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Total maximum daily load

A Total Maximum Daily Load is a regulatory term in the U. S. Clean Water Act, describing a plan for restoring impaired waters that identifies the maximum amount of a pollutant that a body of water can receive while still meeting water quality standards; the Clean Water Act requires that state environmental agencies complete TMDLs for impaired waters and that the United States Environmental Protection Agency review and approve / disapprove those TMDLs. Because both state and federal governments are involved in completing TMDLs, the TMDL program is an example of cooperative federalism. If a state doesn't take action to develop TMDLs, or if EPA disapproves state-developed TMDLs, the EPA is responsible for issuing TMDLs. EPA published regulations in 1992 establishing TMDL procedures. Application of TMDLs has broadened in the last decade to include many watershed-scale efforts, including the Chesapeake Bay TMDL. TMDLs identify all point source and nonpoint source pollutants within a watershed; the Clean Water Act requires states to compile lists of water bodies that do not support beneficial uses such as aquatic life, drinking water, industry, or agriculture.

These inventories are known as 303 Lists and characterize waters as supporting, impaired, or in some cases threatened for beneficial uses. Beneficial use determinations must have sufficient credible water quality data for TMDL planning. Throughout the U. S. data are lacking adequate spatial or temporal coverage to reliably establish the sources and magnitude of water quality degradation. TMDL planning in large watersheds is a process that involves the following steps: Watershed Characterization—understanding the basic physical and human elements of the watershed. Impairment Status—analyzing existing data to determine if waters support beneficial uses Data Gaps and Monitoring Report—identification of any additional data needs and monitoring recommendations Source Assessment—identification of sources of pollutants, magnitude of sources. Load Allocation—determination of natural pollutant load, load from human activities. Set Targets—establishment of water quality targets intended to restore or maintain beneficial uses.

TMDL Implementation Plan—a watershed management strategy to attain established targets. The purpose of water quality targets is to protect or restore beneficial uses and protect human health; these targets may include state/federal numerical water quality standards or narrative standards, i.e. within the range of "natural" conditions. Establishing targets to restore beneficial uses is challenging and sometimes controversial. For example, the restoration of a fishery may require reducing temperatures, nutrients and improving habitat. Necessary values for each pollutant target to restore fisheries can be uncertain; the potential for a water body to support a fishery in a pristine state can be uncertain. Calculating the TMDL for any given body of water involves the combination of factors that contribute to the problem of nutrient concentrated runoff. Bodies of water are tested for contaminants based on their intended use; each body of water is tested but designated with a different TMDL. Drinking water reservoirs are designated differently from areas for public swimming and water bodies intended for fishing are designated differently from water located in wildlife conservation areas.

The size of the water body is taken into consideration when TMDL calculating is undertaken. The larger the body of water, the greater the amounts of contaminants can be present and still maintain a Margin of Safety; the Margin of Safety is numeric estimate included in the TMDL calculation, sometimes 10% of the TMDL, intended to allow a safety buffer between the calculated TMDL and the actual load that will allow the water body to meet its beneficial use. TMDL is non-point source pollutants of a single contaminant. Pollutants that originate from a point source are given allowable levels of contaminants to be discharged. Nonpoint source pollutants are calculated into the TMDL equation with Load Allocation; the calculation of a TMDL is as follows: T M D L = W L A + L A + M O S where WLA is the waste load allocation for point sources, LA is the load allocation for nonpoint sources, MOS is the margin of safety. Load allocations are challenging as setting targets. Load allocations provide a framework for determining the relative share of natural sources and human sources of pollution.

The natural background load for a pollutant may be imprecisely understood. Industrial dischargers, land developers, natural resource agencies, other watershed stakeholders each have a vested interest in the outcome. To implement TMDLs with point sources, wasteload allocations are incorporated into discharge permits for these sources; the permits are issued by EPA or delegated state agencies under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. Nonpoint source discharges are in a voluntary compliance scenario; the TMDL implementation plan is intended to help bridge this divide and ensure that watershed beneficial uses are restored and maintained. Local watershed groups play a critical role in educating stakeholders, generating funding, implementing projects to reduce nonpoint sources of pollution

World Rally Radio

World Rally Radio is the official radio station of the FIA World Rally Championship, broadcasting live on the Internet. World Rally Radio follows the drivers around all rounds of the championship; the station broadcasts 24/7, with live coverage at each event. Content includes the latest split times and live interviews with the drivers at the end of the stages. There is regular listener interaction and competitions, such as the "Podium Predictor"; the World Rally Radio team produces pre-event videos and an audio podcast from each day of all WRC events. Chris Rawes, technical director Mark Jones, production manager Greg Strange, editorial director Daniel Smith, Stage end reporterBecs Williams, presenter Colin Clark, stage-end reporter List of World Rally Championship broadcasters WRC+ Official website

Solar viewer

Solar viewer are special eyewear designed for direct viewing of the Sun. Standard sunglasses are unable to filter out eye damaging radiation. Solar viewers are required for safe viewing of solar events such as eclipses; the recommended optical density of this eyewear is 5. According to the American Astronomical Society products meeting the ISO 12312-2 standard avoids risk damage, issued a list of reputable vendors of eclipse glasses; the organization warned against products claiming ISO certification, or citing the exact standard number, but not tested by an accredited laboratory, or those bearing incomplete certification information. Another problem was counterfeits of reputable vendors' products, some claiming the company's name. Eyewear made prior to 2015, may have a 3 year use limit before they can no longer filter out UV radiation. Starting in 2015, products made with ISO 12312-2 can be used indefinitely as long as they have not been damaged by scratch or tear. In the months leading to the solar eclipse of August 21, 2017, counterfeits of light-filtering glasses for solar eclipses began proliferating, leading to public health issues.

Effective eclipse glasses filter visible and infrared light. The eye's retina lacks pain receptors, thus damage could occur without one's awareness; the AAS said determining whether an eclipse viewer was safe required a spectrophotometer and lab equipment, but the user should see nothing through the filter except for the Sun, sunlight reflecting off of shiny metal, or intense light sources such as an LED flashlight. Andrew Lund, the owner of a vendor of eclipse glasses, noted that not all counterfeit glasses were unsafe, he stated to Quartz that the counterfeits he tested blocked the majority of harmful light, concluding that "the IP is getting ripped off, but the good news is there are no long-term harmful effects."On July 27, 2017, Amazon required all eclipse viewing products sold on its website have a submission of origin and safety information, proof of an accredited ISO certification. In mid-August 2017, Amazon recalled and pulled listings for eclipse viewing glasses that "may not comply with industry standards", gave refunds to customers who had purchased them.

Astronomical solar filter Eclipse chasing Solar telescope Transit of Mercury Transit of Venus

Morden College

Morden College is a long-standing charity, providing residential care in Blackheath, south-east London, England for over 300 years. It was founded by philanthropist Sir John Morden in 1695 as a home for'poor Merchants... and such as have lost their Estates by accidents and perils of the seas or by any other accidents ways or means in their honest endeavours to get their living by means of Merchandizing.'Morden College was built on the north-east corner of the Wricklemarsh estate. It was described by Daniel Lysons in Environs of London: It is a spacious brick structure, with stone coins and cornices, forming a quadrangle, surrounded by piazzas. Over the front are the statues of Sir John Morden and his lady. In the hall are their portraits, that of Queen Anne. In the chapel are the arms of Sir John and Lady Morden, a record of benefactions to the College since the founder's death; the original college buildings were intended to house 40 widowed men. Today, Morden College is a Grade I listed building.

College trustees were drawn from the Turkey Company. Lysons reported: Sir John Morden placed twelve decayed Turkey merchants in this College in his lifetime, he died in 1708, having by his will, bearing date 1702, endowed the College, after the death of his lady, with estates which are now about 1600l. per annum. Lady Morden, finding her income not sufficient to continue her husband's bounty to twelve merchants, was obliged, during her life, to reduce the number to four, she died in 1721. The pensioners must be upwards of 50 years of age, bachelors or widowers, members of the church of England. Per month. There are commodious apartments for 30, which number, if any vacancies have happened, is filled up once a-year; the College is under the government of seven trustees of the Company of Turkey Merchants, who elect the pensioners. Subsequent donations to the college by prominent Turkey merchants and their wives helped assure that the college would survive. Lysons recorded those donors and the totals of their gifts: The first British East India Company Trustee was William Astell.

He held the position from 1827 to 1847. John Lubbock was Chairman of the Trustees from 1873 1889. During the 20th century, admission requirements were amended so that the college could accommodate women and married couples, several new buildings were added; the College manages other homes in Blackheath and in Beckenham. Today, it functions as a retirement home. Moses Browne Henry Newton Knights, former Conservative Member of Parliament, died there 1959. Http://www.mordencollege.org.uk/

Rail Paybus FP1

Rail Paybus FP1 is a heritage-listed former railbus and now museum exhibit at NSW Rail Transport Museum Barbour Road, in the outer south-western Sydney town of Thirlmere in the Wollondilly Shire local government area of New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by the New South Wales Government Railways Road Motor Section and built in 1937 by Waddingtons Ltd, Ford Motor Co.. It is known as Rail Bus and Rail Pay Bus FP1; the property is owned by Rail Corporation New South Wales, an agency of the Government of New South Wales. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 26 September 2003; the first group of rail buses, of which FP1 was the first, were built in 1937 to an overall design of the NSW Railways' Road Motor section, by coach-building firm Waddingtons Pty Ltd, Granville. Although similar, in being constructed on a truck chassis with Ford mechanicals, the bodies of this group, numbered FP1 to FP6, differed somewhat. No's 1 and 6 were single ended, had to be turned at each end of a run.

Despite their design similarities, FP1 was different in style from FP6, while both the single-ended buses were different from Nos. 2 to 5, which were identical. As well as having driving controls at both ends, buses Nos. 2 to 5 were larger, had a door on both sides accommodating 18 passengers. The rail bus concept was intended to provide a passenger service on minor branch lines where the available traffic did not support economic use of a conventional steam-hauled passenger or mixed train, or a rail-motor service provided by one of the new "42 footer" CPH "tin hare" motors. FP1 entered service on 7 July 1937, operated in the south-west of the state, with some evidence that it suffered a failure at Grenfell on 29 November; the rest of the fleet entered service in Nos. 2, 3 and 4 on the 27th. The others may well have entered service on the same date, it appears that the rail bus concept was less than successful, because all were withdrawn from passenger service, to be used as pay buses, within a year or two of their commissioning.

It is not recorded why they were not successful, but it is that the depressed economic circumstances of the time impacted on the number of available passengers, while road transport was by that time emerging as a serious threat to rail for passenger services - the road bus concept being by quite well established. Information on when FP1 and its sisters were converted to pay buses is sketchy. FP1 is thought to have been converted in September 1937, so that its career as a passenger vehicle was brief indeed, but it has been suggested that the conversion occurred some time after its failure at Grenfell in November in conjunction with repairs. In any case, it had become a pay bus by 30June1938, as it is noted as such in the Railways Department's Annual Report for 1937-38, it is believed that the other buses of this group entered service variously at Cowra. Most sources state that they began, as with FP1, as passenger vehicles, but there is a suggestion that they never entered this service at all, being used as pay buses from the outset.

In view of the record in the Annual Report for 1937-38 of only one pay bus, it seems that the conversion of Nos. 2 - 6 occurred after June 1938, so that they were all commissioned as passenger buses. David Cooke's book'Rail Motors and XPT's' indicates that the Railways' 1938-39 Annual Report records a general overhaul of FP1 in October 1938, carried out to ascertain the degree of wear, as the vehicle had travelled some 74,000 kilometres since it entered service; the results were pleasing, as cylinder bore wear was negligible. The most significant event involving a pay bus was the infamous Yanderra pay bus incident of 8 December 1941. At approx. 11.40 a.m. Pay Bus FP5 was heading in the down direction south of Yanderra Station on the Main Southern line, when explosives placed under the line by intending thieves were detonated, de-railing and damaging the bus; the crew of three were all killed. The culprits, believed to be two men, escaped with some 2000 in loose notes and change, but most of the money carried remained in the safe, fixed to the bus chassis.

The bus was so badly damaged. A replacement, again built by Waddingtons, entered service in September 1945 as No. 5. This new bus was single-ended, being patterned on No.6. All the surviving pay buses were transferred to the Mechanical Branch in 1942 as part of a reorganisation - the original Road Motor section being absorbed into the Mechanical Branch. All except No. 2 were transferred on 23 August that year, with No. 2 following on 5 October. FP1 received another general overhaul in June 1943, again in 1949 after it was submerged by floodwaters at Maitland. Apart from the minor changes required to convert them to pay buses, these vehicles received various modifications during their life. Nos.3 and 6 suffered accident damage in 1940 and 1942 and it is that subsequent repairs involved minor modifications. No. 4 was fitted with a canopy or double roof in 1947, while it appears that at least Nos. 1, 5 and 6 were fitted at some stage. From photographic evidence, it is certain that at least No. 5 was so fitted by 1956.

Nos. 4 and 6 are recorded as having chassis fractures repaired in the 1960s, this may ha

Fordham, Bronx

Fordham is a neighborhood located in the western Bronx, New York City. Fordham is bordered by East 196th Street to the north, Webster Avenue to the east, Burnside Avenue to the south, Jerome Avenue to the west; the neighborhood's primary thoroughfares are Grand Concourse. Fordham is located within Bronx Community Board 5 and Bronx Community Board 7, its ZIP Codes include 10453, 10457, 10458 and 10468, its main subway line is the IND Concourse Line, operating under the Grand Concourse, with the IRT Jerome Avenue Line on its western border. The area is patrolled by the New York City Police Department's 46th Precinct. New York City Housing Authority property in the area is patrolled by P. S. A. 7 at 737 Melrose Avenue in the Melrose section of the Bronx. Jan Arcer, a Dutch settler, established a community at what is now 225th Street near the Harlem River in 1666. Archer owned 3900 acres of land which Francis Lovelace, the colonial governor of New York approved for settlement; the area known as Fordham Manor was 6 square miles.

This was called a Patent, making Archer "Lord of the Manor." Sixteen families established farms in area. The Manor lasted from 1671 to 1762. Archer chose the name Fordham for his community, which may have been a reference to its location near a shallow crossing of the Bronx River, or may have been a reference to John Fordham, a fourteenth-century English priest. Old Fordham Village is a section of Fordham, it is centered on the intersection of the Grand Fordham Road. Fordham Village extends north to about 196th Street, south to about 187th Street, east to Southern Boulevard, west to Jerome Avenue; the section's origins date back to about 1751, when Fordham Manor was built, on what was called Rose Hill. Most of the estate is part of the Rose Hill Campus of Fordham University. Besides the main manor house and other side buildings on the campus, other historic buildings and noted homes still exist within Old Fordham Village. For example, American poet Edgar Allan Poe spent his final years with his wife Virginia in a cottage in Fordham, still standing in Poe Park.

The nearby Fordham University Church bell is named "old Edgar" and may have been the inspiration for his poem The Bells. In the 18th century, the Kings Road went through Old Fordham Village, an area of rural estates and small farms, linking Colonial New York and towns and villages north toward Boston, it was a minor rest stop for travelers and coaches, where many springs fed The Mill Brook that crossed this road. During the American Revolution, it was a critical crossing point for Gen. George Washington's Continental Army retreating toward White Plains to safely escape from New York while being chased by the Colonial British and Hessian Forces. There were many American Patriots. After the revolution, the Kings Road was renamed the Boston Post Road, becoming an important thoroughfare for a growing new nation. In the 19th century, with the building of the White Plains Line and a small station, Old Fordham Village began to grow. Local farmers and dairymen were now able to use the railroad to send their products to a growing New York City.

North of the village, part of the Mill Brook was dammed up, a large pond and ice house was built for shipping and cold storage. It provided fresh ice for the railroad, it was during this time that wealthy merchant Robert Watt gave most of The Rose Hill Estate, east of the village, to a Roman Catholic order, the Society of Jesus. It was the precursor of Fordham University. A small south-west portion of the former Rose Hill Estate is known today as Rose Hill Park. West of the village, on the other side of Fordham Hill, the Bathgate Estate was built, he built the Jerome Park Racetrack, on his estate. West of the station in the village area, the Fordham Hotel and Taverine would provide basic needs for visitors for the college and the racetrack. For the most part, Old Fordham Village remained rural until about 1900, when New York City began to expand. Early mass transit to the suburbs changed the area of. Old Fordham Village and the surrounding area would become part of the borough of the Bronx within New York City.

Many of the remaining farms and estates were sold to developers who built houses and sizable apartment buildings. The quiet little village became a major business and transportation hub. In this area of Fordham, Boston Post Road was renamed Fordham Road and became part of U. S. Route 1 in 1926; the rebuilding of the railroad right of way at Fordham, most of Webster Avenue, eliminated The Mill Brook and water pond, but the side streets of Old Fordham Village remain active. Fordham was a predominantly middle class White neighborhood, from the 1920s through the late 1970s, when many families moved to the suburbs or the Los Angeles area, or retired to Florida. Belmont was a portion of Fordham and South Fordham. Fordham has a population of around 43,394 people, its first growth was in the 1920s, when middle-class and working-class families from Manhattan flocked into the area, attracted by the then-modern housing and convenient subway access by Concourse, Jerome Avenue, Third/Webster Avenues lines to business districts in Manhattan where they could work and shop.

It is now predominantly African American. There is a significant historic Italian and Albanian population as well. Fordham is divided into two sections: Community District 5 south