1.
Physics
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Physics is the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion and behavior through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force. One of the most fundamental disciplines, the main goal of physics is to understand how the universe behaves. Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy, Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the mechanisms of other sciences while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics. Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs, the United Nations named 2005 the World Year of Physics. Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences, the stars and planets were often a target of worship, believed to represent their gods. While the explanations for these phenomena were often unscientific and lacking in evidence, according to Asger Aaboe, the origins of Western astronomy can be found in Mesopotamia, and all Western efforts in the exact sciences are descended from late Babylonian astronomy. The most notable innovations were in the field of optics and vision, which came from the works of many scientists like Ibn Sahl, Al-Kindi, Ibn al-Haytham, Al-Farisi and Avicenna. The most notable work was The Book of Optics, written by Ibn Al-Haitham, in which he was not only the first to disprove the ancient Greek idea about vision, but also came up with a new theory. In the book, he was also the first to study the phenomenon of the pinhole camera, many later European scholars and fellow polymaths, from Robert Grosseteste and Leonardo da Vinci to René Descartes, Johannes Kepler and Isaac Newton, were in his debt. Indeed, the influence of Ibn al-Haythams Optics ranks alongside that of Newtons work of the same title, the translation of The Book of Optics had a huge impact on Europe. From it, later European scholars were able to build the devices as what Ibn al-Haytham did. From this, such important things as eyeglasses, magnifying glasses, telescopes, Physics became a separate science when early modern Europeans used experimental and quantitative methods to discover what are now considered to be the laws of physics. Newton also developed calculus, the study of change, which provided new mathematical methods for solving physical problems. The discovery of new laws in thermodynamics, chemistry, and electromagnetics resulted from greater research efforts during the Industrial Revolution as energy needs increased, however, inaccuracies in classical mechanics for very small objects and very high velocities led to the development of modern physics in the 20th century. Modern physics began in the early 20th century with the work of Max Planck in quantum theory, both of these theories came about due to inaccuracies in classical mechanics in certain situations. Quantum mechanics would come to be pioneered by Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, from this early work, and work in related fields, the Standard Model of particle physics was derived. Areas of mathematics in general are important to this field, such as the study of probabilities, in many ways, physics stems from ancient Greek philosophy

2.
Pressure
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Pressure is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure is the relative to the ambient pressure. Various units are used to express pressure, Pressure may also be expressed in terms of standard atmospheric pressure, the atmosphere is equal to this pressure and the torr is defined as 1⁄760 of this. Manometric units such as the centimetre of water, millimetre of mercury, Pressure is the amount of force acting per unit area. The symbol for it is p or P, the IUPAC recommendation for pressure is a lower-case p. However, upper-case P is widely used. The usage of P vs p depends upon the field in one is working, on the nearby presence of other symbols for quantities such as power and momentum. Mathematically, p = F A where, p is the pressure, F is the normal force and it relates the vector surface element with the normal force acting on it. It is incorrect to say the pressure is directed in such or such direction, the pressure, as a scalar, has no direction. The force given by the relationship to the quantity has a direction. If we change the orientation of the element, the direction of the normal force changes accordingly. Pressure is distributed to solid boundaries or across arbitrary sections of normal to these boundaries or sections at every point. It is a parameter in thermodynamics, and it is conjugate to volume. The SI unit for pressure is the pascal, equal to one newton per square metre and this name for the unit was added in 1971, before that, pressure in SI was expressed simply in newtons per square metre. Other units of pressure, such as pounds per square inch, the CGS unit of pressure is the barye, equal to 1 dyn·cm−2 or 0.1 Pa. Pressure is sometimes expressed in grams-force or kilograms-force per square centimetre, but using the names kilogram, gram, kilogram-force, or gram-force as units of force is expressly forbidden in SI. The technical atmosphere is 1 kgf/cm2, since a system under pressure has potential to perform work on its surroundings, pressure is a measure of potential energy stored per unit volume. It is therefore related to density and may be expressed in units such as joules per cubic metre. Similar pressures are given in kilopascals in most other fields, where the prefix is rarely used

3.
Fluid dynamics
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In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids. It has several subdisciplines, including aerodynamics and hydrodynamics, before the twentieth century, hydrodynamics was synonymous with fluid dynamics. This is still reflected in names of some fluid dynamics topics, like magnetohydrodynamics and hydrodynamic stability, the foundational axioms of fluid dynamics are the conservation laws, specifically, conservation of mass, conservation of linear momentum, and conservation of energy. These are based on mechanics and are modified in quantum mechanics. They are expressed using the Reynolds transport theorem, in addition to the above, fluids are assumed to obey the continuum assumption. Fluids are composed of molecules that collide with one another and solid objects, however, the continuum assumption assumes that fluids are continuous, rather than discrete. The fact that the fluid is made up of molecules is ignored. The unsimplified equations do not have a general solution, so they are primarily of use in Computational Fluid Dynamics. The equations can be simplified in a number of ways, all of which make them easier to solve, some of the simplifications allow some simple fluid dynamics problems to be solved in closed form. Three conservation laws are used to solve fluid dynamics problems, the conservation laws may be applied to a region of the flow called a control volume. A control volume is a volume in space through which fluid is assumed to flow. The integral formulations of the laws are used to describe the change of mass, momentum. Mass continuity, The rate of change of fluid mass inside a control volume must be equal to the net rate of flow into the volume. Mass flow into the system is accounted as positive, and since the vector to the surface is opposite the sense of flow into the system the term is negated. The first term on the right is the net rate at which momentum is convected into the volume, the second term on the right is the force due to pressure on the volumes surfaces. The first two terms on the right are negated since momentum entering the system is accounted as positive, the third term on the right is the net acceleration of the mass within the volume due to any body forces. Surface forces, such as forces, are represented by F surf. The following is the form of the momentum conservation equation

4.
Dynamic pressure
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In incompressible fluid dynamics dynamic pressure is the quantity defined by, q =12 ρ u 2, where, Dynamic pressure is the kinetic energy per unit volume of a fluid particle. Dynamic pressure is in one of the terms of Bernoullis equation. In simplified cases, the pressure is equal to the difference between the stagnation pressure and the static pressure. e. Therefore, by looking at the variation of q during flight, it is possible to determine how the stress will vary, the point of maximum aerodynamic load is often referred to as max Q and it is a critical parameter in many applications, such as during spacecraft launch. The dynamic pressure, along with the pressure and the pressure due to elevation, is used in Bernoullis principle as an energy balance on a closed system. The three terms are used to define the state of a system of an incompressible, constant-density fluid. In a venturi flow meter, the pressure head can be used to calculate the differential velocity head. An alternative to velocity head is dynamic head, many authors define dynamic pressure only for incompressible flows. However, the definition of dynamic pressure can be extended to include compressible flows, if the fluid in question can be considered an ideal gas, the dynamic pressure can be expressed as a function of fluid pressure and Mach number. J. ISBN 0-273-01120-0 Houghton, E. L. and Carpenter, P. W. Aerodynamics for Engineering Students, Butterworth and Heinemann, Oxford UK

5.
Bernoulli's principle
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In fluid dynamics, Bernoullis principle states that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluids potential energy. The principle is named after Daniel Bernoulli who published it in his book Hydrodynamica in 1738, Bernoullis principle can be applied to various types of fluid flow, resulting in various forms of Bernoullis equation, there are different forms of Bernoullis equation for different types of flow. The simple form of Bernoullis equation is valid for incompressible flows, more advanced forms may be applied to compressible flows at higher Mach numbers. Bernoullis principle can be derived from the principle of conservation of energy and this states that, in a steady flow, the sum of all forms of energy in a fluid along a streamline is the same at all points on that streamline. This requires that the sum of energy, potential energy. If the fluid is flowing out of a reservoir, the sum of all forms of energy is the same on all streamlines because in a reservoir the energy per volume is the same everywhere. Bernoullis principle can also be derived directly from Isaac Newtons Second Law of Motion, if a small volume of fluid is flowing horizontally from a region of high pressure to a region of low pressure, then there is more pressure behind than in front. This gives a net force on the volume, accelerating it along the streamline, fluid particles are subject only to pressure and their own weight. Consequently, within a fluid flowing horizontally, the highest speed occurs where the pressure is lowest, and the lowest speed occurs where the pressure is highest. In most flows of liquids, and of gases at low Mach number, therefore, the fluid can be considered to be incompressible and these flows are called incompressible flows. Bernoulli performed his experiments on liquids, so his equation in its form is valid only for incompressible flow. The constant on the side of the equation depends only on the streamline chosen. For conservative force fields, Bernoullis equation can be generalized as, E. g. for the Earths gravity Ψ = gz. The constant in the Bernoulli equation can be normalised, most often, gases and liquids are not capable of negative absolute pressure, or even zero pressure, so clearly Bernoullis equation ceases to be valid before zero pressure is reached. In liquids – when the pressure becomes too low – cavitation occurs, the above equations use a linear relationship between flow speed squared and pressure. At higher flow speeds in gases, or for sound waves in liquid, in many applications of Bernoullis equation, the change in the ρgz term along the streamline is so small compared with the other terms that it can be ignored. For example, in the case of aircraft in flight, the change in height z along a streamline is so small the ρgz term can be omitted. This allows the equation to be presented in the following simplified form, p + q = p 0 where p0 is called total pressure

6.
Ideal gas
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An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interaction is perfectly elastic collision. The ideal gas concept is useful because it obeys the ideal gas law, an equation of state. One mole of a gas has a volume of 22.710947 litres at STP as defined by IUPAC since 1982. At normal conditions such as temperature and pressure, most real gases behave qualitatively like an ideal gas. Many gases such as nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, noble gases, the ideal gas model tends to fail at lower temperatures or higher pressures, when intermolecular forces and molecular size become important. It also fails for most heavy gases, such as many refrigerants, at high pressures, the volume of a real gas is often considerably greater than that of an ideal gas. At low temperatures, the pressure of a gas is often considerably less than that of an ideal gas. At some point of low temperature and high pressure, real gases undergo a phase transition, the model of an ideal gas, however, does not describe or allow phase transitions. These must be modeled by more complex equations of state, the deviation from the ideal gas behaviour can be described by a dimensionless quantity, the compressibility factor, Z. The ideal gas model has been explored in both the Newtonian dynamics and in quantum mechanics, the ideal gas model has also been used to model the behavior of electrons in a metal, and it is one of the most important models in statistical mechanics. There are three classes of ideal gas, the classical or Maxwell–Boltzmann ideal gas, the ideal quantum Bose gas, composed of bosons. The classical ideal gas can be separated into two types, The classical thermodynamic ideal gas and the ideal quantum Boltzmann gas. The ideal quantum Boltzmann gas overcomes this limitation by taking the limit of the quantum Bose gas, the behavior of a quantum Boltzmann gas is the same as that of a classical ideal gas except for the specification of these constants. The ideal gas law is an extension of experimentally discovered gas laws, real fluids at low density and high temperature approximate the behavior of a classical ideal gas. This deviation is expressed as a compressibility factor, the classical thermodynamic properties of an ideal gas can be described by two equations of state. Multiplying the equations representing the three laws, V ∗ V ∗ V = k b a Gives, V ∗ V ∗ V =, under ideal conditions, V = R, that is, P V = n R T. The other equation of state of an ideal gas must express Joules law, in order to switch from macroscopic quantities to microscopic ones, we use n R = N k B where N is the number of gas particles kB is the Boltzmann constant. The probability distribution of particles by velocity or energy is given by the Maxwell speed distribution, the assumption of spherical particles is necessary so that there are no rotational modes allowed, unlike in a diatomic gas

7.
Partial pressure
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In a mixture of gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the hypothetical pressure of that gas if it alone occupied the entire volume of the original mixture at the same temperature. The total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of each individual gas in the mixture. Gases dissolve, diffuse, and react according to their partial pressures and this general property of gases is also true in chemical reactions of gases in biology. For example, the amount of oxygen for human respiration. This is true across a wide range of different concentrations of oxygen present in various inhaled breathing gases or dissolved in blood. Daltons law expresses the fact that the pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases in the mixture. This equality arises from the fact that in a gas the molecules are so far apart that they do not interact with each other. Most actual real-world gases come very close to this ideal. For example, given an ideal gas mixture of nitrogen, hydrogen and ammonia, the partial volume of a particular gas in a mixture is the volume of one component of the gas mixture. It is useful in gas mixtures, e. g. air, to focus on one particular gas component, most often the term is used to describe a liquids tendency to evaporate. It is a measure of the tendency of molecules and atoms to escape from a liquid or a solid, the higher the vapor pressure of a liquid at a given temperature, the lower the normal boiling point of the liquid. The vapor pressure chart displayed has graphs of the vapor pressures versus temperatures for a variety of liquids, as can be seen in the chart, the liquids with the highest vapor pressures have the lowest normal boiling points. For example, at any temperature, methyl chloride has the highest vapor pressure of any of the liquids in the chart. It also has the lowest normal boiling point, which is where the pressure curve of methyl chloride intersects the horizontal pressure line of one atmosphere of absolute vapor pressure. It is possible to work out the equilibrium constant for a reaction involving a mixture of gases given the partial pressure of each gas. However, the reaction kinetics may either oppose or enhance the equilibrium shift, in some cases, the reaction kinetics may be the overriding factor to consider. Gases will dissolve in liquids to an extent that is determined by the equilibrium between the gas and the gas that has dissolved in the liquid. This statement is known as Henrys law and the constant k is quite often referred to as the Henrys law constant