Leslie William Green was an English architect. He is best known for his design of iconic stations constructed on the London Underground railway system in central London during the first decade of the 20th century, with distinctive ox-blood red tiled façades including pillars and semi-circular first-floor windows, patterned tiled interiors. Green was born in Maida Vale, London in 1875, the second of four children of architect and Crown Surveyor Arthur Green and his wife Emily, he spent periods studying at Dover College and South Kensington School of Art, in Paris, between periods working as an assistant in his father's architectural practice. Green married Mildred Ethel Wildy in Clapham in April 1902. In 1904, they had Vera. Green established his own practice as an architect in 1897, working from his father's offices, before moving to Haymarket in 1900 and to Adelphi House on Adam Street, by the Strand, in 1903, he became an associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1898, a member in 1899.
Early commissions included works to shops in various parts of the capital city. In 1903 he was appointed as architect for the Underground Electric Railways Company of London to design stations for three underground railway lines under construction – the Great Northern and Brompton Railway, the Baker Street and Waterloo Railway and the Charing Cross and Hampstead Railway, which became parts of the present day Piccadilly line, Bakerloo line and Northern line. Green was commissioned to design 50 new stations, including their external appearance, internal fittings and decoration. Green developed a uniform Arts and Crafts style for the ground level station buildings, adapted to suit the individual station location, they were constructed as two-storey buildings with a structural steel frame – a new form of construction imported from the United States – providing the large internal spaces needed for ticket halls and lift shafts. The exterior elevations were clad in non-loadbearing ox-blood red glazed terracotta blocks, provided by the Leeds Fireclay Company.
The ground floor was divided into wide bays by columns, allowing separate entrances and exits, providing space for retail outlets. The design featured large semi-circular windows at first floor level and a heavy dentilated cornice above. A broad strip between the two floors announced the name of the station in capital letters; the station buildings were constructed with flat roofs with the deliberate aim of encouraging commercial office development above, another benefit of the load-bearing structural steel frame. The interior was tiled with decorative details. At platform level, the stations were provided with a standardised tiling design incorporating the station name, but with identified individual colour schemes and geometric tile patterns formed in repeating panels along the platform length. Directional signs were included in the tile designs; the tiled surfaces created a unifying theme, proved easy to maintain. The railways were to open in 1906 and 1907, Green was notified in June 1907 that the contract would be terminated at the end of that year.
He was elected a Fellow of the RIBA in 1907, including details of his work for the UERL as part of his submission. Many of Green's station buildings survive, although internal modifications have seen most of his ticket hall designs altered to suit developments. At platform levels a number of the original tiling schemes survive today or have, as at Lambeth North and Marylebone, been reproduced in recent years to the original pattern. A number of the surviving buildings are Grade II listed buildings: Aldwych, Belsize Park, Caledonian Road, Chalk Farm, Covent Garden, Gloucester Road, Holloway Road, Oxford Circus, Mornington Crescent, Russell Square and South Kensington, his work was continued by Stanley Heaps. The designs remain recognisable: the screen appearance of the fictitious Walford East Underground station from the BBC soap opera EastEnders is inspired by Green's designs; the pressure of producing designs and supervising the works to so many stations in such a short period of time placed a strain on Green's health.
He contracted tuberculosis and died at a sanatorium at Mundesley in Norfolk in August 1908, at the age of 33. He was survived by his daughter. For complete lists of central London stations of these lines see Bakerloo line, Piccadilly line and Northern line Media related to Buildings by Leslie Green at Wikimedia Commons"Walford East Station". Underground History. 27 April 2005. Retrieved 31 August 2014. Images from the Photographic Archive of the London Transport Museum Leboff, David; the Underground Stations of Leslie Green. Harrow Weald, Middlesex: Capital Transport. ISBN 1-85414-255-0. Rose, Douglas. Tiles of the Unexpected, Underground. Capital Transport. ISBN 978-1854143105. "London Underground's Edwardian Tile Patterns". Doug Rose. Retrieved 31 August 2014. Bull, John. "The Man Who Painted London Red". London Reconnections. Retrieved 31 August 2014
Leicester Square tube station
Leicester Square is a London Underground station in Theatreland and Chinatown, in the West End of London. It is located on a short distance to the east of Leicester Square itself; the station is on the Northern line, between Charing Cross and Tottenham Court Road, the Piccadilly line, between Piccadilly Circus and Covent Garden. It is in Travelcard Zone 1. On early Tube plans, the station was listed as Cranbourn Street, but the present name was used when the station was first opened by the Great Northern and Brompton Railway on 15 December 1906. Like other stations on the original sections of the Piccadilly and Northern lines, the station was constructed with lifts providing access to the platforms; the increase in passenger numbers in the 1920s as the Northern line was extended north and south and the expected further increase from the 1930s extensions of the Piccadilly line led to the reconstruction of the station below ground in the early 1930s. New station entrances were constructed to a new sub-surface ticket hall.
As with the similar sub-surface ticket hall built at Piccadilly Circus this was excavated under the roadway. From there banks of escalators were provided down to both sets of platforms; the redundant lifts were removed but the lift shaft remains in use as a ventilation shaft hidden behind a small door on the first landing of the Cranbourn street entrance stairs. The redeveloped station opened in 1935; the escalators down to the Piccadilly line were the longest on the entire Underground network, being 54 m in length, until the rebuilding and reopening of Angel in 1992, which overtook Leicester Square with its 60 m escalators. Offices above the red terracotta station building on the east side of Charing Cross Road were once occupied by the Northern line management staff but now have a variety of functions in addition to the Northern line management, with Piccadilly line management and other support functions including a training centre on the first floor; the building, known as Transad House, was in its early years, occupied by the publishers of the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack and an image of cricket stumps appears above a door way.
On all four platforms, film sprockets are painted down the entire length and on the top and bottom of the display area, due to the four premiere cinemas in Leicester Square. The station is featured during the introductory video sequence of the 2009 film Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. London Buses routes 14, 19, 24, 29, 38 and 176 and night routes N5, N20, N29, N38, N47 and N279 serve the station. Leslie Green – architect of original station building Charles Holden – architect of new ticket hall and entrances "Photographic Archive". London Transport Museum. Archived from the original on 2008-03-18. Leicester Square station before building above was constructed, 1907 Leicester Square station, 1925 Original ticket hall in 1927 New entrance on the south side of Cranbourne Street, 1935 New sub-surface ticket hall after opening in 1935 New entrance on the corner of Little Newport Street, 1955 "Underground Journeys, Charles Holden's work for London Underground". Royal Institute of British Architects.
Archived from the original on 7 July 2011."Underground Journeys: Leicester Square, Design drawing and history". Royal Institute of British Architects. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. "Underground Journeys: Escalators". Royal Institute of British Architects. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011
St Giles Circus
St Giles Circus is a road junction in the St Giles district of the West End of London at the eastern end of Oxford Street, where it connects with New Oxford Street, Charing Cross Road and Tottenham Court Road. It is near to Soho, Covent Garden and Fitzrovia; the word Circus is used although the buildings around the traffic junction are not all rounded, as with for example Oxford Circus. From the Middle Ages until the fifteenth century, gallows were located at St Giles Circus alongside a cage for prisoners, a cattle enclosure known as St Giles's Pound; the area was an infamous rookery until it was cleared in the mid-19th century with the creation of New Oxford Street parallel to St Giles High Street by clearances. Tottenham Court Road Underground station was opened in July 1900 as part of the Central London Railway, with the platforms under Oxford Street to the west of St Giles Circus, the station opening on the south west side of the circus, on Oxford Street; the Charing Cross and Hampstead Railway joined the station with what is now part of the Northern Line in September 1908, with station entrance on the south east side of the circus.
The main station ticket hall was moved underground, built below the circus in the 1920s. The area today is dominated by Centre Point Tower, located on the south-east corner on New Oxford Street and Charing Cross Road. Built between 1963 and 1966 by developer Harry Hyams, the brutalist tower was London's first "skyscraper", is now a Grade II listed building; as part of the Centre Point project the developer was to have included a modern traffic roundabout and transport interchange, but this part of the scheme was not delivered. St Giles Circus has been since 2009 the site of construction for Crossrail, which have disrupted road flows and led to several buildings being demolished; the Dominion Theatre is close to the north-east corner, on Tottenham Court Road just above New Oxford Street. The London Astoria theatre was on the south west side. A new theatre to replace the Astoria is planned. An auditorium/gallery is planned for the south-east corner
British Museum tube station
British Museum was a station on the London Underground, located in Holborn, central London. It was latterly served by the Central line and took its name from the nearby British Museum in Great Russell Street; the station was opened by the Central London Railway in 1900. In 1933, with the expansion of Holborn station, less than 100 yards away, British Museum station was permanently closed, it was subsequently utilised as a military office and command post, but in 1989 the surface building was demolished. A portion of the eastbound tunnel is used to store materials for track maintenance, visible from passing trains. British Museum station was opened on 30 July 1900 by the Central London Railway, with its entrance located at No. 133, High Holborn, near the junction with New Oxford Street. In December 1906, Holborn station was opened by the Great Northern and Brompton Railway less than 100 yards away. Despite being built and operated by separate companies, it was common for the underground railways to plan routes and locate stations so that interchanges could be formed between services.
This had been done by other lines connecting with the CLR stations at Oxford Circus and Tottenham Court Road, but an interchange station was not constructed between the GNP&BR and the CLR because the tunnel alignment to British Museum station would not have been suitable for the GNP&BR's route to its Strand station. The junction between High Holborn and the newly constructed Kingsway was a more prominent location for a station than that chosen by the CLR; the possibility of an underground passageway was mooted, but the idea suffered from the complexity of tunneling between the stations. Holborn station was, in any case, better situated than British Museum, as it had better tram connections. A proposal to enlarge the tunnels under High Holborn to create new platforms at Holborn station for the CLR and to abandon the British Museum station was included in a private bill submitted to parliament by the CLR in November 1913, although the First World War prevented any work taking place; the works were carried out as part of the modernisation of Holborn station at the beginning of the 1930s when escalators were installed in place of lifts.
British Museum station was closed on 24 September 1933, with the new platforms at Holborn opening the following day. British Museum station was subsequently used up to the 1960s as a military administrative office and emergency command post, but the surface station building was demolished in 1989, the platforms could no longer be accessed from street level; the platforms have since been removed, thus lowering the entire tunnel floor to track level. A portion of the eastbound tunnel is used by engineers to store materials for track maintenance, which can be seen from passing trains. In the Neil Gaiman novel Neverwhere the main character, Richard Mayhew, a Londoner, protests that there is no British Museum station, only to be proved wrong when his train stops there; the station was mentioned in the 1972 horror film Death Line, but contrary to popular belief, it is not the station portrayed in the film as being the home of a community of cannibals descended from Victorian railway workers. The cannibals venture out at night to snatch travellers from the platforms of operating stations and take them back to their gruesome'pantry' at an incomplete station.
Donald Pleasence stars as the investigating police inspector, when cornered, one of the cannibals screams a corrupted form of "Mind the doors!" having picked it up parrot-fashion from the guards on the Underground trains. The station in question is named simply'Museum' and is stated as being'between' Holborn and British Museum stations in a conversation between Pleasance's character and a colleague, it is part of a separate line, not completed owing to the construction company going bankrupt. Signs in the abandoned station only state'Museum' as the name; the station did feature in the Bulldog Drummond spin-off film Bulldog Jack as the location reached by a secret tunnel leading from the inside of a sarcophagus in the British Museum. The villain Morelle is cornered and forced into a sword duel on the disused platforms, which were a studio set; the station was renamed'Bloomsbury' in the film. The station featured in the computer game Broken Sword: The Smoking Mirror, in which Nico Collard escapes from the British Museum and finds the station.
She manages to stop the passing trains. The station in the game, however, is depicted as having its exit inside the British Museum itself. A station named'Museum' features in the earlier game Beneath a Steel Sky, by the same company, but the apparent Australian setting for the latter game, as well as its proximity to a station named'St. James' suggests this is the Museum railway station in Sydney; the station is reputed to be haunted by the ghost of the daughter of an Egyptian Pharaoh called Amen-ra which would appear and scream so loudly that the noise would carry down the tunnels to adjoining stations. List of former and unopened London Underground stations London's Abandoned Tube Stations - British Museum Underground History: Deep Level Lines Photographs showing the construction of the British Museum underground station at the British Library London Transport Museum Photographic Archive Station platform in 1900 British Museum station, 1930 Disused eastbound platform being bricked-up for use as air-raid shelter, 1941
Charles Tyson Yerkes was an American financier. He played a major part in developing mass-transit systems in London. Yerkes was born into a Quaker family in the Northern Liberties, a district adjacent to Philadelphia, on June 25, 1837, his mother died of puerperal fever when he was five years old and shortly thereafter his father was expelled from the Society of Friends for marrying a non-Quaker. After finishing a two-year course at Philadelphia's Central High School, Yerkes began his business career at the age of 17 as a clerk in a local grain brokerage. In 1859, aged 22, he joined the Philadelphia stock exchange. By 1865 he had moved into banking and specialized in selling municipal and government bonds. Relying on his bank president father's connections, his political contacts, his own acumen, Yerkes gained a name for himself in the local financial and social world. However, while serving as a financial agent for the City of Philadelphia's treasurer, Joseph Marcer, Yerkes risked public money in a large-scale stock speculation.
This speculation ended calamitously. Left insolvent and unable to make payment to the City of Philadelphia, Yerkes was convicted of larceny and sentenced to thirty-three months in Eastern State Penitentiary. In an attempt to remain out of prison, he attempted to blackmail two influential Pennsylvania politicians; the blackmail plan failed, however the damaging information on these politicians was made public and political leaders including then-President Ulysses S. Grant feared that the revelations might harm their prospects in the upcoming elections. Yerkes was promised a pardon, he was released after serving seven months in prison. In 1881 Yerkes traveled to Fargo in the Dakota Territory; that year, he remarried and moved to Chicago. There, he opened a stock and grain brokerage but soon became involved with planning the city's public transportation system. In 1886, Yerkes and his business partners used a complex financial deal to take over the North Chicago Street Railway and proceeded to follow this with a string of further take-overs until he controlled a majority of Chicago's street railway systems on the north and west sides.
Yerkes was not averse to blackmail to obtain his ends. In an effort to improve his public image, Yerkes decided in 1892 to bankroll the world's largest telescope after being lobbied by the astronomer George Ellery Hale and University of Chicago president William Rainey Harper, he had intended to finance only a telescope but agreed to foot the bill for an entire observatory. He contributed nearly $300,000 to the University of Chicago to establish what would become known as the Yerkes Observatory, located in Williams Bay, Wisconsin. Yerkes embarked upon a campaign for longer streetcar franchises in 1895, however Illinois governor John Peter Altgeld vetoed the franchise bills. Yerkes renewed the campaign in 1897, after a hard-fought battle, secured from the Illinois Legislature a bill granting city councils the right to approve extended franchises; the so-called franchise war shifted to the Chicago City Council—an arena in which Yerkes ordinarily thrived. A reformed council under Mayor Carter Harrison, Jr. however defeated Yerkes, with the swing votes coming from aldermen "Hinky Dink" Kenna and "Bathhouse" John Coughlin.
In 1899, Yerkes moved to New York. While living in Chicago, Yerkes became an avid art collector, relying on Sarah Tyson Hallowell to advise him on his purchases. After the Chicago World's Fair in 1893, she tried to interest him in the works of Auguste Rodin, which were part of the loan exhibitor of French art; because the subject matter was controversial, Yerkes turned the works down, but he soon changed his mind and acquired two Rodin marbles and Cupid and Psyche, for his Chicago mansion, the first two of Rodin's works known to have been sold to an American collector. Yerkes' art collection included works by the French academic painters, such as Pygmalion and Galatea by Jean-Léon Gérôme and works by William-Adolphe Bouguereau and members of the Barbizon School. In 1904 he published a two volume catalog of his collection, which by that time was in New York: Catalogue of paintings and sculpture in the collection of Charles T. Yerkes, esq. New York, 1904 In August 1900, Yerkes became involved in the development of the London underground railway system after riding along the route of one proposed line and surveying the city of London from the summit of Hampstead Heath.
He established the Underground Electric Railways Company of London to take control of the District Railway and the built Baker Street and Waterloo Railway. Yerkes employed complex financial arrangements similar to those that he had used in America to raise the funds necessary to construct the new lines and electrify the District railway. In one of his last great triumphs, Yerkes managed to thwart an attempt by J. P. Morgan to enter the London underground railway field. Yerkes died in New York 1905, of kidney disease; the events of Yerkes' life served as a blueprint for the Theodore Dreiser novels, The Financier, The Titan and The Stoic, in which Yerkes was fictionalized as Frank Cowperwood. The crater Yerkes on the Moon is named in his honor. Yerkes and his wife Mary were painted by his favorite artist Jan van Beers, his wife, the daughter of Th
Tottenham Court Road
Tottenham Court Road is a major road in the Fitzrovia district of Central London, United Kingdom, running from St Giles Circus to Euston Road. A market street, it became well known for selling electronics and white goods in the 20th century; the name derives from the road's original use as a market thoroughfare from Oxford Street to the Manor of Tothele north of what is now Euston Road. It was mentioned as such in the Domesday Book; the area was described as Totenhale in 1184 and Totenhale Court by 1487. Although the road's name has a similar root and origin to the area of Tottenham in north London, the two are not directly related. Tottenham Court Road runs from St Giles Circus north to Euston Road in the London Borough of Camden near its boundary with the City of Westminster, a distance of about three-quarters of a mile, it has for many years been a one-way street: all three lanes are northbound only. It is regarded as marking the boundary between Bloomsbury to the east and Fitzrovia to the west, linking Somers Town to the north with Soho to the south.
The road has been the boundary between the parishes of St Giles and St Pancras. The south end of the road is close to the British Museum and to Centre Point, the West End's tallest building. There are a number of buildings belonging to University College London along the road, University College Hospital is near the north end of the road; the road is served by three stations on the London Underground—from south to north these are Tottenham Court Road, Goodge Street and Warren Street—and by numerous bus routes. On 3 June 2014 Camden Council announced plans to reserve the road for buses and bicycles only, during daylight hours from Monday to Saturday, they claimed it will make the street safer and boost business ahead of the opening of a new Crossrail station in 2018. The current one-way system will be replaced with two-way traffic flows. Wider pavements, cycle lanes and safer pedestrian crossings will be installed as part of the £26m plan; the area through which the road is built is mentioned in the Domesday Book as belonging to the Dean and Chapter of St Paul's Cathedral.
In the time of Henry III, a manor house north-west of what is now the corner of Tottenham Court Road and Euston Road belonged to one William de Tottenhall. In about the 15th century, the area was known variously as Totham, or Totting Hall. After changing hands several times, the manor was leased for 99 years to Queen Elizabeth, it came to be popularly called Tottenham Court. In 1639, the land was leased to Charles I until his execution ten years when it was sold to Ralph Harrison, it regained Crown ownership upon the Restoration of the Monarchy, where it was given a 41-year lease to Charles II. It subsequently became the property of the Fitzroys, who built Fitzroy Square on a part of the manor estate towards the end of the 18th century. There was a manor house at the northwest end of the road, this subsequently became the Adam and Eve pub; this was demolished to build the Euston Tower. Tottenham Court Road had become a place of entertainment by the mid-17th century. In 1645, three people were fined for drinking on a Sunday.
A Gooseberry Fair was held sporadically throughout the century, featured numerous booths with street entertainers. The Horse Shoe Brewery was established in 1764 on the junction of Tottenham Court Road and Oxford Street; the current Horseshoe pub was built in the 19th century. Whitefield's Tabernacle was built in 1756 for the Reverend George Whitefield, subsequently became the world's largest Methodist church after it was extended in 1760, it was rebuilt in 1857 after being destroyed by fire, again in 1888 after the building collapsed. It was rebuilt as the Memorial Chapel. Tottenham Court Road was predominantly rural in nature until well into the 19th century; when Heal's was established on former farmland, the lease stipulated there must be appropriate accommodation for 40 cows. These cowsheds were destroyed in a fire in 1877. A 17th century farmhouse at the rear of No. 196 Tottenham Court Road was demolished in 1917. During the period leading up to and during World War I, a shooting range called Fairyland was at No. 92 Tottenham Court Road.
In 1909, Madan Lal Dhingra practised shooting here prior to his assassination of Sir William Hutt Curzon Wyllie. Other residents of India House and members of Abhinav Bharat practised shooting at the range and rehearsed assassinations they planned to carry out. In 1909 it was reported in a police investigation that the range was being used by two Suffragettes in a possible conspiracy to assassinate prime minister H. H. Asquith, it was where Donald Lesbini shot Alice Eliza Storey. R v Lesbini was a case that established in British and Australian law that, with regard to voluntary manslaughter, a reasonable man always has reasonable powers of self-control and is never intoxicated; the shooting range was run by Henry Stanton Morley. The Dominion Theatre opened in 1929, on the site of the old Horseshoe Brewery on Tottenham Court Road, it became a cinema in 1932, before reverting to a theatre. It has a capacity of 2,000. Tottenham Court Road is a significant shopping street, best known for its high concentration of consumer electronics shops, which range from shops specialising in cables and computer components to those dealing in package computers and audio-video systems.
Further north there are several furniture shops, including Heal's. In the 1950s and 1960s, Tottenham Court Road and a few of the adjoining streets became well known for stores selli
The Northern line is a London Underground line that runs from south-west to north-west London, with two branches through central London and three in the north. It runs northwards from its southern terminus at Morden in the borough of Merton to Kennington in Southwark, where it divides into two central branches, one via Charing Cross in the West End and the other via Bank in the City; the central branches re-join at Camden Town where the line again divides into two branches, one to High Barnet and the other to Edgware in the borough of Barnet. On the High Barnet branch there is a short single-track branch to Mill Hill East only. For most of its length it is a deep-level tube line; the portion between Stockwell and Borough opened in 1890 and is the oldest section of deep-level tube line on the Underground network. There were about 294 million passenger journeys recorded in 2016/17 on the Northern line, making it the busiest on the Underground, it is unique in having two different routes through central London.
Despite its name, it does not serve the northernmost stations on the network, though it does serve the southernmost station, Morden, as well as 16 of the system's 29 stations south of the River Thames. There are 50 stations in total on the line; the line has a complicated history, the current complex arrangement of two main northern branches, two central branches and the southern route reflects its genesis as three separate railways, combined in the 1920s and 1930s. An extension in the 1920s used a route planned by a fourth company. Abandoned plans from the 1920s to extend the line further southwards, northwards in the 1930s, would have incorporated parts of the routes of two further companies. From the 1930s to the 1970s, the tracks of a seventh company were managed as a branch of the Northern line. An extension from Kennington to Battersea is under construction, which may either give the Northern line a second southern branch or may see it split into separate distinct lines with their own identities.
It is coloured black on the current Tube map. See City and South London Railway and Charing Cross and Hampstead Railway for detailed histories of these companies The core of the Northern line evolved from two railway companies: the City & South London Railway and the Charing Cross, Euston & Hampstead Railway; the C&SLR, London's first deep-level tube railway, was built under the supervision of James Henry Greathead, responsible, with Peter W. Barlow, for the Tower Subway, it was the first of the Underground's lines to be constructed by boring deep below the surface and the first to be operated by electric traction. The railway opened in November 1890 from Stockwell to a now-disused station at King William Street; this was inconveniently placed and unable to cope with the company's traffic so, in 1900, a new route to Moorgate via Bank was opened. By 1907 the C&SLR had been further extended at both ends to run from Clapham Common to Euston; the CCE&HR was opened in 1907 and ran from Charing Cross via Euston and Camden Town to Golders Green and Highgate.
It was extended south by one stop to Embankment in 1914 to form an interchange with the Bakerloo and District lines. In 1913 the Underground Electric Railways Company of London, owner of the CCE&HR, took over the C&SLR, although they remained separate companies. During the early 1920s, a series of works was carried out to connect the C&SLR and CCE&HR tunnels to enable an integrated service to be operated; the first of these new tunnels, between the C&SLR's Euston station and the CCE&HR's station at Camden Town, had been planned in 1912 but had been delayed by World War I. The second connection linked the CCE&HR's Embankment and C&SLR's Kennington stations and provided a new intermediate station at Waterloo to connect to the main line station there and the Bakerloo line; the smaller-diameter tunnels of the C&SLR were expanded to match the standard diameter of the CCE&HR and the other deep tube lines. In conjunction with the works to integrate the two lines, two major extensions were undertaken: northwards to Edgware in Middlesex and southwards to Morden in Surrey.
The Edgware extension used plans dating back to 1901 for the Edgware and Hampstead Railway which the UERL had taken over in 1912. It extended the CCE&HR line from its terminus at Golders Green to Edgware in two stages: to Hendon Central in 1923 and to Edgware in 1924; the line crossed open countryside and ran on the surface, apart from a short tunnel north of Hendon Central. Five new stations were built to pavilion-style designs by Stanley Heaps, head of the Underground's Architects Office, stimulating the rapid northward expansion of suburban developments in the following years; the engineering of the Morden extension of the C&SLR from Clapham Common to Morden was more demanding, running in tunnels to a point just north of Morden station, constructed in a cutting. The line runs under the wide station forecourt and public road outside the station, to the depot; the extension was planned to continue to Sutton over part of the route for the unbuilt Wimbledon and Sutton Railway, in which the UERL held a stake, but agreements were made with the Southern Railway to end the extension at Morden.
The Southern Railway built the surface line from Wimbledon to Sutton, via South Merton and St. Helier; the tube extension opened in 1926, with seven new stations, all designed by Charles Holden in a modern style. Stanley Heaps was to design the stations, but after s