A shingle beach is a beach, armoured with pebbles or small- to medium-sized cobbles. The stone composition may grade from characteristic sizes ranging from 2 to 200 millimetres diameter. While this beach landform is most found in Europe, examples are found in Bahrain, North America and in a number of other world regions, such as the east coast of New Zealand's South Island, where they are associated with the shingle fans of braided rivers. Though created at shorelines, post-glacial rebound can raise shingle beaches as high as 200 metres above sea level, at the High Coast in Sweden; the ecosystems formed by this unique association of rock and sand allow colonization by a variety of rare and endangered species. Shingle beaches are steep, because the waves flow through the coarse, porous surface of the beach, decreasing the effect of backwash erosion and increasing the formation of sediment into a steeply sloping beach. Shingle beaches are criticized as undesirable for visitors. Canterbury City Council notes that the nearby shingle beach at Whitstable is uncomfortable to walk and lie on.
At least one advertiser has doctored an image of a shingle beach with sand in promotional material. However, shingle beaches are popular among rock collectors for the varying rock types that can be found. Storm beach Machair Chapman, V. J. Coastal Vegetation chapter 9: Shingle Beaches. Second edition, Elsevier. ISBN 9781483279589
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Blue Flag beach
The Blue Flag is a certification by the Foundation for Environmental Education that a beach, marina, or sustainable boating tourism operator meets its stringent standards. The Blue Flag is a trademark owned by FEE, a not-for-profit non-governmental organisation consisting of 65 organisations in 60 member countries. FEE's Blue Flag criteria include standards for quality, environmental education and information, the provision of services and general environmental management criteria; the Blue Flag is sought for beaches and sustainable boating tourism operators as an indication of their high environmental and quality standards. Certificates, which FEE refers to as awards, are issued on an annual basis to beaches and marinas of FEE member countries; the awards are announced yearly on 5 June for Europe, Morocco and other countries in a similar geographic location, on 1 November for the Caribbean, New Zealand, South Africa, other countries in the southern hemisphere. In the European Union, the water quality standards are incorporated in the EC Water Framework Directive.
Spain has held the 1st position for nearly three decades since the awards began in 1987. As a result of the 2015 awards, a total of 4,154 Blue Flags are waving around the world; the table below lists the Blue Flags awarded and in force in 2015. The table can be sorted to show the total number of Blue Flags per country and the number of Blue Flags per population, per area or per the length of the coastline of each country. Note: Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland have always been treated as individual countries e.g. in 2015 Northern Ireland had 10 Blue Flag beaches and marinas, England had 61, Wales had 41 and Scotland 1. The Blue Flag was created in France in 1985, as a pilot scheme from the Office of the Foundation for Environmental Education in Europe where French coastal municipalities were awarded the Blue Flag on the basis of criteria covering sewage treatment and bathing water quality. 11 French municipalities got the award in 1985. 1987 was the "European Year of the Environment" and the European Commission was responsible for developing the European Community activities of that year.
The Foundation for Environmental Education in Europe presented the concept of the Blue Flag to the Commission, it was agreed to launch the Blue Flag Programme as one of several "European Year of the Environment" activities in the Community. The French concept of the Blue Flag was developed on European level to include other areas of environmental management, such as waste management and coastal planning and protection. Besides beaches marinas became eligible for the Blue Flag. In 1987, 244 beaches and 208 marinas from 10 countries were awarded the Blue Flag. There have been increases in the numbers of Blue Flags awarded each year; the criteria have during these years been changed to more strict criteria. As an example, in 1992 the Programme started using the restrictive guideline values in the EEC Bathing Water Directive as imperative criteria, this was the year where all Blue Flag criteria became the same in all participating countries. In 2001, FEEE rules were changed to allow non-European national organisations, sharing the objectives of FEEE, to become members, changed its name by dropping Europe from its name, becoming the Foundation for Environmental Education.
Several organisations and authorities outside the European Union have joined FEE. In 2001, South Africa and several Caribbean countries joined. FEE has been cooperating with UN WTO on extending the Programme to areas outside Europe. South Africa, Morocco, New Zealand and four countries in the Caribbean region are members of FEE. Aruba and Brazil are in the pilot phase of the Programme and Jordan, Turks & Caicos Islands and United Arab Emirates have started the implementation of the Blue Flag Programme. FEE standards allow for regional variations in beach criteria to reflect specific environmental conditions of a region; as of 2006 an international set of criteria is being used with some variations. In 2016, Blue Flag extended its programme boat-based tourism activities like nature watching, recreational fishing and crewed charter tours. Certified tour operators have to comply with criteria regarding the sustainable operation of their boats and their business as a whole. In 2015 over 4,154 beaches and marinas globally were awarded the Blue Flag.47 countries are participating in the Blue Flag Programme: Bahamas, Brazil, Canada, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, Estonia, Germany, Iceland, Israel, Jordan, Lithuania, Mexico, Morocco, New Zealand, Northern Ireland, Poland, Puerto Rico, Serbia, Sint Marteen, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden, Tunisia and Tobago, United Arab Emirates, Ukraine, US Virgin Islands and Wales.
Information relating to coastal zone ecosystems and natural, sensitive areas in the coastal zone must be displayed Information about bathing water quality must be displayed Information about the Blue Flag Programme must be displayed Code of conduct for the beach area must be displayed and the laws governing beach use must be available to the public upon request A minimum of 5 environmental education activities must be offered Compliance with the requirements and standards for excellent bathing water quality No industrial or sewage related discharges may affect the beach area Monitoring on the health of coral reefs located in the vicinity of
Totland is a village, civil parish and electoral ward on the Isle of Wight. Besides the village of Totland, the civil parish comprises the western tip of the Isle of Wight, includes The Needles, Tennyson Down and the hamlet of Middleton; the village of Totland lies on the Western peninsula where the Western Yar cuts through along with Alum Bay and Freshwater. It lies on the coast at Colwell Bay, the closest part of the island to the British mainland, it is linked to other parts of the Island by Southern Vectis buses on route 7, route 12 serving Freshwater and Newport including intermediate villages. In the summer, open-top bus "The Needles Tour" serves the village. Christ Church, Totland is the Church of England parish. During Christmas 2012, a large landslip overran a section of the sea wall between Totland Bay and adjacent Colwell Bay blocking the walkway which ran along the top of the wall; the local council sealed off the affected section from the public. After a successful local campaign the council accepted a compromise solution and a new path over the landslip was opened to the public on 12th Sep 2015.
Christ Church, Totland Totland Bay List of current places of worship on the Isle of Wight
Widdick Chine is a geological feature on the west coast of the Isle of Wight, England. It is west of the village of Totland, it is a steep coastal gully, overgrown with vegetation. The water that used to flow down the slope has been redirected through a pipe which takes it to beach level to reduce its effect on erosion to the cliff. A set of steps have been constructed down the chine to provide access from Totland to the beach of Totland Bay; the Chine pipe drains water from the northern slopes of Tennyson Down. The Isle of Wight Coastal Path passes up the steps of the chine. At the bottom of the chine is the old Totland lifeboat house. Useful info on chines of West Wight
Isle of Wight
The Isle of Wight is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England. It is in the English Channel, between 2 and 5 miles off the coast of Hampshire, separated by the Solent; the island has resorts that have been holiday destinations since Victorian times, is known for its mild climate, coastal scenery, verdant landscape of fields and chines. The island has been home to the poets Swinburne and Tennyson and to Queen Victoria, who built her much-loved summer residence and final home Osborne House at East Cowes, it has a maritime and industrial tradition including boat-building, sail-making, the manufacture of flying boats, the hovercraft, Britain's space rockets. The island hosts annual music festivals including the Isle of Wight Festival, which in 1970 was the largest rock music event held, it has well-conserved wildlife and some of the richest cliffs and quarries for dinosaur fossils in Europe. The isle was earlier a kingdom in its own right. In common with the Crown dependencies The British Crown was represented on the island by the Governor of the Isle of Wight until 1995.
The island has played an important part in the defence of the ports of Southampton and Portsmouth, been near the front-line of conflicts through the ages, including the Spanish Armada and the Battle of Britain. Rural for most of its history, its Victorian fashionability and the growing affordability of holidays led to significant urban development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Part of Hampshire, the island became a separate administrative county in 1890, it continued to share the Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire until 1974, when it was made its own ceremonial county. Apart from a shared police force, there is now no administrative link with Hampshire, although a combined local authority with Portsmouth and Southampton was considered, this is now unlikely to proceed; until 1995 the island had a governor. The quickest public transport link to the mainland is the hovercraft from Ryde to Southsea. During the last Ice Age, sea levels were lower and the Solent was part of a river flowing south east from current day Poole Harbour towards mid-Channel.
As sea levels rose, the river valley became flooded, the chalk ridge line west of the Needles breached to form the island. The Isle of Wight is first mentioned in writing in Geography by Ptolemy. Bronze Age Britain had large reserves of tin in the areas of Cornwall and Devon and tin is necessary to smelt bronze. At that time the sea level was much lower and carts of tin were brought across the Solent at low tide for export on the Ferriby Boats. Anthony Snodgrass suggests that a shortage of tin, as a part of the Bronze Age Collapse and trade disruptions in the Mediterranean around 1300 BC, forced metalworkers to seek an alternative to bronze. During Iron Age Britain, the Late Iron Age, the Isle of Wight would appear to have been occupied by the Celtic tribe, the Durotriges - as attested by finds of their coins, for example, the South Wight Hoard, the Shalfleet Hoard. South eastern Britain experienced significant immigration, reflected in the genetic makeup of the current residents; as the Iron Age began the value of tin dropped and this greatly changed the economy of the Isle of Wight.
Trade however continued. Julius Caesar reported that the Belgae took the Isle of Wight in about 85 BC, recognised the culture of this general region as "Belgic", but made no reference to Vectis; the Roman historian Suetonius mentions. The Romans built no towns on the island, but the remains of at least seven Roman villas have been found, indicating the prosperity of local agriculture. First-century exports were principally hides, hunting dogs, cattle, silver and iron. Ferriby Boats and Blackfriars Ships were important to the local economy. During the Dark Ages the island was settled by Jutes as the pagan kingdom of Wihtwara under King Arwald. In 685 it was invaded by Caedwalla. In 686 Arwald was defeated and the island became the last part of English lands to be converted to Christianity, added to Wessex and becoming part of England under King Alfred the Great, included within the shire of Hampshire, it suffered from Viking raids, was used as a winter base by Viking raiders when they were unable to reach Normandy.
Both Earl Tostig and his brother Harold Godwinson held manors on the island. Starting in AD 449 the 5th and 6th centuries saw groups of Germanic speaking peoples from Northern Europe crossing the English Channel and setting up home. Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum identifies three separate groups of invaders: of these, the Jutes from Denmark settled the Isle of Wight and Kent. From onwards, there are indications that the island had wide trading links, with a port at Bouldnor, evidence of Bronze Age tin trading, finds of Late Iron Age coins; the Norman Conquest of 1066 created the position of Lord of the Isle of Wight. Carisbrooke Priory and the fort of Carisbrooke Castle were founded. Allegiance was sworn to FitzOsbern rather than the king. For nearly 200 years the island
A seawall is a form of coastal defense constructed where the sea, associated coastal processes, impact directly upon the landforms of the coast. The purpose of a sea wall is to protect areas of human habitation and leisure activities from the action of tides, waves, or tsunamis; as a seawall is a static feature it will conflict with the dynamic nature of the coast and impede the exchange of sediment between land and sea. The shoreline is part of the coastal interface, exposed to a wide range of erosional processes arising from fluvial and terrestrial sources, meaning that a combination of denudational processes will work against a seawall; the coast is a high-energy, dynamic environment with spatial variations over a wide range of timescales. The coast is exposed to erosion by rivers and winds as well as the sea, so that a combination of denudational processes will work against a sea wall; because of these persistent natural forces, sea walls need to be maintained to maintain their effectiveness.
The many types of sea wall in use today reflect both the varying physical forces they are designed to withstand, location specific aspects, such as local climate, coastal position, wave regime, value of landform. Sea walls are hard engineering shore-based structures, but various environmental problems and issues may arise from the construction of a sea wall, including disrupting sediment movement and transport patterns. Combined with a high construction cost, this has led to an increasing use of other soft engineering coastal management options such as beach replenishment. Sea walls may be constructed from various materials, most reinforced concrete, steel, or gabions. Other possible construction materials are: vinyl, aluminium, fibreglass composite, large biodegrable sandbags made of jute and coir. In the UK, sea wall refers to an earthen bank used to create a polder, or a dike construction. A seawall works by reflecting incident wave energy back into the sea, thus reducing the energy available to cause erosion.
Sea walls have two specific weaknesses. First, wave reflection from the wall may result in scour and subsequent lowering of the sand level of the fronting beach. Second, sea walls may accelerate erosion of adjacent, unprotected coastal areas because they affect the littoral drift process. Different designs of man-made tsunami barriers include building reefs and forests to above-ground and submerged seawalls. In 2005, India began planting Casuarina and coconut saplings on its coast as a natural barrier against future tsunamis like the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. Studies have found that an offshore tsunami wall could reduce tsunami wave heights by up to 83%; the design and type of sea wall, appropriate depends on aspects specific to the location, including the surrounding erosion processes. There are three main types of seawalls: vertical, curved or stepped, mounds, as set out in the table: A report published by the United Nations Environment Programme suggests that the tsunami of 26 December 2004 caused less damage in the areas where natural barriers were present, such as mangroves, coral reefs or coastal vegetation.
A Japanese study of this tsunami in Sri Lanka used satellite imagery modelling to establish the parameters of coastal resistance as a function of different types of trees. Natural barriers, such as coral reefs and mangrove forests, prevent the spread of tsunamis and the flow of coastal waters and mitigated the flood and surge of water. A cost-benefit approach is an effective way to determine whether a seawall is appropriate and whether the benefits are worth the expense. Besides controlling erosion, consideration must be given to the effects of hardening a shoreline on natural coastal ecosystems and human property or activities. A seawall is a static feature which can conflict with the dynamic nature of the coast and impede the exchange of sediment between land and sea; the table below summarises some positive and negative effects of seawalls which can be used when comparing their effectiveness with other coastal management options, such as beach nourishment. Seawalls can be a successful way to control coastal erosion, but only if they are constructed well and out of materials which can withstand the force of ongoing wave energy.
Some understanding is needed of the coastal processes and morphodynamics specific to the seawall location. Seawalls can be helpful. Extreme natural events expose weaknesses in the performance of seawalls, analyses of these can lead to future improvements and reassessment. Sea level rise creates an issue for seawalls worldwide as it raises both the mean normal water level and the height of waves during extreme weather events, which the current seawall heights may be unable to cope with; the most recent analyses of long, good-quality tide gauge records indicate a mean rate of sea level rise of 1.6–1.8 mm/yr over the twentieth century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change suggested that sea level rise over the next 50 – 100 years will accelerate with a projected increase in global mean sea level of +18 cm by 2050 AD; this data is reinforced by Hannah who calculated similar statistics including a rise of between +16-19.3 cm throughout 1900–1988. Super storm Sandy of 2012 is an example of the devastating effects rising sea levels can cause when mixed with a perfect storm.
According to Nabil Ismail, Professor of Coastal En