Chabad known as Lubavitch and Chabad-Lubavitch, is an Orthodox Jewish Hasidic movement. Chabad is one of the world's well-known Hasidic movements for its outreach activities, it is Jewish religious organizations in the world. Founded in 1775 by Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi, the name "Chabad" is a Hebrew acronym for Chochmah, Binah, Da'at: "Wisdom and Knowledge", which represent the intellectual underpinnings of the movement; the name Lubavitch derives from the town in which the now-dominant line of leaders resided from 1813 to 1915. Other, non-Lubavitch scions of Chabad either merged into the Lubavitch line. In the 1930s, the sixth Rebbe of Chabad, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn, moved the center of the Chabad movement from Russia to Poland. After the outbreak of World War II, he moved the center of the movement to the United States. In 1951, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson became the seventh Chabad Rebbe, he transformed the movement into one of the most widespread Jewish movements in the world today.
Under his leadership, Chabad established a large network of institutions that provide religious and humanitarian needs across the world. Chabad institutions provide outreach to unaffiliated Jews and humanitarian aid, as well as religious and educational activities. Unlike most ultra-Orthodox groups, which are self-segregating, Chabad operates in the wider world and caters to secularized Jews. Schneerson was believed by many of his followers to be the Messiah, his own position on the matter is debated among scholars; the Messianic issue caused an uproar in the Jewish Orthodox world, engendering much controversy and recrimination against Chabad. Schneerson's 1994 death shocked many followers; the movement did not appoint a new leader, is split between "moderates", who prefer not to discuss the Messianic question, "Messianics" who claim that he did not die and will reappear. The movement numbered some 17,000 households as of 2015, according to its own phonebooks, though the number of non- and-semi affiliates who attend its services is far larger: in 2005 the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs reported that up to one million Jews attend Chabad services at least once a year.
The Chabad movement was established in the town of Liozna, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, in 1775, by Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, a student of Rabbi Dovber ben Avraham, the "Maggid of Mezritch", the successor to Hasidism's founder, Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov. The movement was moved to Lyubavichi by the second Rebbe of Chabad, Rabbi Dovber Shneuri, in 1813; the movement was centered in Lyubavichi for a century until the fifth Rebbe, Rabbi Shalom Dovber left the village in 1915 and moved to the city of Rostov-on-Don. During the interwar period, following Bolshevik persecution, the Chabad-Lubavitch movement, under the Sixth Rebbe, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak, was centered in Riga and in Warsaw; the outbreak of World War II led to the Sixth Rebbe to move to the United States. Since 1940, the movement's center has been in the Crown Heights neighborhood of Brooklyn. While the movement spawned a number of offshoot groups throughout its history, the "Chabad-Lubavitch" branch is the only one still active, making it the movement's main surviving line.
Sarna has characterized Chabad as having enjoyed the fastest rate of growth of any Jewish religious movement in the period 1946-2015. In the early 1900s, Chabad-Lubavitch incorporated itself under Agudas Chasidei Chabad; the Chabad movement has been led by a succession of Hasidic rebbes. The main line of the movement, Chabad-Lubavitch, has had seven rebbes in total: Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, founded the Chabad movement in the town of Liozna, he moved the movement's center to the town of Liadi. Rabbi Shneur Zalman was the youngest disciple of Rabbi Dovber of Mezritch, the principal disciple and successor of Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov, founder of Hasidism; the Chabad movement began as a separate school of thought within the Hasidic movement, focusing of the spread of Hasidic mystical teachings using logical reasoning. Shneur Zalman's main work is the Tanya; the Tanya is the central book of Chabad thought and is studied daily by followers of the Chabad movement. Shneur Zalman's other works include a collection of writings on Hasidic thought, the Shulchan Aruch HaRav, a revised version of the code of Jewish law, both of which are studied by followers of Chabad.
Shneur Zalman's successors went by last names such as "Schneuri" and "Schneersohn", signifying their descent from the movement's founder. He is referred to as the Alter Rebbe or Admur Hazoken. Rabbi Dovber Schneuri, son of Rabbi Shneur Zalman, led the Chabad movement in the town of Lyubavichi, his leadership was disputed by Rabbi Aaron Halevi of Stroselye, Rabbi Dovber was recognized as his father's rightful successor, the movement's leader. Rabbi Dovber published a number of his writings on Hasidic thought expanding his father's work, he published some of his father's writings. Many of Rabbi Dovber's works have been subsequently republished by the Chabad movement, he is referred to as the Mitteler Rebbe, or Admur Ha'emtzoei. Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneersohn, a grandson of Rabbi Shneur Zalman and son-in-law of Rabbi Dovber. Following his attempt to persuade the Chabad movement to accept his brother-in-law or un
Bereavement in Judaism
Bereavement in Judaism is a combination of minhag and mitzvah derived from Judaism's classical Torah and rabbinic texts. The details of observance and practice vary according to each Jewish community. In Judaism, the principal mourners are the first-degree relatives: parent, child and spouse. There are some customs. Halachot concerning mourning do not apply to those under thirteen years of age, nor do they apply when the deceased is aged 30 days or less. Upon receiving the news of the passing, the following blessing is recited: Transliteration: Barukh atah Adonai Eloheinu melekh ha'olam, dayan ha-emet. Translation: "Blessed are You, our God, King of the universe, the Judge of Truth."There is a custom of rending one's clothes at the moment one hears news of a passing. Another prevalent custom is to tear at the funeral. Petira – passing Shomayr – watcher. Shmira means watching. Chevra kadisha – burial society. Chevra kadisha Kria – tearing. Timing varies by custom. At times deferred to funeral chapel or at the cemetery.
Keriah Onayn – the day when the news is heard. Aninut Tahara – purification of the body Preparing the body — Taharah Levaya – The funeral service; the word means escort. Funeral service Hesped – Eulogy. Eulogies Kvura – burial. Burial Aveil – mourner. Aveilut – mourning: Mourning AvelutShiva – seven days, from the Hebrew word for seven. Begins day of burial. Shiva Shloshim – 30 days, starting from the day of burial. Shloshim – Thirty days Yud Bais Chodesh – means 12 months, for a parent. Yud Bais means 12. Yud Bet means 12. Chodesh means month. Shneim asar chodesh – Twelve monthsMatzevah – means monument. Matzevah Yahrtzeit – is Yiddish for anniversary of the date of passing. Annual remembrances Kaddish – said by a mourner Memorial through prayer L'Illui NishMat - Hebrew for Elevation of the soul, sometimes abbreviated LI"N; the chevra kadisha is a Jewish burial society consisting of volunteers and women, who prepare the deceased for proper Jewish burial. Their job is to ensure that the body of the deceased is shown proper respect, ritually cleansed, shrouded.
Many local chevra kadishas in urban areas are affiliated with local synagogues, they own their own burial plots in various local cemeteries. Some Jews pay an annual token membership fee to the chevra kadisha of their choice, so that when the time comes, the society will not only attend to the body of the deceased as befits Jewish law, but will ensure burial in a plot that it controls at an appropriate nearby Jewish cemetery. If no gravediggers are available it is additionally the function of the male society members to ensure that graves are dug. In Israel, members of chevra kadishas consider it an honor to not only prepare the body for burial but to dig the grave for a fellow Jew's body if the deceased was known to be a righteous person. Many burial societies hold one or two annual fast days the 7th day of Adar, Yartzeit of Moshe Rabbeinu. and organize regular study sessions to remain up to date with the relevant articles of Jewish law. In addition, most burial societies support families during the shiva by arranging prayer services, preparing meals, providing other services for the mourners.
There are three major stages to preparing the body for burial: washing, ritual purification, dressing. The term taharah is used to refer both to the overall process of burial preparation, to the specific step of ritual purification. Prayers and readings from Torah, including Psalms, Song of Songs, Isaiah and Zechariah are recited; the general sequence of steps for performing taharah is. The body is uncovered; the body is washed carefully. Any bleeding is stopped and all blood is buried along with the deceased; the body is cleaned of dirt, body fluids, solids, anything else that may be on the skin. All jewelry is removed; the beard is not shaved. The body is purified with water, either by immersion in a mikveh or by pouring a continuous stream of 9 kavim in a prescribed manner; the body is dried. The body is dressed in traditional burial clothing. A sash is wrapped around the clothing and tied in the form of the Hebrew letter shin, representing one of the names of God; the casket is prepared by removing other embellishments.
A winding sheet is laid into the casket. Outside the Land of Israel, if the deceased wore a prayer shawl during their life, one is laid in the casket for wrapping the body once it is placed therein. One of the corner fringes is removed from the shawl to signify that it will no longer be used for prayer and that the person is absolved from having to keep any of the mitzvot; the body is wrapped in the prayer shawl and sheet. Soil from Eretz Israel, if available, is placed over various parts of the body and sprinkled in the casket; the casket is closed. After the closing of the casket, the chevra asks forgiveness of the deceased for any inadvertent lack of honor shown to the deceased in the preparation of the body for burial. There is no open casket at the funeral. Som
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Izhbitza – Radzin (Hasidic dynasty)
Izhbitza-Radzin is the name of a dynasty of Hasidic rebbes. The first rebbe of this dynasty was Rabbi Mordechai Yosef Leiner, author of Mei Hashiloach, in the city of Izhbitza.. Rabbi Mordechai Yosef founded his own Hasidic movement in the year 5600, with Rabbi Mordechai Yosef leaving the court of Rabbi Menachem Mendel of Kotzk, his son and successor, Rabbi Yaakov Leiner of Izhbitza, moved to Radzin. The dynasty today is therefore known more as the "Radziner Dynasty"; the third Rebbe, Rabbi Gershon Henoch Leiner of Radzin, re-instituted the use of techeiles of the tzitzis. The more known works of the Izhbitzer-Radziner Rebbeim are Mei Hashiloach, Beis Yaakov, Sod Yesharim, Tiferes Yosef. Today, the largest center of Radziner Hasidim is found in Bnei Brak, under the leadership of Rabbi Shlomo Yosef Englard of Radzin; the Izhbitzer-Radziner dynasty was established on Succos 5600 by Rabbi Mordechai Yosef Leiner, author of the "Mei Hashiloach". He was a close disciple of Rabbi Simcha Bunim of Peshischa.
After Rav Simcha Bunim's death, Rav Mordechai Yosef joined the court of his long-time childhood friend, Rabbi Menachem Mendel of Kotzk. The Kotzker Rebbe appointed him to guide the young chassidim; when the Kotzker Rebbe began distancing himself from his chassidim, Rav Mordechai Yosef felt it was time for him to begin leading those who were in need of a Rebbe. He left Kotzk, settling in Izhbitza, being known hence as the "Izhbitzer Rebbe"; the Mei Hashiloach died 7 Teves 5614, was buried in Izhbitza. A number of years after his death a small part of his ideas were put to writing by his grandson, Rabbi Gershon Henoch Leiner of Radzin. After the death of the Mei Hashiloach, most of his followers appointed his eldest son, Rabbi Yaakov Leiner, author of "Beis Yaakov" and "Sefer Hazemanim", as Izhbitzer Rebbe, he expanded vastly the Torah of his father, spoke Torah to his chassidim. During his days the numbers of Izhbitzer Chassidim grew vastly, as he was much more accommodating for newcomers. Many of his thoughts were published in Beis Yaakov, by his son and successor, Rabbi Gershon Henoch Leiner of Radzin.
The Beis Yaakov died 15 Av 5638 in Druzgenik and was buried in the nearby village of Rotnica, Lithuania. After the death of the Beis Yaakov, his followers appointed his eldest son, Rabbi Gershon Henoch Leiner, author of "Orchos Chayim" as his successor, he was the first rebbe in the dynasty known as "The Radziner Rebbe". Rav Gershon Henoch was a student of his father; the Rebbe is referred to by Radziner Chasidim as the "Orchos Chayim", based on his above-mentioned work.. In the larger world, the Rebbe is better known as the Ba'al HaTecheiles, he led his followers with a more extreme leadership, similar to that of his grandfather, differing from his father's style. The Orchos Chaim died 4 Teves 5651, was buried in Radzin. After the death of the Orchos Chaim, his followers appointed his only son, Rabbi Mordechai Yosef Elazar Leiner, the "Tiferes Yosef", as Radziner Rebbe; the Tiferes Yosef led his followers with a calm leadership. Thus in his days Radziner Chassidim numbered in the thousands, he was instrumental in the establishment of Agudat Yisrael, served as its vice president until his death.
During World War I he moved to Warsaw. The Rebbe re-instituted the famous shiurim on the Talmud, based on chassidic approaches, which were popular during the times of the Mei HaShiloach. Many of these shiurim were printed in his sefer, Tiferes Yosef; the Tiferes Yosef died on 26 Shevat 5689, was buried in Warsaw. After the death of the Tiferes Yosef, his followers appointed his only son, Rabbi Shmuel Shlomo Leiner, as Radzyner Rebbe. At first, the Rebbe refused to take over his father's position. Only due to the enormous pressure put on him by the thousands of Radziner Chassidim, did he consent; the final push was the pressure put on him by his great-uncle, Rav Mottel Leiner, son of the Beis Yaakov, Rav Michel Rashes of Brisk, one of the most prominent Radziner Chassidim. The Rebbe led his followers with a sharp and extreme leadership, similar to that of his grandfather, the Orchos Chaim; this caused many chassidim to have to leave Radzin. The Rebbe went as far as to close various shteiblach, which he believed were not appropriate of being called Radziner Shtieblech.
His greatest strength of character was brought to light during the years of the holocaust. The Rebbe was known for encouraging resistance to the orders of the Nazis and the Judenrat, for urging people to break out of the ghettos, flee to the forests and take up arms; the Nazis searched for him and he was shot to death on 29 Iyar 5702. He was buried in Wladawa. After the Holocaust, the surviving Izhbitzer-Radziner Chassidim crowned Rabbi Avrohom Yissochor Englard, son-in-law of the Tiferes Yosef, as Radziner Rebbe; the Rebbe was the great-grandson of the second Radomsker Rebbe, Rabbi Avraham Yissachar Dov Rabinowicz, author of the Chessed Le'avrohom. In pre-war Radzin, he was appointed by his brother-in-law, Rabbi Shmuel Shlomo of Radzin, to head the network of Radziner Yeshivos Sod Yesharim. According to the elder chassidim, Rav Shmuel Shlomo crowned him during the Holocaust, before his death, to lead in his place. Under his leadership, the Izhbitzer-Radziner Dynasty rebuilt itself, with the Center of Radziner Institutions being established in Bnei Brak.
The Rebbe established Radziner Shtieblech in many cities where Radziner H
Magyarization, after "Magyar"—the autonym of Hungarians—was an assimilation or acculturation process by which non-Hungarian nationals came to adopt the Hungarian culture and language, either voluntarily or due to social pressure in the form of a coercive policy. In the era of national awakening, the Hungarian intellectuals transposed the concepts of the so-called "Political Nation" and Nation State from the Western European countries, which included the idea of linguistic and cultural assimilation of minorities; the Hungarian Nationalities Law guaranteed that all citizens of the Kingdom of Hungary, whatever their nationality, constituted politically "a single nation, the indivisible, unitary Hungarian nation", there could be no differentiation between them except in respect of the official usage of the current languages and only insofar as necessitated by practical considerations. In spite of the law, the use of minority languages was banished entirely from administration and justice. Defiance of, or appeals to, the Nationalities Law met with abuse.
The Hungarian language was overrepresented in the primary schools, all secondary education was in Hungarian. During the long nineteenth century, the Hungarian politicians and intellectuals stood on the contemporary liberal conception of the nationality question, based on individualism. With the idea of individualism, they tried to reduce the minority question to a simple linguistic rights question. By the end of the 19th century, the state apparatus was Hungarian in language, as were business and social life above the lowest levels; the Magyarization of the towns had proceeded at an astounding rate. Nearly all middle-class Jews and Germans and many middle-class Slovaks and Ruthenes had been Magyarized; the percentage of the population with Hungarian as its mother tongue grew from 46.6% in 1880 to 54.5% in 1910. The 1910 census did not register ethnicity, but mother tongue instead, based on which it is sometimes subject to criticism. However, most of the Magyarization happened in the centre of Hungary and among the middle classes, who had access to education.
It had hardly touched the rural populations of the periphery, linguistic frontiers had not shifted from the line on which they had stabilized a century earlier. The process continued in post-Trianon era; the political and cultural rights offered to interwar Hungary's ethnic minorities were more limited than their equivalents in any other country of East-Central Europe. While anyone who resisted Magyarization was, subject to political and cultural handicaps, they were not subject to the kinds of civic and fiscal tricks that some of Hungary's neighbors inflicted on their ethnic minorities; the term applies to the policies that were enforced in the Hungarian part of Austria-Hungary in the 19th century and early 20th century after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, in particular after the rise in 1871 of the Count Menyhért Lónyay as head of the Hungarian government. When referring to personal and geographic names, Magyarization refers to the replacement of a non-Hungarian name with a Hungarian one.
As is the case with policies intended to forge or bolster national identity in a state, Magyarization was perceived by other ethnic groups such as the Romanians, Ruthenians, Serbs, etc. as aggression or active discrimination where they formed the majority of the population. At the time of the Magyar conquest the Hungarian tribal alliance consisted of tribes of different ethnic backgrounds. There had to be a substantial Turkic element; the subjugated local population in the Hungarian settlement area merged with the Hungarians. In the period between the 9th and 13th centuries more groups of Turkic peoples migrated to Hungary, their past presence is visible in the occurrence of Turkic settlement names. According to one of the theories, the ancestors of Székelys are Avars or Turkic Bulgars who were Magyarized in the Middle Ages. Others argue that the Székely people descended from a Hungarian-speaking "Late Avar" population or from ethnic Hungarians who received special privileges and developed their own consciousness.
As a reward for their achievements in wars, noble titles were granted to some Romanian knezes. They entered Hungarian nobility, a part of them converting to Catholicism and their families being Magyarized: the Drágffy (Drăgoşteşti, Majláth or Jósika families were among the Romanian-origin Hungarian noble families. Between 1000-1784 and 1790–1844, Latin was the language of administration and schooling in Kingdom of Hungary. Joseph II, a monarch influenced by the Enlightenment sought to centralize control of the empire and to rule it as an enlightened despot. More than two and one half centuries following upon Martin Luther's "95 Theses" that in Central Europe receptive of Protestantism, Emperor Joseph ll decreed that German replace Latin as the empire's official language. In 1790, the change in administrative and next official language had signaled the narrowing ter
Anno Mundi, abbreviated as AM, or Year After Creation, is a calendar era based on the biblical accounts of the creation of the world and subsequent history. Two such calendar eras have seen notable use historically: The Byzantine calendar was used in the Byzantine Empire and many Christian Orthodox countries and Eastern Orthodox Churches and was based on the Septuagint text of the Bible; that calendar is similar to the Julian calendar except that its epoch is equivalent to 1 September 5509 BC on the Julian proleptic calendar. Since the Middle Ages, the Hebrew calendar has been based on rabbinic calculations of the year of creation from the Hebrew Masoretic text of the bible; this calendar is used within Jewish communities for other purposes. On the Hebrew calendar, the day begins at sunset; the calendar's epoch, corresponding to the calculated date of the world's creation, is equivalent to sunset on the Julian proleptic calendar date 6 October 3761 BC. The new year begins at Rosh Hashanah in September.
Year anno mundi 5779, or AM 5779, began at sunset on 9 September 2018 on the Gregorian calendar. While differences in biblical interpretation or in calculation methodology can produce some differences in the creation date, most results fall close to one of these two dominant models; the primary reason for the disparity seems to lie in. Most of the 1,732-year difference resides in numerical discrepancies in the genealogies of the two versions of the Book of Genesis. Patriarchs from Adam to Terah, the father of Abraham, are said to be older by as much as 100 years or more when they begat their named son in the Greek Septuagint than they were in the Latin Vulgate or the Hebrew Tanakh; the net difference between the two major genealogies of Genesis is 1466 years, 85% of the total difference. During the Talmudic era, from the 1st to the 10th centuries AD, the center of the Jewish world was in the Middle East in the Talmudic Academies in Babylonia and Syria Palaestina. Jews in these regions used Seleucid Era dating as the primary method for calculating the calendar year.
For example, the writings of Josephus and the Books of the Maccabees used Seleucid Era dating and the Talmud tractate Avodah Zarah states: Rav Aha b. Jacob put this question: How do we know that our Era is connected with the Kingdom of Greece at all? Why not say that it is reckoned from the Exodus from Egypt, omitting the first thousand years and giving the years of the next thousand? In that case, the document is post-dated! Said Rav Nahman: In the Diaspora the Greek Era alone is used, he thought that Rav Nahman wanted to dispose of him anyhow, but when he went and studied it he found that it is indeed taught: In the Diaspora the Greek Era alone is used. In Talmudic writings, reference was made to other starting points for eras, such as Destruction Era dating, being the number of years since the AD 70 destruction of the Second Temple, the number of years since the Creation year based on the calculation in the Seder Olam Rabbah of Rabbi Jose ben Halafta in about AD 160. By his calculation, based on the Masoretic Text and Eve were created on 1st of Tishrei in 3760 BC confirmed by the Muslim chronologist al-Biruni as 3448 years before the Seleucid era.
An example is the c. 8th-century AD Baraita of Samuel. In the 8th and 9th centuries AD, the center of Jewish life moved from Babylonia to Europe, so calculations from the Seleucid era "became meaningless". From the 11th century, anno mundi dating became dominant throughout most of the world's Jewish communities, replacing the Seleucid dating system; the new system reached its definitive form in AD 1178. In the section Sanctification of the Moon, he wrote of his choice of Epoch, from which calculations of all dates should be made, as "the third day of Nisan in this present year..., the year 4938 of the creation of the world". He included all the rules for the calculated calendar epoch and their scriptural basis, including the modern epochal year in his work, establishing the final formal usage of the anno mundi era; the first year of the Jewish calendar, Anno Mundi 1, began about one year before Creation, so that year is called the Year of emptiness. The first five days of Jewish Creation week occupy the last five days of AM 1, Elul 25–29.
The sixth day of Creation, when Adam and Eve were created, is the first day of Rosh Hashanah. Its associated molad Adam occurred on Day 5 at 14 hours. A year earlier, the first day of AM 1, Rosh Hashanah, is associated with molad tohu, so named because it occurred before Creation when everything was still chaotic—it is translated as the new moon of nothing; this is called molad BaHaRaD, because it occurred on Day 2, 5 hours, 204 parts. Because this is just before midnight when the Western day begins, but after 6 pm when the Jewish calendrical day begins, its Julian calendar date is 6/7 October 3761 BC; the Septuagint was the most scholarly non-Hebrew version of the Old Testament available to early Christians
Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism, is a Jewish religious group. It arose as a spiritual revival movement in contemporary Western Ukraine during the 18th century, spread throughout Eastern Europe. Today, most affiliates reside in the United States. Israel Ben Eliezer, the "Baal Shem Tov", is regarded as its founding father, his disciples developed and disseminated it. Present-day Hasidism is a sub-group within Ultra-Orthodox Judaism, is noted for its religious conservatism and social seclusion, its members adhere both to Orthodox Jewish practice – with the movement's own unique emphases – and the traditions of Eastern European Jews, so much so that many of the latter, including various special styles of dress and the use of the Yiddish language, are nowadays associated exclusively with Hasidism. Hasidic thought draws on Lurianic Kabbalah, and, to an extent, is a popularization of it. Teachings emphasize God's immanence in the universe, the need to cleave and be one with him at all times, the devotional aspect of religious practice, the spiritual dimension of corporeality and mundane acts.
Hasidim, the adherents of Hasidism, are organized in independent sects known as "courts" or dynasties, each headed by its own hereditary leader, a Rebbe. Reverence and submission to the Rebbe are key tenets, as he is considered a spiritual authority with whom the follower must bond to gain closeness to God; the various "courts" share basic convictions, but operate apart, possess unique traits and customs. Affiliation is retained in families for generations, being Hasidic is as much a sociological factor – entailing, as it does, birth into a specific community and allegiance to a dynasty of Rebbes – as it is a purely religious one. There are several "courts" with many thousands of member households each, hundreds of smaller ones; as of 2016, there were over 130,000 Hasidic households worldwide, about 5% of the global Jewish population. The terms hasid and hasidut, meaning "pietist" and "piety", have a long history in Judaism; the Talmud and other old sources refer to the "Pietists of Old" who would contemplate an entire hour in preparation for prayer.
The phrase denoted devoted individuals who not only observed the Law to its letter, but performed good deeds beyond it. Adam himself is honored with the title in tractate Eruvin 18b by Rabbi Meir: "Adam was a great hasid, having fasted for 130 years." The first to adopt the epithet collectively were the hasidim in Second Temple period Judea, known as Hasideans after the Greek rendering of their name, who served as the model for those mentioned in the Talmud. The title continued to be applied as an honorific for the exceptionally devout. In 12th-century Rhineland, or Ashkenaz in Jewish parlance, another prominent school of ascetics named themselves hasidim. In the 16th century, when Kabbalah spread, the title became associated with it. Jacob ben Hayyim Zemah wrote in his glossa on Isaac Luria's version of the Shulchan Aruch that, "One who wishes to tap the hidden wisdom, must conduct himself in the manner of the Pious." The movement founded by Israel Ben Eliezer in the 18th century adopted the term hasidim in the original connotation.
But when the sect grew and developed specific attributes, from the 1770s, the names acquired a new meaning. Its common adherents, belonging to groups each headed by a spiritual leader, were henceforth known as Hasidim; the transformation was slow: The movement was at first referred to as "New Hasidism" by outsiders to separate it from the old one, its enemies derisively mocked its members as Mithasdim, " pretend hasidim". Yet the young sect gained such a mass following that the old connotation was sidelined. In popular discourse, at least, Hasid came to denote someone who follows a religious teacher from the movement, it entered Modern Hebrew as such, meaning "adherent" or "disciple". One was not a hasid anymore, observed historian David Assaf, but a Hasid of someone or some dynasty in particular; this linguistic transformation paralleled that of the word tzaddik, "righteous", which the Hasidic leaders adopted for themselves – though they are known colloquially as Rebbes or by the honorific Admor.
Denoting an observant, moral person, in Hasidic literature tzaddik became synonymous with the hereditary master heading a sect of followers. The lengthy history of Hasidism, the numerous schools of thought therein, its use of the traditional medium of homiletic literature and sermons – comprising numerous references to earlier sources in the Pentateuch and exegesis as a means to grounding oneself in tradition – as the sole channel to convey its ideas, all made the isolation of a common doctrine challenging to researchers; as noted by Joseph Dan, "Every attempt to present such a body of ideas has failed". Motifs presented by scholars in the past as unique Hasidic contributions were revealed to have been common among both their predecessors and opponents, all the more so regarding many other traits that are extant – these play, Dan added, "a prominent role in modern non-Hasidic and anti-Hasidic writings as well"; the difficulty of separating the movement's philosophy from that of its main inspiration, Lurianic Kabbalah, determining what was novel and what a recapitulation baffled historians.
Some, like Louis Jacobs, regarded the early masters as innovators who introduced "much, new if only by emphasis".