kalibo International Airport Francisco Bangoy International Airport, Iloilo International Airport, Laguindingan Airport; the airline is a subsidiary of JG Summit Holdings. Cebu Pacific is headed by Lance Gokongwei, presumptive heir of John Gokongwei, the chairman emeritus of JG Summit; as of January 2013, the company has 3,297 employees. 2,565 were from operations, 429 from the commercial departments, 303 from the support departments. In October 2010, the airline completed an IPO of 30.4% of outstanding shares. In 2010, Cebu Pacific became the Philippines' largest airline based on number of passengers flown on domestic and international routes.
According to Civil Aeronautics Board data, Cebu Pacific flew 2.45 million total passengers in the first quarter of 2010, nearly 110,000 more than Philippine Airlines, which carried 2.34 million systemwide during the same period. The airline was established on 26 August 1988, started operations on March 8, 1996. Republic Act No. 7151, which grants franchise to Cebu Air, Inc. was approved on 30 August 1991. Cebu Air, Inc. was subsequently acquired by JG Summit Holdings. Domestic services commenced following market deregulation by the Philippine government, it temporarily ceased operations in February 1998 after being grounded by the government due to an accident, but resumed services the next month following re-certification of its aircraft. It started with 24 domestic flights daily among Metro Manila, Metro Cebu and Metro Davao. By the end of 2001, its operations had grown to about 80 daily flights to 18 domestic destinations. In the 2000s, Cebu Pacific was granted rights to operate international flights to the region, including Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Hong Kong, Guam.
International flights were launched on 22 November 2001, with a twice-daily service to Hong Kong. On 1 March 2002, it commenced thrice-weekly flights to Seoul. Other regional flights were suspended later; the airline resumed its Manila-to-Singapore flights on August 31, 2006 and launched its direct flight from Cebu to Singapore on October 23, 2006, the first low-cost airline to serve the Cebu-Singapore-Cebu sector, in direct competition with Singapore Airlines' subsidiary SilkAir, CEB was the only Philippine carrier serving the Cebu-Singapore-Cebu route for years until PAL resumed its direct service in 2017. The airline operates direct flights from Cebu to Hong Kong which commenced October 2, 2006, which made CEB the only Philippine carrier to serve a Cebu-Hong Kong-Cebu route after PAL terminated its direct service and is now code-sharing with Cathay Pacific for this route. In December 2006, after a month or two of operating the new direct flights, Cebu Pacific announced that it would increase flight frequency for its Cebu-Hong Kong-Cebu from four to five times weekly and Cebu-Singapore-Cebu flights from four to six weekly effective 25 January 2007.
As of January 2008, it operates regional flights to Busan, Hong Kong, Seoul-Incheon and Bangkok beginning April 6, 2008 from its Cebu hub. Cebu Pacific's plans to begin international flights from Clark were unsuccessful when its request was denied; the nations involved came to an agreement that Cebu Pacific would be only allowed to operate charter flights from Clark to the respective countries' airport. Only Singapore agreed to allow Cebu Pacific to fly scheduled flights from Clark to Singapore. Cebu Pacific now operates routes from Clark to Bangkok, Hong Kong and Singapore. In June 2007, Cebu Pacific announced an order of up to 14 brand-new ATR 72-500 aircraft, with six firm orders and eight options, it plans to offer flights to Boracay, using Boracay's Godofredo P. Ramos Airport. On 12 November 2007, Cebu Pacific announced Davao's Francisco Bangoy International Airport as its fourth hub. Cebu Pacific announced that it would fly internationally from Davao City to Singapore, Hong Kong and fly one domestic flight to Iloilo.
Both direct services from Davao to Singapore and Iloilo commenced on May 8, 2008, while the service to Hong Kong commenced on May 9, 2008. In late 2007, Cebu Pacific mentioned that it was aiming to cross the Pacific and launch non-stop flights to the United States West Coast, Houston and Chicago, Illinois by mid-2009. On 18 December 2007, Cebu Pacific announced that it would exercise options on its recent ATR 72-500 turboprop order to increase its firm order to 10. On 19 February 2008, Cebu Pacific Air received its first brand-new ATR 72-500 and expected to take delivery of another five ATRs from March to December 2008; the initial two ATRs fly on routes such as Cebu to Bacolod. Cebu Pacific took delivery of its 16th brand-new, 179-seater Airbus A320 aircraft on 20 March 2008; the new aircraft was to support CEB's expanding international and domestic operations which include flights to 12, soo
Boac the Municipality of Boac, is a 1st class municipality and capital of the province of Marinduque, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 54,730 people. Boac is home to most of the province's commercial businesses. Barangays San Miguel and Mercado are the town's business district where the public market, medium-rise buildings, sports arena and Boac Town Arena, now Moriones Arena are. Meanwhile, Barangay Isok is home to the town's education district. Marinduque National High School, St. Mary's College of Marinduque, Don Luis Hidalgo Memorial School, Barangay Day Care Centers, Boac North District Office and the Division of Marinduque DepED Office is in Barangay Isok; the Municipal Building Hall is at Brgy. Tampus, adjacent is the Marinduque Museum at Brgy. Malusak; the Marinduque Provincial Capitol is in Barangay Santol near the Dr. Damian Reyes Memorial Hospital and Camp Maximo Abad; the name Boac is derived from the Visayan word bu-ak, which means "divided". The town had been divided in two by a river running from the eastern hinterland to the western plains down to the sea.
The two were the Southern areas. Other records says that Boac came from the word "bulwak", which characterizes the tide caused by the rapids of the Boac River to its mouth in Brgy. Lupac and to the banks around the riverside barrios; the first "visita" was established in 1580 and it was called "Monserrat de Marinduque" with Fray Alonzo Banol as its minister. In 1621, the Spanish Jesuit missionaries brought the three-foot Marian image to Boac. So began the people's devotion to the image of the Virgin Mary. In the mid-17th century, a group of Muslims in the Philippines called the Moro people felt threatened by the actions of the ruling Spanish government, they challenged the government by launching attacks on coastal Christian towns. This resulted in a raid near the Boac River. During the siege, the neighbourhood people fled in panic and took refuge in the fortress church of Boac, now called Immaculate Conception Cathedral. In the meantime, all able-bodied men defended the outer walls of the church fortress against the attacks.
Many Christians were killed and, by the third day of violence, those alive began to run short on food. The capture of the fortress seemed imminent; the survivors prayed fervently at the throne of Mary. Legend says that there came a strong storm, with torrential rain and lightning. At the height of the storm, it is reported that the image of a beautiful lady with outstretched arms appeared standing on the top of the wall. Terror seized the Moros and they fled in confusion to their vinta boats. Thus, the Christians were saved from death by Mary. Since this incident, the image of Mary has been honoured and given the title "Biglang Awa." To commemorate the miracle, a stone niche was built on the wall at the spot. The old image brought by the Jesuits in Boac was placed there. There is a shrine at this location today. In 1942, Boac was occupied by Japanese troops. In 1945, the Battle of Marinduque began and the American-Philippine Commonwealth troops landed in Boac after the war was built of the general headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and Philippine Constabulary from 1945 to 1946 station in this municipality.
The Provincial Government of Marinduque under Gov. Carmencita O. Reyes built a larger-than-life-size image of the Our Lady of Biglang Awa in cement and placed in the seashore in Balanacan Port to welcome travelers to the island. On May 10, 2008, the Diocese of Boac celebrated the 13th anniversary and the golden anniversary of the canonical coronation of Mahal na Birhen ng Biglang-Awa. Cebu Archbishop-Cardinal Ricardo Vidal of Mogpog, officiated at the consecrated mass. Boac is the third largest of the six municipalities of the province of Marinduque, after Santa Cruz and Torrijos, it borders all the municipalities of the province: Mogpog to the north, Santa Cruz to the Northeast, Torrijos to the East, Buenavista to the South and Gasan to the South Southwest. The municipality is hilly and mountainous in the south and eastern part with thin strips of flat and farm lands and long shoreline in the west; the longest and largest river, Boac River, which gets its source in the mountainous forest in the extreme southwest and spills off to the northern shore of Boac, divides the municipality into two geographical areas: north and south.
The closest town-to-town reference to Boac is the municipality of Mogpog, 5 kilometers. Boac is connected to Mogpog and Gasan by the Marinduque Circumferential Highway or the Pan-Marinduque Highway. Two bridges connect the north and south area of the municipality: the narrow Tabi Bridge which connects Brgy. Tabi and Brgy. San Miguel and the said-to-be the longest bridge in the province, Biglang Awa Bridge, which connects Brgy. Tampus and Brgy. Bantad. A narrow minor road connects Boac and Mogpog via Buliasnin-Nangka Road, Boac and Gasan via Duyay-Tapuyan Trail. Boac has a total road network of 117.61 kilometers. Geopolitically, Boac is divided into six zones: Poblacion, Ilaya I, Ilaya II, Seaside A and Seaside B. Boac's geographical center is located between the border of Brgy. Binunga and Brgy. Can-at. Boac is politically subdivided into 61 barangays: In the 2015 census, the population of Boac, was 54,730 people, with a density of 260 inhabitants per square kilometre or 670 inhabitants per square mile.
Boac's most densely populated areas are Poblacion area and Southwest. Eastern barangays are sparsely populated. 70% of the po
The Philippines the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon and Mindanao; the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south; the Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 km2, according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.
As of January 2018, it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian and Chinese nations occurred. Various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs and lakans; the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.
The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons; as the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution followed, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since the unitary sovereign state has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution; the Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia Summit.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations; the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias; the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were used by the Spanish to refer to the islands; the official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic.
From the period of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article. Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. However, the metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago remains the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date; this distinction belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around
Mulanay the Municipality of Mulanay, is a 1st class municipality in the province of Quezon, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 53,123 people; this place is situated on the Bondoc Peninsula. Mulanay is about 100 kilometres south-east from Lucena City; the town proper, with her plain landscape, is a coastal town facing the Tayabas Bay. The municipality is being considered to be listed in the tentative list for UNESCO World Heritage Site inscription due to its architectural marvels, notably its baroque church, its preserved ancestral houses, the Limestone tombs of Kamhantik, a highly-significant Tagalog archaeological site and dambana, in the Buenavista Protected Landscape. Mulanay is politically subdivided into 28 barangays; some legends would relate Mulanay to have derived its name from the Tagalog word Malunay, which means "Plenty of Lunay". Lunay is the vernacular term for Pili wax, abundant in the area; the findings of the conducted archaeological exploration and excavation at Mt. Kamhantik Archaeological Site by the team from the National Museum headed by Dr. Eusebio Z. Dizon, Scientist III and a world renown archaeologist says Mulanay was inhabited by an organized community in the year 500AD-1300AD, who were our ancestors belonging to the Austronesian speaking people and originated from Taiwan.
Austronesian people or Austronesian-speaking people are various populations found in Asia and Africa that speak languages of the Austronesian family. These include Taiwanese aborigines; the Austronesian language is a language family, dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members on continental Asia. Austronesian languages are spoken by about 386 million people, making it the fifth-largest language family by number of speakers; the result of the C-14 on teeth found in burial No.5 at the Mt Kamhantik Archaeological Site was dated in the year 890AD or 1,220 years old. The recent archaeological investigation on July 15-30, 2015 found a surface archaeological artifact, stone tool, and according to Dr. Eusebio Z. Dizon, Scientist III, it was a tool from the Neolithic period 10,000 BC-2,000 BC used for carving and sharpening. Other artifacts found were potteries with incised designs which were similar to the early Huynh-Kalanay Potteries of Taiwan and Vietnam from the period of 1000 BCE and 200 CE.
Some were present in the different areas in the Philippines like Sarangani, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Bicol and many others dating to 1000BC-300AD. Ceramics shreds from the Sung Dynasty were are found in the area; these archaeological findings were evidences showing the participation of our ancestors from Mt. Kamhantik to a trade network in 500AD-1300AD; the evangelization of Mulanay by the Franciscan Missionaries was in 1600 while its civil foundation as a municipality was effected in 1745 through the approval of the King of Spain. During the Spanish regime, Mulanay was composed of the municipal territories of San Narciso, San Francisco and San Andres, as big as the province of Bataan. In 1755, Catanauan became a separate municipality followed by other remaining municipalities. Mulanay’s territorial jurisdiction was reduced to 42,000 hectares; the original town of Mulanay composed of six barangays was raided by the Moro pirates that led the town’s executive together with the barangay heads to transfer the town site to the so called Mayordomo, a sitio of Barangay Latangan.
After several years, raids along coastal areas were lessened. The people returned to the town site, few barangay heads disagreed and left for Bantuin and Mindoro; the populace of Mulanay is composed of different ethnic groups like Tagalogs and Bicolanos. Based on the Philippine Statistics Authority Census Calendar Year 2010, it has a population of 50,826; the first town head of Mulanay during the Spanish Regime was Alcalde Mayor Eustaquio Manlangit, while the first town mayor during the American Occupation was Mayor Atanacio Ojeda. The municipality had been under twenty seven mayors from Spanish Regime up to present; the incumbent mayor is Joselito A. Ojeda. At present, Mulanay is composed of twenty eight barangays; the municipality is an agricultural town where farm crops like coconut, bananas, corn, mongo, ginger and other vegetables are abundantly harvested. Mulanay lies along the coast of an abundant fishing ground. Elected officials 2013–2016: Mayor: Joselito Aguirre Ojeda Vice Mayor: Ponciano Rejano Councilors: Jay Castilleja Isidro M. Fuerte Edgardo R. Sebuc Elizabeth E. Acar Jay E. Castilleja Jose P. Pineda Jr. Antonio Rodelas Servillano Diaz Amuguis Falls Amuguis Falls are located in Barangay Amuguis, Mulanay.
With its own distinct and unique characteristics, waterfalls are undeveloped tourist destination. They are surrounded by forest trees and big rock formation where local folks go for picnics and gathering. Malaking Bato The century-old legendary boulder along the coast of Barangay Sta. Rosa, famous as a unique picnic spot among the residents and visitors alike. Buenavista Protected Landscape A protected area situated in Barangay Buenavista that preserves a
Cebgo, Inc. operating as Cebgo, is a low-cost airline serving the Philippines. It is the successor company to SEAIR, Inc. which operated as South East Asian Airlines and Tigerair Philippines. It is now owned by the parent company of Cebu Pacific which operates the airline, its main base has been transferred from Clark International Airport, Angeles to Ninoy Aquino International Airport, Metro Manila. On April 30, 2017, Cebgo planned to move out from Manila and transfer its main base to Mactan-Cebu International Airport in Cebu City because the NAIA has maxed out its capacity; the airline was established as South East Asian Airlines in 1995 and started operations in the same year. However, its franchise was granted by the Congress of the Philippines only on May 13, 2009 through Republic Act No. 9517. The airline received its corporate registration from the Securities and Exchange Commission on 25 March 1995 to operate aircraft leasing, chartering and a few domestic scheduled flights. In May 1995, the airline was registered with the Clark Special Economic Zone to operate services in the Clark-Manila-Subic area and to tourist destinations throughout the Luzon and the Visayas regions.
It continued expanding its routes and opened a hub in Zamboanga City in 2002. On 29 September 2006, a deal was announced in which Singapore-based Tigerair would enter a commercial and operational tie-up with SEAir from February 2007; the tie-up was approved in 2008 after protest from four other Philippine airlines. However, due to the unfavorable operating environment, the plan was put into hiatus. Tigerair and SEAir revisited the partnership plan in 2010 and it was launched on 16 December 2010. Seats on flights operated by SEAir using two aircraft leased from Tigerair were sold and marketed by Tigerair for SEAir. Shortly after SEAir and Tigerair launched the partnership, Philippine Airlines, Cebu Pacific, Zest Airways and Air Philippines sent a letter of protest to the Department of Transportation and Communications claiming the partnership between SEAir and Tigerair was illegal and requested the authorities to stop flights operating under the partnership; the Tigerair-SEAir partnership began with international flights from Clark to Singapore, Hong Kong, Macau.
It was expanded to domestic destination from Manila to Davao and Cebu. However, the Civil Aeronautics Board ordered the sales of the domestic flight under the partnership to be suspended on 20 May 2011, after receiving complaints from Philippine Airlines and Cebu Pacific. Since the ban from CAB was lifted in October 2011, the planned domestic flight was scheduled to start in May 2012. In February 2011, Tiger Airways Holdings Ltd. parent company of Tigerair, purchased 32.5% shares of SEAir Inc. They increased their shares to 40% in August 2012. In December 2012, CAB approved SEAir's application to form SEAir International, a full-service airline focusing on domestic and international leisure destinations and an independent operation from SEAir Inc., rebranded as Tigerair Philippines. Seair-I was formed to take on the turboprop division, excluded in the share sale with Tigerair." SEAir Inc. was renamed Tigerair Philippines Inc. on 7 June 2013. In January 2014, Cebu Pacific announced that it was acquiring the entirety of Tigerair Philippines for US$14.5 million by buying all shares.
In May 2015, for the fourth time, Tigerair Philippines was rebranded as Cebgo to reflect the relationship between Tigerair Philippines as a wholly owned subsidiary airline of its parent company Cebu Pacific. By October 2015, Cebgo returned 5 Airbus A320s to Cebu Pacific and thereafter operated a pure turboprop fleet of ATR 72-500s. Cebgo flies to 25 destinations in the Philippines as of May 18, 2017, it operates bases at the airports in Manila. As of Cebgo operates the following aircraft: South East Asian Airlines fleet South East Asian Airlines aircraft
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo