The Inner Harbor is a historic seaport, tourist attraction, landmark of the city of Baltimore, Maryland. It was described by the Urban Land Institute in 2009 as "the model for post-industrial waterfront redevelopment around the world." The Inner Harbor is located at the mouth of Jones Falls, creating the wide and short northwest branch of the Patapsco River. The district includes any water west of a line drawn between the foot of President Street and the American Visionary Art Museum; the name "Inner Harbor" is used not just for the water but for the surrounding area of the city, with approximate street boundaries of President Street to the east, Lombard Street to the north, Greene Street to the west, Key Highway on the south. The harbor is within walking distance of M&T Bank Stadium. A water taxi connects passengers to Fells Point and Fort McHenry. While Baltimore has been a major U. S. seaport since the 18th century, the shallow water of the Inner Harbor was not conducive to large ships or heavy industry.
These were concentrated in Locust Point, Fell's Point, Canton. In the mid-20th century, Baltimore suffered from the economic decline of restructuring common to many industrial cities in the United States. Old harbors were abandoned with the arrival of container ships after World War II; the old harbors were adapted as focal points to reconnect cities with their waterfronts, develop public spaces, tourism and housing. During the 1940s, John H. Threadgill, the head of the Steamship Trade Association, initiated a study for a cross-harbor bridge. A bridge across the Inner Harbor of Baltimore was one idea, discussed frequently. In his capacity as head of the association, Threadgill recommended that the idea for a cross-harbor bridge be abandoned, due to the fact that Baltimore relied on a shipping trade and fears that the bridge would negatively impede the flow of shipping traffic at the Port of Baltimore. Threadgill was named head of Baltimore's Port Commission during the 1950s. In the 1950s, economic changes ended both the freight and passenger use of the Inner Harbor, such as the Old Bay Line's steamers.
Rotting warehouses and piers were torn down and replaced by open, grass-covered parkland, used for recreational purposes and occasional large events. The waterfront was transformed with award-winning parks and plazas surrounded by office buildings and leisure attractions, which reversed the city's decline and became a model for urban renaissance in cities around the world; the renewal of Baltimore's Inner Harbor area began with the adoption of the 33-acre Charles Center project by the City Council and Mayor Thomas D'Alesandro in March 1958. Between 1958 and 1965, Baltimore renewed the center of its business district by rebuilding Charles Center with office buildings and retail shops. At the beginning of mayor Theodore R. McKeldin's second term in 1963, the redevelopment program was expanded to include 240 acres surrounding the Inner Harbor. Corporate headquarters and hotels were built around the shoreline of the Inner Harbor. A public park and promenade were added for leisure community gatherings.
On July 4, 1976, following the rendezvous of Tall Ships in New York for the U. S. Bicentennial, eight ships from other nations visited Baltimore, where they attracted a huge number of tourists; this interest helped spur the development of other tourist attractions – including the National Aquarium, Maryland Science Center, the Harborplace festival marketplace, which opened on July 4, 1980. The nearby Baltimore Convention Center and Hyatt Regency Baltimore Hotel added to the services and resulted in population density and visitors. With the success of the Inner Harbor in the 1970s and 1980s, Baltimore became a worldwide tourist destination and model of urban planning and development, it influenced more than 100 other cities and won more than 40 national or international awards, including a citation by the American Institute of Architects in 1984 as "one of the supreme achievements of large-scale urban design and development in U. S. history."In recent years, the area along the waterfront to the east of the Inner Harbor has been developed with condominiums, retail space and hotels – an ongoing project known as Harbor East.
While little development land remains around the Inner Harbor, the available land has been subject to many plans, which have not been realized. Completed projects include mixed-use developments incorporating office space, street-level retail, condominiums, as well as hotel projects such as the Ritz Carlton Residences, a condominium project on Key Highway at the southeast corner of the Inner Harbor. In September 2003, the Inner Harbor area was flooded by Hurricane Isabel; the Baltimore World Trade Center remained closed for a month, but all the other buildings were saved from flooding by the Inner Harbor development controls, which were created by the master developer team of Charles Center-Inner Harbor Management, Inc. In March 2004, a water taxi capsized during a storm on the Northwest Branch of the Patapsco River near Fort McHenry. While occurring over a mile downstream of the Inner Harbor, the accident was associated with the Inner Harbor by news reports and casual observers. Five passengers died in the accident, which the National Transportation Safety Board determined was caused when the small pontoon-style vessel encountered unpredictable strong winds and waves.
Reginald F. Lewis Museum of African-American History and Culture American Visionary Art Museum Baltimore Museum of Industry Geppi's Entertainment Museum Jewish Muse
Cod is the common name for the demersal fish genus Gadus, belonging to the family Gadidae. Cod is used as part of the common name for a number of other fish species, some species suggested to belong to genus Gadus are not called cod; the two most common species of cod are the Atlantic cod, which lives in the colder waters and deeper sea regions throughout the North Atlantic, the Pacific cod, found in both eastern and western regions of the northern Pacific. Gadus morhua was named by Linnaeus in 1758. Cod is popular as a food with a mild flavour and a dense, white flesh. Cod livers are processed to make cod liver oil, an important source of vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, omega-3 fatty acids. Young Atlantic cod or haddock prepared in strips for cooking is called scrod. In the United Kingdom, Atlantic cod is one of the most common ingredients in fish and chips, along with haddock and plaice. At various times in the past, taxonomists included many species in the genus Gadus. Most of these are now either classified in other genera, or have been recognized as forms of one of three species.
All these species have a number of common names, most of them ending with the word "cod", whereas other species, as related, have other common names. However, many other, unrelated species have common names ending with cod; the usage changes with different localities and at different times. Three species in the genus Gadus are called cod: Cod forms part of the common name of many other fish no longer classified in the genus Gadus. Many are members of the family Gadidae; the tadpole cod family has now been placed in Gadidae. Gadiformes include: Some fish have common names derived from "cod", such as codling, codlet or tomcod; some fish known as cod are unrelated to Gadus. Part of this name confusion is market-driven. Shrunken Atlantic cod stocks have led to the marketing of cod replacements using culinary names of the form "x cod", according to culinary rather than phyletic similarity; the common names for the following species have become well established. PerciformesFish of the order Perciformes that are called "cod" include: Blue cod Parapercis colias Eastern freshwater cod Maccullochella ikei Mary River cod Maccullochella peelii mariensis Murray cod Maccullochella peelii peelii Potato cod Epinephelus tukula Sleepy cod Oxyeleotris lineolatus Trout cod Maccullochella macquariensis The notothen family, including: Antarctic cod Dissostichus mawsoni Black cod Notothenia microlepidota Maori cod Paranotothenia magellanicaRock cod, reef cod, coral codAlmost all coral cod, reef cod or rock cod are in order Perciformes.
Most are better known as groupers, belong to the family Serranidae. Others belong to the Nototheniidiae. Two exceptions are the Australasian red rock cod, which belongs to a different order, the fish known as the rock cod and as soft cod in New Zealand, Lotella rhacina, which as noted above is related to the true cod. ScorpaeniformesFrom the order Scorpaeniformes: Ling cod Ophiodon elongatus Red rock cod Scorpaena papillosa Rock cod SebastesOphidiiformesThe tadpole cod family and the Eucla cod family, were classified in the order Ophidiiformes, but are now grouped with the Gadiformes; some fish that do not have "cod" in their names are sometimes sold as cod. Haddock and whiting belong to the Gadidae, as cod. Haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus Whiting Merlangius merlangus Cods of the genus Gadus have three rounded dorsal and two anal fins; the pelvic fins are small, with the first ray extended, are set under the gill cover, in front of the pectoral fins. The upper jaw extends over the lower jaw; the eyes are medium-sized the same as the length of the chin barbel.
Cod have a distinct white lateral line running from the gill slit above the pectoral fin, to the base of the caudal or tail fin. The back tends to be a greenish to sandy brown, shows extensive mottling towards the lighter sides and white belly. Dark brown colouration of the back and sides is not uncommon for individuals that have resided in rocky inshore regions; the Atlantic cod can change colour at certain water depths. It has two distinct colour phases: reddish brown, its average weight is 5 -- 12 kilograms. Pacific cod are darker in colour. Atlantic cod live in deeper sea regions throughout the North Atlantic. Pacific cod is found in both western regions of the Pacific. Atlantic cod divide into several stocks, including the Arcto-Norwegian, North Sea, Iceland, East Greenland, West Greenland and Labrador stocks. There seems to be little interchange between the stocks, although migrations to their individual breeding grounds may involve distances of 200 miles or more. Atlantic cod occupy varied habitat, favouring rough ground inshore, are demersal in de
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
The Atlantic cod is a benthopelagic fish of the family Gadidae consumed by humans. It is commercially known as cod or codling. Dry cod may be prepared as as cured salt cod or clipfish. In the western Atlantic Ocean, cod has a distribution north of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, around both coasts of Greenland and the Labrador Sea; the largest individual on record was 1.8 m long and weighed 96 kg, but the cod is between 61 cm and 1.2 m long and weighs up to 40 kg. There is no difference in weight or size between sexes of Atlantic Cod. Atlantic cod can live for 25 years, attain sexual maturity between ages two and four, although cod in the northeast Arctic can take as long as eight years to mature fully. Colouring is green, with spots on the dorsal side, shading to silver ventrally. A stripe along its lateral line is visible, its habitat ranges from the shoreline down to the continental shelf. Several cod stocks collapsed in the 1990s and have failed to recover with the cessation of fishing; this absence of the apex predator has led to a trophic cascade in many areas.
Many other cod stocks remain at risk. The Atlantic cod is labelled vulnerable on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Adult cod form spawning aggregations from late winter to spring. Females release their eggs in batches, males compete to fertilize them. Fertilized eggs develop into larvae. Age of maturation varies between cod stocks, from ages two to four in the west Atlantic, but as late as eight years in the northeast Arctic. Cod can live for 13 years or more; the Atlantic cod is one of three cod species in the genus Gadus along with Pacific cod and Greenland cod. A variety of fish species are colloquially known as cod, but they are not all classified within the Gadus, though some are in the Atlantic cod family, Gadidae. Atlantic cod are a shoaling move in large, size-structured aggregations. Larger fish act as scouts and lead the shoal's direction during post spawning migrations inshore for feeding. Cod feed during migration and changes in shoal structure occur when food is encountered. Shoals are thought to be leaderless, with all fish having equal status and an equal distribution of resources and benefits.
However, some studies suggest. One study of a migrating Atlantic cod shoal showed significant variability in feeding habits based on size and position in the shoal. Larger scouts consumed a more variable, higher quantity of food, while trailing fish had less variable diets and consumed less food. Fish distribution throughout the shoal seems to be dictated by fish size, the smaller lagging fish benefit from shoaling because they are more successful in feeding in the shoal than they would be if migrating individually, due to social facilitation. Atlantic cod are apex predators in the Baltic and adults are free from the concerns of predation. Juvenile cod, may serve as prey for adult cod, which sometimes practice cannibalism. Juvenile cod make substrate decisions based on risk of predation. Substrates refer to different swimming environments. Without apparent risk of predation, juvenile cod demonstrated a preference for finer-grained substrates such as sand and gravel-pebble. However, in the presence of a predator, they preferred to seek safety in the space available between stones of a cobble substrate.
Selection of cobble reduces the risk of predation. Without access to cobble, the juvenile cod tries to escape a predator by fleeing. Additionally, juvenile Atlantic cod vary their behaviour according to the foraging behaviour of predators. In the vicinity of a passive predator, cod behaviour changes little; the juveniles prefer finer-grained substrates and otherwise avoid the safer kelp, steering clear of the predator. In contrast, in the presence of an foraging predator, juveniles are avoidant and hide in cobble or in kelp if cobble is unavailable; as apex predators, heavy fishing of cod in the 1990s and the collapse of American and Canadian cod stocks resulted in trophic cascades. Overfishing cod removed a significant predatory pressure on other Atlantic fish and crustacean species. Population-limiting effects on several species including American lobsters and shrimp from cod predation have decreased and the abundance of these species and their increasing range serve as evidence of the Atlantic cod's role as a major predator rather than prey.
Cod are cannibals and are eaten at various life stages by various other fishes and whales. Atlantic cod have been recorded to swim at speeds of a minimum of 2–5 cm/s and a maximum of 21–54 cm/s with a mean swimming speed of 9–17 cm/s. In one hour, cod have been recorded to cover a mean range of 99 to 226 m2. Swimming speed was higher during the day than at night; this is reflected in the fact that cod more search for food during the day. Cod modify their activity pattern according to the length of daylight, thus activity varies with time of year. Swimming and physiological behaviours change in response to fluctuations in water temperature. Respirometry experiments show that heart rates of Atlantic cod change drastically with changes in temperature of only a few degrees. A rise in water temperature causes marked increas
USS Torsk is a Tench-class submarine built for the United States Navy during World War II. Armed with ten torpedo tubes, the Tench-class submarines were incremental developments of the highly-successful Gato-class submarines that formed the backbone of the US Navy's submarine force during the war. Torsk was laid down at the Portsmouth Navy Yard in June 1944, was launched in September that year, commissioned in December. In 1945, Torsk made two war patrols off Japan, sinking one cargo vessel and two coastal defense frigates; the latter of these, torpedoed on 14 August 1945, was the last enemy ship sunk by the United States Navy in World War II. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, she operated as a training vessel. Decommissioned in 1964, she served for another seven years as a training vessel for the Naval Reserve, she was stricken from the Naval Vessel Register in December 1971 and turned over to the state of Maryland for use as a museum ship. She is now part of the historic fleet of Historic Ships in Baltimore.
The Tench-class submarines were incremental improvements of the preceding Balao and Gato classes of fleet submarines that proved to be successful during operations against Japan in the Pacific War. The Tenches, the culmination of early wartime experiences, were the last submarine class to be built by the United States Navy during the war. Torsk was 311 ft 8 in long, with a beam of 27 ft 4 in and a maximum draft of 17 ft 0 in, she displaced 1,570 long tons surfaced and 2,414 long tons submerged. The Tench-class submarines were powered by four Fairbanks-Morse Model 38D8-⅛ 10-cylinder opposed piston diesel engines driving electrical generators; these were rated at 5,400 shaft horsepower for a maximum speed of 20.25 knots on the surface. During underwater operations, she was powered by two 126-cell Sargo batteries that drove two low-speed direct-drive General Electric electric motors, her electric motors provided a top speed of 8.75 knots submerged. While surfaced, she had a cruising radius of 11,000 nautical miles at a speed of 10 knots.
Her submerged endurance was limited by the life of her batteries, which at a speed of 2 knots, would be depleted after 48 hours. She could carry enough provisions for her crew of ten officers and 71 enlisted men for 75 days of operations; the submarine was armed with ten 21-inch torpedo tubes, six of which were in the bow, with the other four located in her stern. These were supplied with a total of 28 torpedoes, she was fitted with a 5-inch /25 caliber deck gun and a Bofors 40 mm and Oerlikon 20 mm cannon. The keel for Torsk was laid down at the Portsmouth Navy Yard on 7 June 1944, the completed hull was launched on 6 September. Work was completed by the end of the year, she was commissioned on 16 December. Beginning on 31 December, she began training exercises that lasted until 11 February 1945; the vessel remained there only and on 20 February, she got underway for the Pacific Ocean, passing through the Panama Canal and arriving in Hawaii on 23 March. There, she underwent repairs in preparation for her first war patrol.
Torsk cruised to Guam and proceeded to Kii Suido in the Japanese home islands, arriving there on 11 May. While there, she patrolled for American air crews that had to bail out from damaged aircraft during their raids on Japan, but no aircraft went down in the area that day. Late on 11 May, she moved to the northeastern coast of Honshu. Over the course of 14 and 15 May, she attempted to contact the submarine wolfpack operating in the area, she rendezvoused with the submarines Sand Lance and Cero the next day, she found no Japanese vessels in the area. Torsk encountered a Japanese coastal minelayer on 2 June between Hokkaido, she launched a spread of six torpedoes, but the minelayer evaded them, prompting Torsk to dive to evade the expected counter-attack that did not occur. Two days she located a 700 long tons freighter off Kobe Saki. Torsk departed the area on 5 June, bound for Midway Atoll. After arriving on 16 June, she began her second patrol on 17 July, she again sailed to Guam, where she stayed on 1 and 2 August, before continuing on to the Sea of Japan.
On 10 August, Torsk passed through the minefields in the Tsushima Strait, the next day, she found and took aboard seven Japanese sailors from the merchant ship Koue Maru, sunk four days earlier. On the 11th, the submarine entered her patrol area. While patrolling off Dogo Island the next morning, she located a small freighter and sank her with a submerged torpedo attack. Off Ando Saki on 13 August, Torsk found another small freighter. On 14 August, she encountered a medium-sized cargo ship accompanied by a 745 long tons Kaibōkan type escort vessel steaming off Amarubi Saki; when the two ships approached Kasumi Ko at 10:35, Torsk launched a new, experimental Mark 28 torpedo, an acoustic homing torpedo, at the Kaibōkan. The torpedo struck the ship and blew a hole in the stern, bending it up at a 30-degree angle and causing it to sink. Torsk a
The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia–Pacific War, was the theater of World War II, fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, in China; the Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. However, it is more accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when Japan invaded Thailand and attacked the British colonies of Malaya and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island and the Philippines; the Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter aided by Thailand and to a much lesser extent by the Axis allied Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, other large aerial bomb attacks by the Allies, accompanied by the Soviet declaration of war and invasion of Manchuria on 9 August 1945, resulting in the Japanese announcement of intent to surrender on 15 August 1945.
The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place aboard the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands. Japan's Shinto Emperor was forced to relinquish much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms. In Allied countries during the war, the "Pacific War" was not distinguished from World War II in general, or was known as the War against Japan. In the United States, the term Pacific Theater was used, although this was a misnomer in relation to the Allied campaign in Burma, the war in China and other activities within the Southeast Asian Theater. However, the US Armed Forces considered the China-Burma-India Theater to be distinct from the Asiatic-Pacific Theater during the conflict. Japan used the name Greater East Asia War, as chosen by a cabinet decision on 10 December 1941, to refer to both the war with the Western Allies and the ongoing war in China.
This name was released to the public on 12 December, with an explanation that it involved Asian nations achieving their independence from the Western powers through armed forces of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. Japanese officials integrated what they called the Japan–China Incident into the Greater East Asia War. During the Allied military occupation of Japan, these Japanese terms were prohibited in official documents, although their informal usage continued, the war became known as the Pacific War. In Japan, the Fifteen Years' War is used, referring to the period from the Mukden Incident of 1931 through 1945; the Axis states which assisted Japan included the authoritarian government of Thailand, which formed a cautious alliance with the Japanese in 1941, when Japanese forces issued the government with an ultimatum following the Japanese invasion of Thailand. The leader of Thailand, Plaek Phibunsongkhram, became enthusiastic about the alliance after decisive Japanese victories in the Malayan Campaign and in 1942 sent the Phayap Army to assist the invasion of Burma, were former Thai territory, annexed by Britain were reoccupied.
The allies supported and organized an underground anti-Japanese resistance group, known as the Free Thai Movement, after the Thai ambassador to the United States had refused to hand over the declaration of war. Because of this, after the surrender in 1945, the stance of the United States was that Thailand should be treated as a puppet of Japan and be considered an occupied nation rather than as an ally; this was done in contrast to the British stance towards Thailand, who had faced them in combat as they invaded British territory, the United States had to block British efforts to impose a punitive peace. Involved were members of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, which included the armies of the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo, the collaborationist Wang Jingwei regime. In the Burma Campaign, other members, such as the anti-Britsh Indian National Army of Free India and Burma National Army of the State of Burma were active and fighting alongside their Japanese allies. Moreover, Japan conscripted many soldiers from its colonies of Taiwan.
Collaborationist security units were formed in Hong Kong, the Philippines, Dutch East Indies, British Malaya, British Borneo, former French Indochina as well as Timorese militia. These units the assisted Japanese war effort in their respective territories. Germany and Italy both had limited involvement in the Pacific War; the German and the Italian navies operated submarines and raiding ships in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The Italians had access to concession territory naval bases in China. After Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and the subsequent declarations of war, both navies had access to Japanese naval facilities; the major Allied participants were the United States and their colonies, the Republic of China, engaged in bloody war against Japan since 1937, the United Kingdom (mos