Roman roads were physical infrastructure vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman state, were built from about 300 BC through the expansion and consolidation of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. They provided efficient means for the overland movement of armies and civilians, the inland carriage of official communications and trade goods. Roman roads were of several kinds, ranging from small local roads to broad, long-distance highways built to connect cities, major towns and military bases; these major roads were stone-paved and metaled, cambered for drainage, were flanked by footpaths and drainage ditches. They were laid along surveyed courses, some were cut through hills, or conducted over rivers and ravines on bridgework. Sections could be supported over marshy ground on piled foundations. At the peak of Rome's development, no fewer than 29 great military highways radiated from the capital, the late Empire's 113 provinces were interconnected by 372 great roads; the whole comprised more than 400,000 kilometres of roads, of which over 80,500 kilometres were stone-paved.
In Gaul alone, no less than 21,000 kilometres of roadways are said to have been improved, in Britain at least 4,000 kilometres. The courses of many Roman roads survived for millennia. Livy mentions some of the most familiar roads near Rome, the milestones on them, at times long before the first paved road—the Appian Way. Unless these allusions are just simple anachronisms, the roads referred to were at the time little more than levelled earthen tracks. Thus, the Via Gabina is mentioned in about 500 BC. In the Itinerary of Antoninus, the description of the road system, after the death of Julius Caesar and during the tenure of Augustus, is as follows: "With the exception of some outlying portions, such as Britain north of the Wall and certain provinces east of the Euphrates, the whole Empire was penetrated by these itinera. There is hardly a district to which we might expect a Roman official to be sent, on service either civil or military, where we do not find roads, they reach the Wall in Britain.
A road map of the empire reveals that it was laced with a dense network of prepared viae. Beyond its borders there were no paved roads. There were, for instance, some pre-Roman ancient trackways in Britain, such as the Ridgeway and the Icknield Way. For specific roads, see Roman road locations below; the Laws of the Twelve Tables, dated to about 450 BC, required that any public road be 8 Roman feet wide where straight and twice that width where curved. These were the minimum widths for a via. Actual practices varied from this standard; the Tables command Romans to build public roads and give wayfarers the right to pass over private land where the road is in disrepair. Building roads that would not need frequent repair therefore became an ideological objective, as well as building them as straight as possible in order to build the narrowest roads possible, thus save on material. Roman law defined the right to use a road as liability; the ius eundi established a claim to use an footpath, across private land.
A via combined both types of servitutes, provided it was of the proper width, determined by an arbiter. The default width was the latitudo legitima of 8 feet. Roman law and tradition forbade the use of vehicles except in certain cases. Married women and government officials on business could ride; the Lex Iulia Municipalis restricted commercial carts to night-time access in the city within the walls and within a mile outside the walls. Roman roads varied from simple corduroy roads to paved roads using deep roadbeds of tamped rubble as an underlying layer to ensure that they kept dry, as the water would flow out from between the stones and fragments of rubble, instead of becoming mud in clay soils. According to Ulpian, there were three types of roads: Viae publicae, praetoriae or militares Viae privatae, glareae or agrariae Viae vicinales The first type of road included public high or main roads and maintained at the public expense, with their soil vested in the state; such roads led either to a town, or to a public river, or to another public road.
Siculus Flaccus, who lived under Trajan, calls them viae publicae regalesque, describes their characteristics as follows: They are placed under curatores, repaired by redemptores at the public expense. These roads bear the names of their constructors. Roman roads were named after the censor who had ordered their reconstruction; the same person served afterwards as c
A10 road (England)
The A10 is a major road in England. Its southern end is at London Bridge in the London Borough of Southwark, its northern end is the Norfolk port town of King's Lynn. From London to Royston it chiefly follows the line of Roman Ermine Street. Within the City of London, the route of the A10 comprises King William Street, Gracechurch Street and Norton Folgate, it becomes Shoreditch High Street, Kingsland Road, Kingsland High Street and Stoke Newington Road. It runs through Stoke Newington as Stoke Newington High Street and becomes Stamford Hill, through Stamford Hill until Tottenham. In July 2013, the Tottenham Hale gyratory was removed and the A10 now follows the route of Tottenham High Road in both directions. North of Tottenham, the A10 leaves its historical route of Tottenham High Road/Hertford Road to join the Great Cambridge Road via Bruce Grove and The Roundway; the Roundway is the southern end of a long dual carriageway section of the A10, which extends to just south of Buntingford. This dual carriageway section bisects the London Borough of Enfield, skirting the Enfield fringes of Enfield Town before crossing the M25 motorway at junction 25, near Waltham Cross.
Until the late 1970s, the Great Cambridge Road passed through the towns of Broxbourne and Ware – along what is now the A1170 road. Since an all-purpose road from Cheshunt by-passes these towns; the Kingsmead Viaduct takes the A10 high over the Lea Valley between Hertford and Ware and the Hertford East Branch Line railway. North of Ware, a further by-pass scheme was opened in late 2004, taking the A10 around the Hertfordshire villages of Wadesmill, High Cross, Collier's End; the bypass would have opened sooner, but the lime-stabilised subsoil heaved and cracks opened up in the road surface. A substantial portion of the road surface had to be relaid. Further north, there is another section of 1970s dual carriageway road between Puckeridge and Buntingford, the contract for, awarded to Meres Construction Ltd in April 1972. Buntingford was by-passed in the 1980s, however this is only single carriageway. From Buntingford, the road runs through the villages of Chipping and Reed, before reaching the edge of Hertfordshire in the market town of Royston.
Once in Cambridgeshire, the topography changes from undulating hills to flat agricultural and fenlands, round the villages of Melbourn and Foxton, through Harston and up to the M11 motorway at junction 11, near Cambridge. A10 traffic is signposted to travel north on the M11, skirting round the top of Cambridge on the A14; the original A10 went through the heart of the city, past the major colleges along King's Parade, before turning north-east at Midsummer Common. The A10 reappears to the north of Cambridge at the Milton Interchange of the A14 and heads north, bypassing Ely and Downham Market before reaching the coast at King's Lynn in Norfolk, its northern section runs along the valley of the River Great Ouse. Where the A10 bisects Cheshunt as an urban dual carriageway, it is prone to traffic congestion, in particular because of the many junctions with local roads. In the early 1990s properties beside the road were compulsorily purchased for a relief scheme that involved sinking the road below ground level through Cheshunt and converting the original alignment to single carriageway for local access.
However, in the wake of protests against a similar scheme in Wanstead, this was dropped and the road remains a dual carriageway, with surrounding houses having been sold back to private buyers. Society for All British Road Enthusiasts entry for the A10 Road to Nowhere – A10
Seven Sisters, London
Seven Sisters is an area of north London in the United Kingdom within the municipal borough of Tottenham, which on 1 April 1965 was subsumed into the new London Borough of Haringey. It is located at the eastern end of Seven Sisters Road, which runs from Tottenham High Road to join the A1 in Holloway, it is within the south Tottenham postal district. The Dorset map of 1619 shows the area as Seven Sisters named as Page Greene. However, by 1805 the first series Ordnance Survey map was showing the area as Seven Sisters; the name is derived from seven elms which were planted in a circle with a walnut tree at their centre on an area of common land known as Page Green. The clump was known as the Seven Sisters by 1732. In his early-seventeenth-century work, The Briefe Description of the Towne of Tottenham Highcrosse, local vicar and historian William Bedwell singled out the walnut tree for particular mention, he wrote of it as a local'arboreal wonder' which'flourished without growing bigger'. He described it as popularly associated with the burning of an unknown Protestant.
There is speculation that the tree was ancient going back as far as Roman times standing in a sacred grove or pagan place of worship. The location of the seven trees can be tracked through a series of maps from 1619 on. From 1619 they are shown in a position which today corresponds with the western tip of Page Green at the junction of Broad Lane and the High Road. With urbanisation radically changing the area, the'Seven Sisters' had been replanted by 1876, still on Page Green, but further to the east. Contemporary maps show them remaining in this new location until 1955; the current ring of hornbeam trees was planted in 1997 in a ceremony led by five families of seven sisters. Seven Sisters is on the route of the Roman road connecting London to York. At the time of Domesday, the area was within the Manor of Tottenham held by Waltheof II, Earl of Northumbria, the last of the great Anglo-Saxon Earls. In the medieval period a settlement grew up at Page Green and the woodland was cleared for agriculture.
In the early decades of the nineteenth century, the Seven Sisters Road was constructed and the area saw the construction of a number of large houses, including Suffield Lodge, Seven Sisters House and Grove Place. These fine buildings soon fell victim to the spread of Victorian London and by the third quarter of the century the area had been completely built over. Today Seven Sisters is a multi-cultural area influenced by its location on key road and underground rail routes. Above the tube station is an early-Edwardian department store building occupied by Wards Furnishing Stores, which traded until 1972. Part of the building, known locally as Wards Corner, is thriving as an indoor market with a strong Latin American flavour; the Clyde Circus Conservation Area stretches between the busy local shops of West Green Road and Philip Lane. Most of the residential streets between are in the Conservation Area, but not the more modern Lawrence Road and Elizabeth Place. Residents of the Clyde Circus Conservation Area are brought together by the Clyde Area Residents Association, which holds an annual street party.
Its sister group, the Fountain Area Residents Association, covers residents to the south of West Green Road, namely those in Kirkton Road, Roslyn Road, Seaford Road, Elmar Road, Turner Avenue, Brunel Walk, Avenue Road and Braemar Road. Recent successful projects organised by FARA members include the creation of a community garden at the site of a dated pedestrian ramp. Another recent community project is the Avenue Orchard; the local community utilised wasteland behind a concrete wall on Avenue Road for planting apple trees, held a workshop with local artists to source ideas for how to improve the look and feel of the wall and area around the Avenue Orchard. The old Wards Corner building above the tube station has been earmarked for development since 2004, when Haringey Council published a development brief. In August 2007 Haringey Council entered into a Development Agreement with developer Grainger. Grainger's plan to demolish the existing buildings on the site and replace them with a new mixed-use development of retail and residential units was met with local opposition.
The Wards Corner Coalition campaigned for the existing buildings and Latin American market to be retained and improved. The WCC mounted a legal challenge against the plans and, in June 2010, the Court of Appeal quashed the planning permission. In 2012, Grainger submitted revised plans for the site. Haringey Council granted planning permission for the revised plans on 12 July 2012. In addition to the Wards Corner plans, further projects for regeneration in Seven Sisters are planned. Haringey Council's'Plan for Tottenham' sets out the Council's long-term vision for the area. Plans to regenerate Lawrence Road were put out for consultation and are now implemented. Transport for London has completed a major project to improve the Tottenham Hale Gyratory – a busy one-way system that used to pass Seven Sisters station – converting it to a slower, pedestrian-friendly, two-way road. For details of education in Seven Sisters, London see the London Borough of Haringey article. Alexandra Park Bruce Grove Harringay Hornsey Manor House St Ann's South Tottenham Stamford Hill Stoke Newington Tottenham Hale Turnpike Lane West Green Wood Green Seven Sisters station South Tottenham railway station Stamford Hill railway station Harringay Green Lanes railway station Tottenham Hale railway station Seven Sisters Group on Flickr
Bruce Grove railway station
Bruce Grove is a London Overground station on the Lea Valley lines located in central Tottenham in the London Borough of Haringey, north London. It is 6 miles 28 chains down the line from London Liverpool Street and is situated between Seven Sisters and White Hart Lane, its three-letter station code is BCV and it is in Travelcard zone 3. Bruce Grove was a stop on the Stoke Newington & Edmonton Railway and opened on 22 July 1872. Today it is on the Seven Sisters branch of the Lea Valley Lines and sees four trains per hour to Liverpool Street and two to either Cheshunt or Enfield Town; the station is not far from Bruce Castle and takes its name from a road forming part of the A10. In the early 1980s several changes were made to the appearance of the station; the wooden covered staircases to both platforms were replaced by open-air concrete staircases. The London-bound platform roof was shortened and the waiting rooms boarded up; the northbound roof opposite was removed and a small shelter built of brick was installed in its place.
This shelter lasted for nearly 20 years before it was demolished and a new roof, built in the style of the original, although much shorter, was constructed giving the illusion of original authenticity to the station. Haringey council funded the work and the station is considered a site of historic interest in the locality. Despite being in the heart of Tottenham and being at one time a busy station, Bruce Grove's ticket office is open. In May 2015 the station and all services that call there transferred from Abellio Greater Anglia to become part of the London Overground network. In November 2015 a major facelift for the station was announced. Trains are operated by London Overground; the typical off-peak weekday service pattern from Bruce Grove is: 4 trains per hour to Liverpool Street. London Buses routes 123, 149, 243, 259, 279, 318, 341, 349, 476 and W4 and night routes N76 and N279 serve the station. Train times and station information for Bruce Grove railway station from National Rail
Tottenham is a district of North London, England, in the London Borough of Haringey. It is 5.9 miles north-north-east of Charing Cross. Tottenham is believed to have been named after Tota, a farmer, whose hamlet was mentioned in the Domesday Book.'Tota's hamlet', it is thought, developed into'Tottenham'. The settlement was recorded in the Domesday Book as Toteham, it is not related to Tottenham Court Road in Central London, though the two names share a similar-sounding root. There has been a settlement at Tottenham for over a thousand years, it grew up along the old Roman road, Ermine Street, between High Cross and Tottenham Hale, the present Monument Way. When the Domesday Book was compiled in 1086, about 70 families lived within the area of the manor labourers working for the Lord of the Manor. A humorous poem entitled the Tournament of Tottenham, written around 1400, describes a mock-battle between peasants vying for the reeve's daughter. In 1894, Tottenham was made an urban district and on 27 September 1934 it became a municipal borough.
As from 1 April 1965, the municipal borough formed part of the London Borough of Haringey together with Hornsey and Wood Green. The River Lea was the eastern boundary between the Municipal Boroughs of Walthamstow, it is the ancient boundary between Middlesex and Essex and formed the western boundary of the Viking controlled Danelaw. Today it is the boundary between the London Boroughs of Waltham Forest. A major tributary of the Lea, the River Moselle crosses the borough from west to east, caused serious flooding until it was covered in the 19th century. From the Tudor period onwards, Tottenham became a popular recreation and leisure destination for wealthy Londoners. Henry VIII is known to have visited Bruce Castle and hunted in Tottenham Wood. A rural Tottenham featured in Izaak Walton's book The Compleat Angler, published in 1653; the area became noted for its large Quaker population and its schools Tottenham remained a semi-rural and upper middle class area until the 1870s. In late 1870, the Great Eastern Railway introduced special workman's trains and fares on its newly opened Enfield and Walthamstow branch lines.
Tottenham's low-lying fields and market gardens were rapidly transformed into cheap housing for the lower middle and working classes, who were able to commute cheaply to inner London. The workman's fare policy stimulated the early development of the area into a London suburb. An incident occurred on 23 January 1909, at the time known as the Tottenham Outrage. Two armed robbers of Russian extraction held up the wages clerk of a rubber works in Chesnut Road, they fled across the Lea. On the opposite bank of the river they hijacked a Walthamstow Corporation tramcar, hotly pursued by the police on another tram; the hijacked tram was stopped but the robbers continued their flight on foot. After firing their weapons and killing two people, Ralph Joscelyne, aged 10, PC William Tyler, they were cornered by the police and shot themselves rather than be captured. Fourteen other people were wounded during the chase; the incident became the subject of a silent film. During the Second World War Tottenham was one of the many targets of the German air offensive against Britain.
Bombs fell in the borough during the first air raid on London on 24 August 1940. The borough received V-1 and V-2 hits, the last of which occurred on 15 March 1945. Wartime shortages led to the creation of Tottenham Pudding, a mixture of household waste food, converted into feeding stuffs for pigs and poultry; the "pudding" was named by Queen Mary on a visit to Tottenham Refuse Works. Production continued into the post-war period, its demise coinciding with the merging of the borough into the new London Borough of Haringey; the Broadwater Farm riot occurred around the Broadwater Farm Estate on 6 October 1985 following the death of Cynthia Jarrett. Jarrett was a resident of Tottenham who lived about a mile from the estate, who died of heart failure during a police search of her home; the tension between local black youths and the white Metropolitan Police had been high due to a combination of local issues and the aftermath of riots in Brixton which had occurred in the previous week. The response of some of the black community in Tottenham and surrounding areas culminated in a riot beginning on Tottenham High Road and ending in Broadwater Farm Estate.
One police officer, Keith Blakelock, was murdered. Two of the policemen were injured by gunshots during the riot, the first time that firearms had been used in that type of confrontation; the 2011 Tottenham riots were a series of riots precipitated by the fatal shooting of Mark Duggan, a 29-year-old man in Tottenham, by officers of the Metropolitan Police Service on 4 August 2011. Attacks were carried out on two police cars, a bus, a Post Office and several local shops from 8:00pm onwards on 6 August 2011. Riot police vans attended the scene of disturbances on Tottenham High Road. In the evening the riot spread, with an Aldi supermarket and a branch of Allied Carpets destroyed by fire, widespread looting in nearby Wood Green shopping centre and the retail park at Tottenham Hale. Several flats above shops on Tottenham High Road collapsed due to the fires. 26 shared ownership flats in the Union Point development above the Carpetright store – built in the landmark Cooperative department store building – were completely destroyed by fire.
The triggering event was when a group of over one hundred local Tottenham residents se
Stamford Hill is an area of Inner London, located about 5.5 miles north-east of Charing Cross. The neighbourhood is a sub-district of Hackney, the major component of the London Borough of Hackney, is known for its Jewish Chasidic community, the largest concentration of Charedi Hasidic Jews in Europe; the district takes its name from the eponymous hill, which reaches a height of 33m AOD, the Roman A10 takes the name ‘Stamford Hill’ as it makes its way through the area. The hill is believed to be named after the ford where the A10 crossed the Hackney Brook on the southern edge of the hill. Sanford and Saundfordhill are referred to in documents from the 1200s and mean ‘sand ford’. Roque's map of 1745 shows a bridge, which replaced the ford, referred to as ‘Stamford Bridge’; the hill rises from the former course of the Hackney Brook to the south, its steeper northern slope provided a natural boundary for the traditional extent of Hackney, now does so for the wider modern borough. The area's usual definition is based on the physical feature of the hill and the neighbourhood's location within the Ancient Parish and subsequent Metropolitan Borough of Hackney.
Reflecting that the Roman A10 takes the name ‘Stamford Hill’ as goes over the hill between the brook and the borough boundary. Northern boundary with Tottenham: Takes the northern boundary of the AP\MB of Hackney; this corresponds to the current boundary between the modern borough of Haringey. Western boundary with Stoke Newington: Takes part of the AP\MB of Hackney's boundary with the AP\MB of Stoke Newington along Bethune Road and down to the A10. Southern Boundary with West Hackney: The east-west course of the Hackney Brook, which may have been as wide as 22m at this point, provided a natural southern boundary for the district, however the river was culverted and it is now difficult to discern its former course on the ground; this has led to ambiguous boundary, along its former course, in the Cazenove\Northwold Road area. East and south-east boundary with Upper Clapton: Upper Clapton is part of Hackney and shares much of the eastern side of the hill. There is little tradition of a particular border.
The post code boundary is sometimes used but this is arbitrary: post code areas are not intended to define districts. Stamford Hill lies on the old Roman road of Ermine Street, on the high ground where it meets the Clapton Road which runs from central Hackney. By the 18th century, the Roman road was subject to heavy traffic, including goods wagons pulled by six or more horses, this caused the surface of the road to deteriorate; the local parishes appealed to Parliament in 1713 for the right to set up a Turnpike Trust, to pay for repairs and maintenance. Gates were installed at Stamford Hill to collect the tolls. Roque's map of 1745 shows a handful of buildings around the Turnpike, by 1795 the A10 was lined with the large homes and extensive grounds of wealthy financiers and merchants attracted, in part, by the elevated position. Stamford Hill had a gibbet, used to display the remains of criminals, executed at Tyburn in the 1740s. In 1765, a map of the area showed the Gibbet Field south of the road from Clapton Common, behind Cedar House.
The area remained rural in character and little more was built until the arrival of the railway in 1872 and the tram system at about the same time. Stamford Hill was the point where the tram line coming north from the City met the Hackney tram line, so it became a busy interchange, with a depot opening in 1873. Electrification commenced in 1902 and by 1924 a service was commenced between Stamford Hill and Camden Town along Amhurst Park. Stamford Hill had many eminent Jewish residents, including the Montefiore family. Italian-born Moses Vita Montefiore was living there in 1763, his son Joseph married Rachel Mocatta, his grandson Abraham Montefiore married Henrietta whose father, the financier Nathan Meyer Rothschild, lived near the modern Colberg Place from 1818 to 1835. The Montefiores' property a little further south was to be transformed by Abraham's grandson, Claude Montefiore, into Montefiore House school. With the increased development of the area, many distinguished families moved away: in 1842 there were few remaining of the wealthy Jews who had once settled in Hackney.
The philanthropist and abolitionist MP Samuel Morley had a residence here from about 1860. The gardening writer and cottage gardener Margery Fish was born Margery Townshend in Stamford Hill in 1892. From the 1880s, a new influx of Jews arrived from Stepney in the East End and, in 1915, the New Synagogue was transferred to Stamford Hill to serve this growing population. In 1926, the Union of Orthodox Hebrew Congregations was established in Stamford Hill, this became a magnet for other observant Jews, many fleeing Nazi persecution in the years before the Second World War. Many Jewish families came to the area from other areas of London, refugees in their own way from bombing and post-war clearances for new housing. One of the early Hasidic leaders in Stamford Hill was the Shotzer Rebbe; the Hungarian uprising led to an influx of Haredi Jews fleeing hardship under Soviet rule. Another notable Jewish resident from 1955 until his death in 2000, was the spiritual head of the Union of Orthodox Hebrew Congregations, Rabbi Chanoch Dov Padwa.
Stamford Hill has never been an administrative area in its own right. Hackney was an administrative unit with consistent boundaries from the early Middle Ages to the creation of the larger modern borough in 1965. Hackney was based for many centuries on the Ancient Parish of Hackney Parishes in Middlese