The Tudor architectural style is the final development of Medieval architecture in England, during the Tudor period and beyond, the tentative introduction of Renaissance architecture to England. It is not used to refer to the whole period of the Tudor dynasty, but to the style used in buildings of some prestige in the period between 1500 and 1560, it followed the Late Gothic Perpendicular style and was superseded by Elizabethan architecture from about 1560 in domestic building of any pretensions to fashion. In the much more slow-moving styles of vernacular architecture "Tudor" has become a designation for styles like half-timbering that characterize the few buildings surviving from before 1485 and others from the Stuart period. In this form the Tudor style long retained its hold on English taste. Nevertheless,'Tudor style' is an awkward style-designation, with its implied suggestions of continuity through the period of the Tudor dynasty and the misleading impression that there was a style break at the accession of Stuart James I in 1603.
The low Tudor arch was a defining feature. Some of the most remarkable oriel windows belong to this period. Mouldings are more spread out and the foliage becomes more naturalistic. During the reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI, many Italian artists arrived in England. However, in the following reign of Elizabeth I, the influence of Northern Mannerism derived from books, was greater. Courtiers and other wealthy Elizabethans competed to build prodigy houses that proclaimed their status; the Dissolution of the Monasteries redistributed large amounts of land to the wealthy, resulting in a secular building boom, as well as a source of stone. The building of churches had slowed somewhat before the English Reformation, after a great boom in the previous century, but was brought to a nearly complete stop by the Reformation. Civic and university buildings became more numerous in the period, which saw general increasing prosperity. Brick was something of an exotic and expensive rarity at the beginning of the period, but during it became widely used in many parts of England for modest buildings restricting traditional methods such as wood framed daub and wattle and half-timbering to the lower classes by the end of the period.
Scotland was a different country throughout the period, is not covered here, but early Renaissance architecture in Scotland was influenced by close contacts between the French and Scottish courts, there are a number of buildings from before 1560 that show a more thorough adoption of continental Renaissance styles than their English equivalents. Tudor style buildings have several features that separate them from Medieval and 17th-century design. Though this period is better known for the luxuries and excesses of his son and granddaughter, it was under Henry VII that the transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance began and it is underestimated how much effort the founder of the Tudor dynasty invested in making huge changes to the way things were done before versus the way they were being done by the time he died. Prior to 1485, many wealthy and noble landowners lived in homes that were not comfortable but built to withstand sieges, though manor houses that were only fortified, if at all, had been built.
Castles and smaller manor houses had moats and crenelations designed for archers to stand guard and pick off approaching enemies. However, with the arrival of gunpowder and cannons by the time of Henry VI, fortifications like castles became obsolete; the autumn of 1485 marked the ascension of Henry VII to the throne. Until Henry's accession, England had been engaged in the Wars of the Roses that had left the royal coffers in deep trouble-Yorkists had raided the treasury just after the death of Edward IV. Therefore, in 1487, Henry Tudor passed laws against livery and maintenance, which checked the nobility's ability to raise armies independent of the crown, raised taxes mightily on the nobility through a trusted advisor, John Morton. Henry Tudor was hellbent on repairing the damage done by so many years of war, that meant increasing financial security, it meant recentralising power in London with the crown alone and away from interrelated nobles, squabbling over scraps of power since the reign of Richard II, evidenced by the crown beginning to be fought over by different branches of the descendants of Edward III at that time.
From Henry's point of view, there were taxes to collect, bills of attainder to hand out to the disloyal, Yorkists to marry off to Lancastrians, the majesty of the monarchy to repair and restore, a metaphorical wrecking ball to be applied to the medieval ideal of the warrior king crouching in his fortress and his vassals in theirs. During the reign of Henry VII, he made some savvy business investments in the alum trade and made vast improvements to the waterborne infrastructure of the country: the site of his dry dock in Portsmouth still is used today, because of Henry's investments in alum records show a striking increase in the volume of ships and thus trade coming in and out of England. Portsmouth was an early pet project of Henry VII, one he paid £193 for the entire construction, a sum that for its time was enormous, it must be note that not all Tudor architecture was of a residential nature, this particular one is important as it laid the foundation for other civic projects done under Henry VIII and Elizabeth I.
Henry Tudor built the first dry dock in the wo
Victorian architecture is a series of architectural revival styles in the mid-to-late 19th century. Victorian refers to the reign of Queen Victoria, called the Victorian era, during which period the styles known as Victorian were used in construction. However, many elements of what is termed "Victorian" architecture did not become popular until in Victoria's reign; the styles included interpretations and eclectic revivals of historic styles. The name represents the British and French custom of naming architectural styles for a reigning monarch. Within this naming and classification scheme, it followed Georgian architecture and Regency architecture, was succeeded by Edwardian architecture. During the early 19th century, the romantic medieval Gothic revival style was developed as a reaction to the symmetry of Palladianism, such buildings as Fonthill Abbey were built. By the middle of the 19th century, as a result of new technology, construction was able to incorporate steel as a building component.
Paxton continued to build such houses as Mentmore Towers, in the still popular English Renaissance styles. New methods of construction were developed in this era of prosperity, but the architectural styles, as developed by such architects as Augustus Pugin, were retrospective. In Scotland, the architect Alexander Thomson who practiced in Glasgow was a pioneer of the use of cast iron and steel for commercial buildings, blending neo-classical conventionality with Egyptian and oriental themes to produce many original structures. Other notable Scottish architects of this period are Archibald Simpson and Alexander Marshall Mackenzie whose stylistically varied work can be seen in the architecture of Aberdeen. While Scottish architects pioneered this style it soon spread right across the United Kingdom and remained popular for another 40 years, its architectural value in preserving and reinventing the past is significant. Its influences were diverse but the Scottish architects who practiced it were inspired by unique ways to blend architecture and everyday life in a meaningful way.
Jacobethan Renaissance Revival Neo-Grec Romanesque Revival Second Empire Queen Anne Revival Scots Baronial British Arts and Crafts movement While not uniquely Victorian, part of revivals that began before the era, these styles are associated with the 19th century owing to the large number of examples that were erected during that period. Victorian architecture has many intricate window frames inspired by the famous architect Elliot Rae. Gothic Revival Italianate Neoclassicism During the 18th century, a few English architects emigrated to the colonies, but as the British Empire became established during the 19th century, many architects emigrated at the start of their careers; some chose the United States, others went to Canada and New Zealand. They applied architectural styles that were fashionable when they left England. By the latter half of the century, improving transport and communications meant that remote parts of the Empire had access to publications such as the magazine The Builder, which helped colonial architects keep informed about current fashion.
Thus, the influence of English architecture spread across the world. Several prominent architects produced English-derived designs around the world, including William Butterfield and Jacob Wrey Mould; the Victorian period flourished in Australia and is recognised as being from 1840 to 1890, which saw a gold rush and population boom during the 1880s in the state of Victoria. There were fifteen styles that predominated: The Arts and Crafts style and Queen Anne style are considered to be part of the Federation Period, from 1890 to 1915. During the British colonial period of British Ceylon: Sri Lanka Law College, Sri Lanka College of Technology and the Galle Face Hotel. In the United States,'Victorian' architecture describes styles that were most popular between 1860 and 1900. A list of these styles most includes Second Empire, Stick-Eastlake, Folk Victorian, Queen Anne, Richardsonian Romanesque, Shingle; as in the United Kingdom, examples of Gothic Revival and Italianate continued to be constructed during this period, are therefore sometimes called Victorian.
Some historians classify the years of Gothic Revival as a distinctive Victorian style named High Victorian Gothic. Stick-Eastlake, a manner of geometric, machine-cut decorating derived from Stick and Queen Anne, is sometimes considered a distinct style. On the other hand, terms such as "Painted Ladies" or "gingerbread" may be used to describe certain Victorian buildings, but do not constitute a specific style; the names of architectural styles varied between countries. Many homes combined the elements of several different styles and are not distinguishable as one particular style or another. In the United States of America, notable cities which developed or were rebuilt during this era include Alameda, Albany, Troy, Boston, the Brooklyn Heights and Victorian Flatbush sections of New York City, Rochester, Columbus, Eureka, Galveston, Grand Rapids, Jersey City/Hoboken, Cape May, Cincinnati, Milwaukee, New Orleans, Richmond, Saint Paul, Midtown in Sacramento, Angelino Heigh
Westonbirt, The National Arboretum is an arboretum in Gloucestershire, about 3 miles southwest of the town of Tetbury. Managed by Forestry England, it is the most important and known arboretum in the United Kingdom. Planted in the heyday of Victorian plant hunting in the mid-19th century as part of the Westonbirt House estate, the arboretum forms part of a site, listed Grade I on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens of special historic interest. There is evidence of coppicing at the site from 1292. First use of the name "Weston Birt" was in 1309; this was taken from Weston, a settlement to the west of Bowldown Road, Birt from lords of the manor, the Bret family. The arboretum was established in 1829 by Robert Stayner Holford and was extended by his son George Lindsay Holford. After the death of George in 1926, ownership of the arboretum passed to his nephew the fourth Earl of Morley, to the Forestry Commission in 1956 and Forestry England in 2019; the Holford family's mansion, Westonbirt House, became a girls' boarding school in 1927 when it was separated from the arboretum.
Westonbirt Arboretum backs onto the Highgrove Estate of the Prince of Wales. Westonbirt Arboretum comprises some 18,000 trees and shrubs, over an area of 600 acres, its 17 miles of marked paths are popular with visitors, provide access to a wide variety of rare plants. There are two main areas; the Old Arboretum is a designed landscape offering beautiful vistas, stately avenues, a host of rare and exotic trees from across the globe dating back to the 1850s. Silk Wood is a different experience: although it contains many exotic plantings, at its heart is a traditional working woodland, dating back to the 13th century. Dogs are welcome in Silk Wood but not allowed in The Old Arboretum. Throughout the arboretum, each specimen tree is labeled, either on the trunk or one of the low-hanging branches. Blue labels indicate the tallest or largest of their kind in Britain; the arboretum is managed by Forestry England, which manages Bedgebury Pinetum in Kent. Westonbirt Arboretum is supported by the Friends of Westonbirt Arboretum charity.
Westonbirt Arboretum is situated in Gloucestershire on the A433 3 miles southwest of Tetbury, at Ordnance Survey mapping six-figure grid reference ST 848898. From 2003 to 2005 the arboretum hosted Britain's first designer-led garden festival: Westonbirt Festival of the Garden. On 16 July 2011, Irish vocal pop band Westlife held a concert for Gravity Tour supporting their album Gravity. In 2011, Treefest was launched. Following several successful years of the Festival of the Tree event, Westonbirt Arboretum refreshed the popular August bank holiday event with camping and more activities celebrating trees and nature. Christmas and the spectacle of bare, sculpted trees in winter is celebrated at the Enchanted Christmas event. From the end of November and throughout December, an evening illuminated trail runs throughout the Old Arboretum, highlighting the beauty of Westonbirt's trees in winter. Official website Friends of Westonbirt Arboretum The Westonbirt map – interactive map with ability to search for and highlight particular species Images of Westonbirt Arboretum at monumentaltrees.com
HM Prison Leyhill
HM Prison Leyhill is a Category D men's prison, located in the parish of Tortworth in Gloucestershire, England. Leyhill Prison is operated by Her Majesty's Prison Service. Leyhill Prison was a United States military hospital built for the Second World War; the site was converted into a prison in 1946, with inmates being housed in hutted accommodation. The prison was rebuilt in the late 1970s to early 1980s, in 1986 prisoners were re-housed in new living accommodation. In 2002 new accommodation units were added to increase the prison's capacity. In a March 2002 report, Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Prisons criticised Leyhill for failing to prepare inmates for release, stating that too little was being done to help inmates get ready for the pressures of life outside; the report claimed that staff had no clear idea of their role at the prison. In May 2006, it was revealed that more than one inmate a week was escaping from Leyhill Prison, although technically inmates cannot escape, only abscond from an open prison.
Statistics showed. The Prison Service claimed the number of escapes was down to population pressures in the UK prison estate, with less trustworthy prisoners being transferred to open prisons like Leyhill. Leyhill is a prison for adult male prisoners of Category D status, meaning that either a Parole Board or the Prison Service has deemed them suitable for Open conditions. At the time of the last inspection in September 2016, more than 60% of the prisoners at Leyhill were convicted Sex Offenders, the prison were planning to increase this to around 90% by June 2017. Leyhill was criticised for failing to properly manage the risks posed by this population, not assisting enough with effective resettlement. Leyhill runs a variety of courses designed to help prisoners prepare for release; these include a general joinery woodwork shop. The prison's farms and gardens provide work and training for prisoners on a 55-hectare estate, including extensive ornamental grounds. There is a nationally important arboretum run in conjunction with the Forestry Commission.
As an open prison a number of prisoners at Leyhill are placed in the community to complete work and training placements. These placements are designed with the focus of improving a prisoner's chance of successful resettlement in the community on release. In November 2016 three violent prisoners absconded. Ali Dizaei, the disgraced Metropolitan Police commander Leslie Grantham, served the final part of a sentence for murder at Leyhill before being released in 1977 and going on to land himself numerous roles as a TV actor, most notably as Den Watts in EastEnders T. Dan Smith, the Newcastle politician disgraced by the Poulson affair Luke McCormick, served seven years and four months for two counts of Death by Dangerous Driving and one count of Driving/Attempting To Drive Whilst Exceeding The Prescribed Limit which resulted in the deaths of 10-year-old Aaron Peak and 8-year-old Ben Peak, he was sentenced at Stoke-on-Trent Crown Court. Chris Huhne, Former Cabinet Minister and Liberal Democrat MP for Eastleigh, jailed for perverting the course of justice Elmore Davies, Former head of drug squad Merseyside Police given 5 years for corruption.
Greenfingers, a 2000 film is loosely based on the story about prisoners from Leyhill and their award-winning entries into the Chelsea Flower Show. Ministry of Justice pages on Leyhill
English Heritage is a charity that manages over 400 historic monuments and places. These include medieval castles, Roman forts and country houses; the charity states that it uses these properties to ‘bring the story of England to life for over 10 million people each year’. Within its portfolio are Stonehenge, Dover Castle, Tintagel Castle and the best preserved parts of Hadrian's Wall. English Heritage manages the London Blue Plaque scheme, which links influential historical figures to particular buildings; when formed in 1983, English Heritage was the operating name of an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government titled the Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England, that ran the national system of heritage protection and managed a range of historic properties. It was created to combine the roles of existing bodies that had emerged from a long period of state involvement in heritage protection. In 1999 the organisation merged with the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England and the National Monuments Record, bringing together resources for the identification and survey of England's historic environment.
On 1 April 2015, English Heritage was divided into two parts: Historic England, which inherited the statutory and protection functions of the old organisation, the new English Heritage Trust, a charity that would operate the historic properties, which took on the English Heritage operating name and logo. The British government gave the new charity an £80 million grant to help establish it as an independent trust, although the historic properties remained in the ownership of the state. Over the centuries, what is now called'Heritage' has been the responsibility of a series of state departments. There was the'Kings Works' after the Norman Conquest. Responsibility subsequently transferred to the Ministry of Public Building and Works to the Department of the Environment and now the Department for Culture and Sport; the state's legal responsibility for the historic environment goes back to the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882. Central government subsequently developed several systems of heritage protection for different types of'assets', introducing listing for buildings after WW2 and conservation areas in the 1960s.
In 1983 Secretary of State for the Environment Michael Heseltine gave national responsibility for the historic environment to a semi‑autonomous agency to operate under ministerial guidelines and to government policy. The Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission was formed under the terms of the National Heritage Act 1983 on 1 April 1984; the 1983 Act dissolved the bodies that had provided independent advice – the Ancient Monuments Board for England and the Historic Buildings Council for England and incorporated these functions in the new body. Soon after, the commission gained the operating name of English Heritage by its first Chairman, Lord Montagu of Beaulieu. A national register of historic parks and gardens, was set up in 1984, a register for historic battlefields was created in March 1995.'Registration' is a material consideration in the planning process. In April 1999 English Heritage merged with the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England and the National Monuments Record, bringing together resources for the identification and survey of England's historic environment.
By adoption this included responsibility for the national record of archaeological sites from the Ordnance Survey. These, together with other nationally important external acquisitions, meant that English Heritage was one of the largest publicly accessible archives in the UK: 2.53 million records are available online, including more than 426,000 images. In 2010–2011 it recorded 4.3 million unique online user sessions and over 110,000 people visited NMR exhibitions held around the country in 2009/10. In 2012 the section responsible for archive collections was renamed the English Heritage Archive; as a result of the National Heritage Act 2002, English Heritage acquired administrative responsibility for historic wrecks and submerged landscapes within 12 miles of the English coast. The administration of the listed building system was transferred from DCMS to English Heritage in 2006. However, actual listing decisions still remained the responsibility of the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport, required by the Planning Act 1990 to approve a list of buildings of special architectural or historic interest.
Following the Public Bodies Reform in 2010, English Heritage was confirmed as the government's statutory adviser on the historic environment, the largest source of non-lottery grant funding for heritage assets. It was retained on grounds of "performing a technical function which should remain independent from Government"; however the department suffered from budget cuts during the recession of the 2010s resulting in a repairs deficit of £100 million. In June 2013 the British Government announced plans to provide an £80 million grant to enable English Heritage to become a self-financing charity; the national portfolio of historic properties remain in public ownership, but the new English Heritage will be licensed to manage them. The change occu
The Pinophyta known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida. They are gymnosperms, cone-bearing seed plants. All extant conifers are perennial woody plants with secondary growth; the great majority are trees. Examples include cedars, Douglas firs, firs, kauri, pines, redwoods and yews; as of 1998, the division Pinophyta was estimated to contain eight families, 68 genera, 629 living species. Although the total number of species is small, conifers are ecologically important, they are the dominant plants over large areas of land, most notably the taiga of the Northern Hemisphere, but in similar cool climates in mountains further south. Boreal conifers have many wintertime adaptations; the narrow conical shape of northern conifers, their downward-drooping limbs, help them shed snow. Many of them seasonally alter their biochemistry to make them more resistant to freezing. While tropical rainforests have more biodiversity and turnover, the immense conifer forests of the world represent the largest terrestrial carbon sink.
Conifers are of great economic value for softwood paper production. The earliest conifers in the fossil record date to the late Carboniferous period arising from Cordaites, a genus of seed-bearing Gondwanan plants with cone-like fertile structures. Pinophytes and Ginkgophytes all developed at this time. An important adaptation of these gymnosperms was allowing plants to live without being so dependent on water. Other adaptations are pollen and the seed, which allows the embryo to be transported and developed elsewhere. Conifers appear to be one of the taxa that benefited from the Permian–Triassic extinction event, were the dominant land plants of the Mesozoic, they were overtaken by the flowering plants, which first appeared in the Cretaceous, became dominant in the Cenozoic era. They were the main food of herbivorous dinosaurs, their resins and poisons would have given protection against herbivores. Reproductive features of modern conifers had evolved by the end of the Mesozoic era. Conifer is a Latin word, a compound of conus and ferre, meaning "the one that bears cone".
The division name Pinophyta conforms to the rules of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants, which state that the names of higher taxa in plants are either formed from the name of an included family, in this case Pinaceae, or are descriptive. A descriptive name in widespread use for the conifers is Coniferae. According to the ICN, it is possible to use a name formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name of an included family, in this case preferably Pinaceae, by the appropriate termination, in the case of this division ‑ophyta. Alternatively, "descriptive botanical names" may be used at any rank above family. Both are allowed; this means that if conifers are considered a division, they may be called Coniferae. As a class they may be called Coniferae; as an order they may be called Coniferae or Coniferales. Conifers are the largest and economically most important component group of the gymnosperms, but they comprise only one of the four groups; the division Pinophyta consists of just one class, which includes both living and fossil taxa.
Subdivision of the living conifers into two or more orders has been proposed from time to time. The most seen in the past was a split into two orders and Pinales, but recent research into DNA sequences suggests that this interpretation leaves the Pinales without Taxales as paraphyletic, the latter order is no longer considered distinct. A more accurate subdivision would be to split the class into three orders, Pinales containing only Pinaceae, Araucariales containing Araucariaceae and Podocarpaceae, Cupressales containing the remaining families, but there has not been any significant support for such a split, with the majority of opinion preferring retention of all the families within a single order Pinales, despite their antiquity and diverse morphology; the conifers are now accepted as comprising seven families, with a total of 65–70 genera and 600–630 species. The seven most distinct families are linked in the box above right and phylogenetic diagram left. In other interpretations, the Cephalotaxaceae may be better included within the Taxaceae, some authors additionally recognize Phyllocladaceae as distinct from Podocarpaceae.
The family Taxodiaceae is here included in family Cupressaceae, but was recognized in the past and can still be found in many field guides. A new classification and linear sequence based on molecular data can be found in an article by Christenhusz et al; the conifers are an ancient group, with a fossil record extending back about 300 million years to the Paleozoic in the late Carboniferous period. Other classes and orders, now long extinct occur as fossils from the late Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras. Fossil conifers included many diverse forms, the most distinct from modern conifers being some herbaceous conifers with no woody stems. Major fossil orders of conifers or conifer-like plants include the Cordaitales, Vojnovskyales and also the Czekanowskiales (possibly
Rhododendron is a genus of 1,024 species of woody plants in the heath family, either evergreen or deciduous, found in Asia, although it is widespread throughout the highlands of the Appalachian Mountains of North America. It is the national flower of Nepal as well as the state flower of West Washington. Most species have brightly coloured flowers. Azaleas make up two subgenera of Rhododendron, they are distinguished from "true" rhododendrons by having only five anthers per flower. Rhododendron is a genus of shrubs and small to large trees, the smallest species growing to 10–100 cm tall, the largest, R. protistum var. giganteum, reported to 30 m tall. The leaves are spirally arranged, they may be either deciduous. In some species, the undersides of the leaves are covered with hairs; some of the best known species are noted for their many clusters of large flowers. There are alpine species with small flowers and small leaves, tropical species such as section Vireya that grow as epiphytes. Species in this genus may be part of the heath complex in oak-heath forests in eastern North America.
They have been divided based on the presence or absence of scales on the abaxial leaf surface. These scales, unique to subgenus Rhododendron, are modified hairs consisting of a polygonal scale attached by a stalk. Rhododendron are characterised by having inflorescences with scarious perulae, a chromosome number of x=13, fruit that has a septicidal capsule, an ovary, superior, stamens that have no appendages, agglutinate pollen. Rhododendron is the largest genus in the family Ericaceae, with as many as 1,024 species, is morphologically diverse; the taxonomy has been complex. Although Rhododendrons had been known since the description of Rhododendron hirsutum by Charles de l'Écluse in the sixteenth century, were known to classical writers, referred to as Chamaerhododendron, the genus was first formally described by Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum in 1753, he listed five species under Rhododendron. At that time he considered the known six species of Azalea that he had described earlier in 1735 in his Systema Naturae as a separate genus.
Linnaeus' six species of Azalea were Azalea indica, A. pontica, A. lutea, A. viscosa, A. lapponica and A. procumbens, which he distinguished from Rhododendron by having five stamens, as opposed to ten. As new species of what are now considered Rhododendron were discovered, if they seemed to differ from the type species they were assigned to separate genera. For instance Rhodora for Rhododendron canadense and Hymenanthes for Rhododendron metternichii, now R. degronianum. Meanwhile, other botanists such as Salisbury and Tate began to question the distinction between Azalea and Rhododendron, in 1836, Azalea was incorporated into Rhododendron and the genus divided into eight sections. Of these Tsutsutsi, Pogonanthum and Rhodora are still used, the other sections being Lepipherum and Chamaecistus; this structure survived till following which the development of molecular phylogeny led to major re-examinations of traditional morphological classifications, although other authors such as Candolle, who described six sections, used different numeration.
Soon, as more species became available in the nineteenth century so did a better understanding of the characteristics necessary for the major divisions. Chief amongst these were Maximovicz's Rhododendreae Asiae Planchon. Maximovicz used flower bud position and its relationship with leaf buds to create eight "Sections". Bentham and Hooker used a similar scheme, but called the divisions "Series", it was not until 1893 that Koehne appreciated the significance of scaling and hence the separation of lepidote and elepidote species. The large number of species that were available by the early twentieth century prompted a new approach when Balfour introduced the concept of grouping species into series; the Species of Rhododendron referred to this series concept as the Balfourian system. That system continued up to modern times in Davidian's four volume The Rhododendron Species; the next major attempt at classification was by Sleumer who from 1934 began incorporating the Balfourian series into the older hierarchical structure of subgenera and sections, according to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, culminating in 1949 with his "Ein System der Gattung Rhododendron L.", subsequent refinements.
Most of the Balfourian series are represented by Sleumer as subsections, though some appear as sections or subgenera. Sleumer based his system on the relationship of the flower buds to the leaf buds, flower structure, whether the leaves were lepidote or non-lepidote. While Sleumer's work was accepted, many in the United States and the United Kingdom continued to use the simpler Balfourian system of the Edinburgh group. Sleumer's system underwent many revisions by others, predominantly the Edinburgh group in their continuing Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh notes. Cullen of the Edinburgh group, placing more