West Bengal is an Indian state, located in eastern region of the country on the Bay of Bengal. With over 91 million inhabitants, it is India's fourth-most populous state, it has an area of 88,752 km2. A part of the ethno-linguistic Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, it borders Bangladesh in the east, Nepal and Bhutan in the north, it borders the Indian states of Odisha, Bihar and Assam. The state capital is Kolkata, the seventh-largest city in India, center of the third-largest metropolitan area in the country; as for geography, West Bengal includes the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region, the Ganges delta, the Rarh region, the coastal Sundarbans. The main ethnic group are the Bengalis, with Bengali Hindus forming the demographic majority; the area's early history featured a succession of Indian empires, internal squabbling, a tussle between Hinduism and Buddhism for dominance. Ancient Bengal was the site of several major Janapadas, while the earliest cities date back to the Vedic period; the region was part including the Mauryans and Guptas.
It was a bastion of regional kingdoms. The citadel of Gauda served as the capital of the Gauda Kingdom, the Buddhist Pala Empire and Hindu Sena Empire. From the 13th century onward, the region was ruled by several sultans, powerful Hindu states, Baro-Bhuyan landlords, until the beginning of British rule in the 18th century; the British East India Company cemented their hold on the region following the Battle of Plassey in 1757, Calcutta served for many years as the capital of British India. The early and prolonged exposure to British administration resulted in an expansion of Western education, culminating in developments in science, institutional education, social reforms in the region, including what became known as the Bengali Renaissance. A hotbed of the Indian independence movement through the early 20th century, Bengal was divided during India's independence in 1947 along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal, a state of India, East Bengal, a province of Pakistan which became independent Bangladesh.
Between 1977 and 2011 the state was administered by the world's longest elected Communist government. The economy of West Bengal is the sixth-largest state economy in India with ₹13.14 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹108,000. The state's cultural heritage, besides varied folk traditions, includes authors in literature, such as Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. Kolkata is known as the "cultural capital of India". West Bengal is known for its enthusiasm for the sport of association football, as well as cricket; the origin of the name Bengal is unknown. One theory suggests that the word derives from "Bang", a Dravidian tribe that settled the region around 1000 BCE; the Bengali word Bongo might have been derived from the ancient kingdom of Vanga. Although some early Sanskrit literature mentions the name Vanga, the region's early history is obscure. At the end of British rule over the Indian subcontinent, the Bengal region was partitioned in 1947 along religious lines into east and west.
The eastern part came to be known be as East Pakistan, the eastern wing of newly born Pakistan and the western part came to be known as West Bengal, which continued as an Indian state. In 2011 the Government of West Bengal proposed a change in the official name of the state to PaschimBanga; this is the native name of the state meaning western Bengal in the native Bengali language. In August 2016 the West Bengal Legislative Assembly passed another resolution to change the name of West Bengal to "Bengal" in English, "Bangla" in Bengali. Despite the Trinamool Congress government's efforts to forge a consensus on the name change resolution, the Indian National Congress, the Left Front, the Bharatiya Janata Party opposed the resolution. However, the central government has turned down the proposal stating that the state should have one single name for all languages instead of three and the name should not be the same as that of any other territory. Stone Age tools dating back 20,000 years have been excavated in the state, showing human occupation 8,000 years earlier than scholars had earlier thought.
The region was a part of the Vanga Kingdom, according to the Indian epic Mahabharata. Several Vedic realms were present in the Bengal region, including Vanga, Rarh and the Suhma Kingdom. One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is a mention by the Ancient Greeks around 100 BCE of a land named Gangaridai, located at the mouths of the Ganges. Bengal had overseas trade relations with Suvarnabhumi. According to the Sri Lankan chronicle Mahavamsa, Prince Vijaya, a Vanga Kingdom prince, conquered Lanka and gave the name Sinhala Kingdom to the country; the kingdom of Magadha was formed in the 7th century BCE, consisting of the regions now comprising Bihar and Bengal. It was one of the four main kingdoms of India at the time of the lives of Mahavira, founder of Jainism, Gautama Buddha, founder of Buddhism, it kingdoms. Under Ashoka, the Maurya Empire of Magadha in the 3rd century BCE extended over nearly all of South Asia, including Afghanistan and parts of Balochistan. From the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE, the kingdom of Magadha served as the seat of the Gupta Empire.
Two kingdoms – Vanga or Samatata, Gauda –
The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter, it is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has 11 associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage and to preserve human rights, attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture and information". Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication; the broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals —underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities. UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility; this new body, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was indeed created in 1922.
On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the onset of World War II interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations. After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR; this was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented.
The idea of UNESCO was developed by Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom, who had a great deal of influence in its development. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, a Preparatory Commission was established; the Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General; the Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the ICIC, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence.
As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, the dissolution of the USSR. Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists and other scientists in 1950 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems." South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, started in 1947; this project was followed by expert missions to other countries, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.
In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal. In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, launched a global movement to provide basic education for a
George van Driem
George van Driem is a Dutch linguist at the University of Bern, where he is the chair of Historical Linguistics and directs the Linguistics Institute. Leiden University, 1983–1987 Leiden University, 1981–1983 Leiden University, 1979–1981 University of Virginia at Charlottesville, 1975–1979 Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, 1978–1979 Watling Island Marine Biological Station on San Salvador Island in the Bahamas, 1977 Duke University at Durham, North Carolina, 1976 George van Driem has conducted field research in the Himalayas since 1983, he was commissioned by the Royal Government of Bhutan to codify a grammar of Dzongkha, the national language, design a phonological romanisation for the language known as Roman Dzongkha, complete a survey of the language communities of the kingdom. He and native Dzongkha speaker Karma Tshering co-authored the authoritative textbook on Dzongkha. Van Driem wrote grammars of Limbu and Dumi, Kiranti languages spoken in eastern Nepal, the Bumthang language of central Bhutan.
He authored Languages of the Himalayas, a two-volume ethnolinguistic handbook of the greater Himalayan region. Under a programme named Languages and Genes of the Greater Himalayan Region, conducted in collaboration with the Government of Nepal and the Royal Government of Bhutan, he collected DNA from many indigenous peoples of the Himalayas. In Bern, George van Driem runs the research programme Strategische Zielsetzungen im Subkontinent, which aims to analyse and describe endangered and poorly documented languages in South Asia; this programme of research is a diversification of the Himalayan Languages Project, which he directed at Leiden University, where he held the chair of Descriptive Linguistics until 2009. He and his research team have documented over a dozen endangered languages of the greater Himalayan region, producing analytical grammars and lexica and recording morphologically analysed native texts, his interdisciplinary research in collaboration with geneticists has led to advances in the reconstruction of Asian ethnolinguistic prehistory.
Based on linguistic palaeontology, ethnolinguistic phylogeography, rice genetics and the Holocene distribution of faunal species, he identified the ancient Hmong-Mien and Austroasiatics as the first domesticators of Asian rice and published a theory on the homelands and prehistoric dispersal of the Hmong-Mien and Trans-Himalayan linguistic phyla. His historical linguistic work on linguistic phylogeny has replaced the unsupported Sino-Tibetan hypothesis with the older, more agnostic Tibeto-Burman phylogenetic model, for which he proposed the neutral geographical name Trans-Himalayan in 2004, he developed the Darwinian theory of language known as Symbiosism, he is author of the philosophy of Symbiomism. —. A Grammar of Limbu. Mouton De Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-011282-5. —. Sino-Bodic. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 60. Pp. 455–488. Doi:10.1017/S0041977X0003250X. —. Languages of the Himalayas: An Ethnolinguistic Handbook of the Greater Himalayan Region. Brill. ISBN 90-04-12062-9. —. "The Language Organism: The Leiden theory of language evolution".
In Mírovský, Jiří. Proceedings of the XVIIth International Congress of Linguists, July 24–29, 2003. Prague: Matematicko-fyzikální fakulty Univerzity Karlovy. —. "Tibeto-Burman Phylogeny and Prehistory: Languages, Material Culture and Genes". In Bellwood, Peter. Examining the farming/language dispersal hypothesis. Pp. 233–249. ISBN 978-1-902937-20-5. —. "Language as organism: A brief introduction to the Leiden theory of language evolution". In Lin, Ying-chin. S. Studies on Sino-Tibetan Languages: Papers in Honor of Professor Hwang-cherng Gong on his Seventieth Birthday. Language and Linguistics Monograph Series W-4. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica. Pp. 1–9. —. "Austroasiatic phylogeny and the Austroasiatic homeland in light of recent population genetic studies". Mon–Khmer studies: a journal of Southeast Asian languages and cultures: 1–14. —. "The diversity of the Tibeto-Burman language family and the linguistic ancestry of Chinese". Bulletin of Chinese Linguistics. 1: 211–270. 1996 Rolex Awards for Enterprise for setting up the Himalayan Languages Project 1998 Elected Honorary Member of the Kirant Yakthung Chumlung at Kathmandu George Van Driem's home page at Himalayan Languages Project Publication list
The Toto is an isolated tribal group residing only in a small enclave called Totopara in the Alipurduar district of West Bengal, India. Totopara is located at the foot of the Himalayas just to the south of the borderline between Bhutan and West Bengal. Geographically the location is 89° 20'E 26° 50'N. Totos were nearly becoming extinct in the 1950s, but recent measures to safeguard their areas from being swamped with outsiders have helped preserve their unique heritage and helped the population grow; the total population of Totos according to 1951 census was 321 living in 69 different houses at Totopara. In 1991 census, the Toto population had increased to 926. In the 2001 census, their number had increased to 1184 - all living in Totopara. Anthropologists agree that the Toto culture and language is unique to the tribe, is distinguished from the neighbouring Rajbongshis, Mech or the Bhutanese Sharchop tribes; the Totos are considered as Mongoloid people, with flat nose, small eye and square cheeks, thick lips and small eyes and black iris.
Their complexion is rather on the darker side. They are endogamous and marry within their own tribe, they are divided into 13 exogamous clans or groups of families from which they choose to marry. They do not marry anyone related to them through maternal aunts. Toto language belongs to Tibeto-Burman family of sub-Himalayan group, as classified by Hodgson and Grierson, they do not have any script. Most of the young members can speak Bengali and Nepali, which are the mediums of instruction in the local schools; the area of entire Toto country called. It lies 22 km from the entrance of Jaldapara National Park. So, it can be safely assumed; the Toto localities of the village are sub-divided into six segments - Panchayatgaon, Subbagaon, Mitranggaon and Dumchigaon. Totopara has a settlement of Nepali-speaking people. A primary school was established in the village in 1990. In 1995, a high school with hostel facility was established there. There is one primary healthcare centre in Totopara. Toto family is patrilocal in nature dominated by nuclear type.
However, joint family is not rare. Monogamy is common form of marriage among the Toto but polygamy is not prohibited. If a man's wife dies, he may marry the deceased wife's younger sister, but a woman cannot marry her deceased husband's brother. On the death of a spouse, the husband or wife must remain single for twelve months before he or she is free to remarry. There are various ways of acquiring mates viz. marriage by negotiation, marriage by escape, marriage by capture and love marriage. There is no custom of divorce among the Totos. Though they make their main food from marua, the staple food of the Totos now includes rice, chura and curd, they eat meat goat, venison and fish of all kinds. Women eat the same food as men and there are no restrictions of any kind on the widows. Totos drink a fermented liquor called Eu, made from fermented marua, rice powder and malt, served warm in Poipa. Eu is drunk on all occasions. Totos live in elevated bamboo huts; these are raised on machas, have straw thatches.
There is a single log placed to get to the hut, this log is meant to be drawn up at night. They define themselves as Hindus, but the Totos have two main gods whom they worship: Ishpa - He is supposed to live in the Bhutan hills, causes sickness when displeased; the Totos offer him Eu. Cheima - She keeps the village and its people safe from troubles and sicknesses, she is offered rice, fowls and Eu. The Totos offer their worship and sacrifices on their own. Ishpa is worshipped in Cheima inside the house. Of late, there are a few Christian converts among the tribe attributed to Christian missionary works. Totos cultivate land; the Totos hence do not cultivate a particular crop to a great extent. Every home has a kitchen garden surrounded by bamboo fences. Sometimes they trade with traders from the outside world; some Totos raise pigs as an occupation. At different stages of history, the Toto tribe has been moving away from a subsistence economy to market economy. Further, the transformations of the village from community ownership of land to individual land holding and from isolated tribal group to a multi-ethnic habitat have taken place in the recent past.
Toto language Duars A. K. Mitra - District Census Handbook, Jalpaiguri 1951, Appendix VIII, Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Charu Chandra Sanyal - The Meches and the Totos - Two Sub-Himalayan Tribes of North Bengal. A North Bengal University publication. Bimalendu Majumdar The Totos: Cultural and Economic Transformation of a Small Tribe in the Sub-Himalayan Bengal. Academic Enterprise, Calcutta. ISBN 81-87121-00-9. Sarit Kumar Chaudhuri Constraints of Tribal Development, Mittal Publications, New Delhi. ISBN 81-7099-914-6, ISBN 978-81-7099-914-0. M. K. Chowdhuri "The Totos", in Sarit Kumar Chaudhuri and Sucheta Sen Chaudhuri Primitive Tribes in Contemporary India: Concept and Demography, Volume 1, Mittal Publications, Delhi. ISBN 81-8324-026-7, ISBN 978-81-8324-026-0. Ethnologue profile Totos of Totopara - A Primitive Tribal Group of West Bengal
Bhutan the Kingdom of Bhutan, is a landlocked country in Southeast Asia. Located in the Eastern Himalayas, it is bordered by Tibet Autonomous Region of China in the north, the Sikkim state of India and the Chumbi Valley of Tibet in the west, the Arunachal Pradesh state of India in the east, the states of Assam and West Bengal in the south. Bhutan is geopolitically in East Asia and is the region's second least populous nation after the Maldives. Thimphu is largest city, while Phuntsholing is its financial center; the independence of Bhutan has endured for centuries and it has never been colonized in its history. Situated on the ancient Silk Road between Tibet, the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, the Bhutanese state developed a distinct national identity based on Buddhism. Headed by a spiritual leader known as the Zhabdrung Rinpoche, the territory was composed of many fiefdoms and governed as a Buddhist theocracy. Following a civil war in the 19th century, the House of Wangchuck reunited the country and established relations with the British Empire.
Bhutan fostered a strategic partnership with India during the rise of Chinese communism and has a disputed border with China. In 2008, Bhutan transitioned from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy and held the first election to the National Assembly of Bhutan; the National Assembly of Bhutan is part of the bicameral parliament of the Bhutanese democracy. The country's landscape ranges from lush subtropical plains in the south to the sub-alpine Himalayan mountains in the north, where there are peaks in excess of 7,000 metres. Gangkhar Puensum is the highest peak in Bhutan, it may be the highest unclimbed mountain in the world; the wildlife of Bhutan is notable for its diversity. In South Asia, Bhutan ranks first in economic freedom, ease of doing business, peace. However, Bhutan continues to be a least developed country. Hydroelectricity accounts for the major share of its exports; the government is a parliamentary democracy. Bhutan maintains diplomatic relations with 52 countries and the European Union, but does not have formal ties with the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.
It is a member of SAARC, BIMSTEC and the Non-Aligned Movement. The Royal Bhutan Army maintains a close relationship with the Indian Armed Forces. Bhutan is notable for pioneering the concept of gross national happiness; the precise etymology of "Bhutan" is unknown, although it is to derive from the Tibetan endonym "Bod" used for Tibet. Traditionally, it is taken to be a transcription of the Sanskrit Bhoṭa-anta "end of Tibet", a reference to Bhutan's position as the southern extremity of the Tibetan plateau and culture. Since the 17th century the official name of Bhutan has been Druk yul and Bhutan only appears in English-language official correspondence. Names similar to Bhutan — including Bohtan, Bottanthis and Bottanter — began to appear in Europe around the 1580s. Jean-Baptiste Tavernier's 1676 Six Voyages is the first to record the name Boutan. However, in every case, these seem to have been describing not modern Bhutan but the Kingdom of Tibet; the modern distinction between the two did not begin until well into the Scottish explorer George Bogle's 1774 expedition — realizing the differences between the two regions and states, his final report to the East India Company formally proposed labelling the Druk Desi's kingdom as "Boutan" and the Panchen Lama's as "Tibet".
The EIC's surveyor general James Rennell first anglicized the French name as Bootan and popularized the distinction between it and greater Tibet. Locally, Bhutan has been known by many names. One of the earliest Western records of Bhutan, the 1627 Relação of the Portuguese Jesuits Estêvão Cacella and João Cabral, records its name variously as Cambirasi and Mon; the first time a separate Kingdom of Bhutan appeared on a western map, it did so under its local name as "Broukpa". Others including Lho Mon, Lho Tsendenjong, Lhomen Khazhi and Lho Menjong. Stone tools, weapons and remnants of large stone structures provide evidence that Bhutan was inhabited as early as 2000 BC, although there are no existing records from that time. Historians have theorized that the state of Lhomon, or Monyul may have existed between 500 BC and AD 600; the names Lhomon Tsendenjong, Lhomon Khashi, or Southern Mon, have been found in ancient Bhutanese and Tibetan chronicles. Buddhism was first introduced to Bhutan in the 7th century AD.
Tibetan king Songtsän Gampo, a convert to Buddhism, who had extended the Tibetan Empire into Sikkim and Bhutan, ordered the construction of two Buddhist temples, at Bumthang in central Bhutan and at Kyichu in the Paro Valley. Buddhism was propagated in earnest in 746 under King Sindhu Rāja, an exiled Indian king who had established a government in Bumthang at Chakhar Gutho Palace. Much of early Bhutanese history is unclear because most of the records were destroyed when fire ravaged the ancient capital, Punakha, in 1827. By the 10th century, Bhutan's political development was influenced by its
Devanagari called Nagari, is a left-to-right abugida, based on the ancient Brāhmī script, used in the Indian subcontinent. It was developed in ancient India from the 1st to the 4th century CE, was in regular use by the 7th century CE; the Devanagari script, composed of 47 primary characters including 14 vowels and 33 consonants, is one of the most adopted writing systems in the world, being used for over 120 languages. The ancient Nagari script for Sanskrit had two additional consonantal characters; the orthography of this script reflects the pronunciation of the language. Unlike the Latin alphabet, the script has no concept of letter case, it is written from left to right, has a strong preference for symmetrical rounded shapes within squared outlines, is recognisable by a horizontal line that runs along the top of full letters. In a cursory look, the Devanagari script appears different from other Indic scripts such as Bengali, Odia, or Gurmukhi, but a closer examination reveals they are similar except for angles and structural emphasis.
Among the languages using it – as either their only script or one of their scripts – are Hindi, Pali, Bhojpuri, Braj Bhasha, Haryanvi, Nagpuri, Bhili, Marathi, Maithili, Konkani, Bodo, Nepalbhasa and Santali. The Devanagari script is related to the Nandinagari script found in numerous ancient manuscripts of South India, it is distantly related to a number of southeast Asian scripts. Devanagari is a compound of "deva" देव and "nāgarī" नागरी. Deva meaning "heavenly or divine", is one of the terms for a deity in Hinduism, Nagri comes from नगर, which means abode or city. Hence, Devanagari denotes from the abode of divinity or deities. Devanagari is part of the Brahmic family of scripts of India, Nepal and South-East Asia; some of the earliest epigraphical evidence attesting to the developing Sanskrit Nagari script in ancient India, in a form similar to Devanagari, is from the 1st to 4th century CE inscriptions discovered in Gujarat. It is a descendant of the 3rd century BCE Brahmi script through the Gupta script, along with Siddham and Sharada.
Variants of script called Nāgarī, recognisably close to Devanagari, are first attested from the 1st century CE Rudradaman inscriptions in Sanskrit, while the modern standardised form of Devanagari was in use by about 1000 CE. Medieval inscriptions suggest widespread diffusion of the Nagari-related scripts, with biscripts presenting local script along with the adoption of Nagari scripts. For example, the mid 8th-century Pattadakal pillar in Karnataka has text in both Siddha Matrika script, an early Telugu-Kannada script; the Nagari script was in regular use by the 7th century CE and it was developed by about the end of first millennium. The use of Sanskrit in Nagari script in medieval India is attested by numerous pillar and cave temple inscriptions, including the 11th-century Udayagiri inscriptions in Madhya Pradesh, an inscribed brick found in Uttar Pradesh, dated to be from 1217 CE, now held at the British Museum; the script's proto- and related versions have been discovered in ancient relics outside of India, such as in Sri Lanka and Indonesia.
Nagari has been the primus inter pares of the Indic scripts. It has long been used traditionally by religiously educated people in South Asia to record and transmit information, existing throughout the land in parallel with a wide variety of local scripts used for administration and other daily uses.. Other related scripts such as Siddham Matrka were in use in Indonesia, Vietnam and other parts of East Asia by between 7th- to 10th-century. Sharada remained in parallel use in Kashmir. An early version of Devanagari is visible in the Kutila inscription of Bareilly dated to Vikram Samvat 1049, which demonstrates the emergence of the horizontal bar to group letters belonging to a word. One of the oldest surviving Sanskrit texts from the early post-Maurya period consists of 1,413 Nagari pages of a commentary by Patanjali, with a composition date of about 150 BCE, the surviving copy transcribed about 14th century CE. Nāgarī is the Sanskrit feminine of Nāgara "relating or belonging to a town or city, urban".
It is a phrasing with lipi as nāgarī lipi "script relating to a city", or "spoken in city". The use of the name devanāgarī emerged from the older term nāgarī. According to Fischer, Nagari emerged in the northwest Indian subcontinent around 633 CE, was developed by the 11th-century, was one of the major scripts used for the Sanskrit literature. Most of the southeast Asian scripts have roots in the Dravidian scripts, except for a few found in south-central regions of Java and isolated parts of southeast Asia that resemble Devanagari or its prototype; the Kawi script in particular is similar to the Devanagari in many respects though the morphology of the script has local changes. The earliest inscriptions in the Devanagari-like scripts are from around the 10th-century, with many more between 11th- and 14th-century; some of the old-Devanagari inscriptions are found in Hindu temples of Java, such as the Prambanan temple. The Ligor and the Kalasan inscriptions of central Java, dated to the 8th-century, are in the Nagari script of North India.
According to the epigraphist and Asian Studies scholar Lawrence Briggs, these may be related to the 9th-century copp
Dzongkha, or Bhutanese, is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by over half a million people in Bhutan. The Tibetan alphabet is used to write Dzongkha; the word dzongkha means "the language of the district". District-like Dzong architecture characterises monasteries, established throughout Bhutan by its unifier, Ngawang Namgyal, 1st Zhabdrung Rinpoche, in the 17th century; as of 2013, Dzongkha had about 640,000 total speakers. Dzongkha and its dialects are the native tongue of eight western districts of Bhutan. There are some native speakers found near the Indian town of Kalimpong, once part of Bhutan but now in North Bengal. Dzongkha was declared as the national language of Bhutan in 1971. Dzongkha study is mandatory in all schools in Bhutan, the language is the lingua franca in the districts to the south and east where it is not the mother tongue; the 2003 Bhutanese film Travellers and Magicians is in Dzongkha. The Tibetan alphabet used to write Dzongkha has thirty basic letters, sometimes known as "radicals", for consonants.
Dzongkha is written in Bhutanese forms of the Uchen script, forms of the Tibetan alphabet known as Jôyi "cursive longhand" and Jôtshum "formal longhand". The print form is known as Tshûm. There are various ways of romanization and transliteration systems for Dzongkha, however all possible systems failed to represent the true phonetic sound. A phonetic transcription system known as Roman Dzongkha, devised by the linguist George van Driem, was adopted as the standard romanization system of Dzongkha by the Bhutanese government in 1991. Dzongkha has two register tones: high and low; the tone of a syllable determines the allophone of the onset and the phonation type of the nuclear vowel. All consonants may begin a syllable. In the onsets of low tone syllables, consonants are voiced. Aspirated consonants, /ɬ/, /h/ are not found in low tone syllables; the rhotic /r/ is a trill or a fricative trill, is voiceless in the onsets of high tone syllables./t, tʰ, ts, tsʰ, s/ are dental. Descriptions of the palatal affricates and fricatives vary from alveolo-palatal to plain palatal.
Only a few consonants are found in syllable-final positions. Most common among them are /m, n, p/. Syllable-final /ŋ/ is elided and results in the preceding vowel nasalized and prolonged word-finally. Syllable-final /k/ is most omitted when word-final as well, unless in formal speech. In literary pronunciation, liquids /r/ and /l/ may end a syllable. Though rare, /ɕ/ is found in syllable-final positions. No other consonants are found in syllable-final positions; when in low tone, vowels are produced with breathy voice. In closed syllables, /i/ varies between and, the latter being more common. /yː/ varies between and. / e / varies between open-mid, the latter being common in closed syllables. /eː/ is close-mid. /eː/ may not be longer than /e/ at all, differs from /e/ more in quality than in length. Descriptions of / øː / vary between open-mid. /o/ is close-mid, but may approach open-mid in closed syllables. /oː/ is close-mid. /ɛː/ is lower than open-mid, i.e.. /ɑ/ may approach in closed syllables. When nasalized or followed by, vowels are always long.
Many words in Dzongkha are monosyllabic. Syllables take the form of CVC, CV, or VC. Syllables with complex onsets are found, but such an onset must be a combination of an unaspirated bilabial stop and a palatal affricate; the bilabial stops in complex onsets are omitted in colloquial speech. Dzongkha is considered a South Tibetic language, it is related to and intelligible with Sikkimese, to some other Bhutanese languages such as Chocangaca, Brokpa and Lakha. Dzongkha bears a close linguistic relationship to J'umowa, spoken in the Chumbi Valley of Southern Tibet, it has a much more distant relationship to Standard Tibetan. Although spoken Dzongkha and Tibetan are mutually unintelligible, the literary forms of both are both influenced by the liturgical Classical Tibetan language, known in Bhutan as Chöke, used for centuries by Buddhist monks. Chöke was used as the language of education in Bhutan until the early 1960s when it was replaced by Dzongkha in public schools. Although descended from Classical Tibetan, Dzongkha shows a great many irregularities in sound changes that make the official spelling and standard pronunciation more distant from each other than is the case with Standard Tibetan.
"Traditional orthography and modern phonology are two distinct systems operating by a distinct set of rules." The following is a sample text in Dzongkha of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Dzongkha in the Tibetan alphabet ༄༅། །འགྲོ་བ་མི་རིགས་ག་ར་དབང་ཆ་འདྲ་མཉམ་འབད་སྒྱེཝ་ལས་ག་ར་གིས་གཅིག་གིས་གཅིག་ལུ་སྤུན་ཆའི་དམ་ཚིག་བསྟན་དགོས།Translation All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Dzongkha Braille Dzongkha numerals Languages of Bhutan Downs, Cheryl Lynn. "Issues in Dzongkha Phonology: An Optimality Theoretic Approach". San Diego State University. Dzongkha Development Commission. Rigpai Lodap: An Intermediate Dzongkha-English Dictionary. Thimphu: Dzongkha Development Commission. ISBN 978-99936-765-3-9. Dzongkha Development Commission. K